EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK: EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK OBJECTIVES:
OBJECTIVES To understand the importance of working as team and the impact of team spirit on achieving organization goals. To enhance participants skills when practicing
concepts. To be able to use techniques for handling team interpersonal problems. To gain greater insight into: Why teams succeed and fail. Team norms, role and stages.
T O P I C S:
T O P I C S Why
How teams work Individual, Team and Task What is a team? Teams Vs. groups.! What is teamwork? How we see ourselves and others Team norms Team roles Role definitions Team functions
The Perfect Person: The Perfect Person Creative, imaginative Extrovert, enthusiastic, communicative. Confident and trusting. Dynamic, outgoing, seeks ways round obstacles. Sees all options. Judges accurately. Social, mild, perceptive and accommodating. Disciplined, reliable, conservative and efficient. Searches out errors and omissions. Delivers on time. Single-minded, self-starting, dedicated. Provides knowledge or technical skills in rare supply. WHY TEAMWORK? The Perfect Person: The Perfect Person It is difficult to find … But it is easy to find …or establish .. The Perfect Team HOW TEAMS WORK: HOW TEAMS WORK Individual, Team and Task: Individual Team Needs of Individual are catered for by team Individual, Team and Task Slide 8: Individual Task Challenging tasks maintain individual Interest Slide 9: Team Task Team works to common end to complete tasks Slide 10: Individual Team Task Team works to common end to complete tasks Needs of Individual are catered for by team Challenging tasks maintain individual Interest Each individual contributes to team effort to complete task in hand What is a team? Teams Vs. Groups: What is a team? Teams Vs. Groups Outside the canteen there's a group of people waiting in a lunch queue. They are all there for the same reason. Are they a team? YES - NO (NO) We agree. These people have a common purpose, but they're not working together to achieve it! They're not a team. What is a team?: What is a team? We are in the boardroom. There are seven directors on the Board. They meet four times a year. Are they a team? YES - NO (YES) We agree. It doesn't matter how often the Board meets they still work together to a common purpose. They're a team. What is a team?: What is a team? In the call centre, 60 staff are answering customer calls. Are they a team? YES - NO (NO) We agree. We'd argue that 60 people is too many to be a manageable team. A group this size would split into smaller teams. What is a team?: What is a team? In the Marketing Department, Jeff Watkins is holding a section meeting. He's briefing the seven members of his workgroup on sales. Is this workgroup a team? YES - NO (YES) We agree. The workgroup is a classic team, so long as everyone's working towards the same purpose What is a team?: What is a team? Work teams comprise fewer than 10 people who: Have a common purpose Are interdependent Teams can be: Hierarchical, with a strong leader Participative, with shared decisions and management A mixture of both the above What is Teamwork?: What is Teamwork? HOW WE SEE OURSELVES AND OTHERS Slide 17: Others Knowledge My Knowledge What I Don’t know What Others Don’t know UNKNOWN What Others know What I Don’t know BLIND SPOT What I know What Others Don’t know FACADE What I know What Others know ARENA INTERPERSONAL INTERACTION STRATEGIES: INTERPERSONAL INTERACTION STRATEGIES Your basic strategy is to: MAXIMIZE THE ARENA (Open Interaction Area) Slide 19: Others Knowledge My Knowledge What I know What I Don’t know What Others know What Others Don’t know What I know What Others know What I Don’t know What Others Don’t know UNKNOWN BLIND SPOT FACADE ARENA OUR OBJECTIVE IS TO MAXIMIZE THE ARENA MAXIMIZE THE ARENA: MAXIMIZE THE ARENA Start with yourself. You are the main benefactor. Give information. To make your façade as transparent as possible. Encourage others to give information. To minimize the blind area. Join others in searching for more information. This minimizes the unknown area. Consult document, studies and work papers. Try your subordinate, peers and (even) your boss. MAXIMIZE THE ARENA: MAXIMIZE THE ARENA Develop an atmosphere of trust. Share with others. Allow them to participate and contribute. Accept their ideas and opinions. Conduct open discussion with them. Try to develop an … “I’M OK, You're OK” relationship. Team Norms: Team Norms NORMS are forces which strongly affect team behavior. Norms can be productive or counterproductive and Norms may be harmless or may need changing. Let's see what they are. Team Norms: Team Norms Think about teams you've been in. Have the team members shared in: Jokes and catchphrases? Styles of dress? Attitudes to working late? Standards of tidiness? Similar ideas about alcohol at lunchtime? Team Norms: Team Norms Norms are a team's rules about how individuals should think and act. There are some important things to remember about norms. NORMS ALWAYS EMERGE NORMS DEVELOP OVER TIME NORMS ARE GENERALLY UNSPOKEN NORMS ARE DIFFERENT IN EVERY TEAM Team Norms: Team Norms Norms can sometimes stop teams succeeding. We call norms like this counterproductive. They can slow down production or waste time. You may have come across managers who feel they have to sit in the office reading the paper rather than be seen going home before 8:00pm You're going to be taken on a tour of some team norms. You'll have to decide if they are: Productive, Counterproductive or Harmless. Team Norms: Team Norms THE SALES DEPARTMENT We always have five minutes fooling around before getting down to business at meetings. Is this norm: Productive? Counterproductive? HARMLESS? Productive Team Norms: Team Norms THE DESPATCH DEPARTMENT We let the Logistics Controller discover problems for himself. Is this norm: Productive? Counterproductive? HARMLESS? Counterproductive Team Norms: Team Norms THE PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT We call the Managing Director Genghis Khan. Is this norm: Productive? Counterproductive? HARMLESS? HARMLESS ACCOUNTS DEPARTMENT We move hell and high water to produce the monthly management accounts on time. Is this norm: Productive? Counterproductive? HARMLESS? PRODUCTIVE Team Norms: Team Norms To change a norm would you: Alter your behavior and hope the rest will follow Discuss this norm with the group Try to identify allies in the group “Discuss this norm with the group” Yes. Norms are unspoken. To change them you have to bring them out into the open. Team Norms: Team Norms TIPS FOR SUCCESS When a norm is harmless go along with it When a norm is productive encourage it When a norm is counterproductive, bring it out in the open BUT , be careful! Norms are powerful things. Treat them with care Team Roles: Team Roles A successful team must have the right mix of expertise to help achieve the team's tasks. But teams are more than just a mix of complementary skills. In all successful teams, each individual has a role to fulfill. The team as a whole requires the right mix of expertise, personalities, etc. Team Roles: Team Roles The best known work on team roles is by R.M.Belbin , who identifies 9 essential roles, all of which are associated with PERSONALITY TRAITS , such as extroversion, enthusiasm, …etc, THE NINE TEAM ROLES As defined by R.M.Belbin: THE NINE TEAM ROLES As defined by R.M.Belbin The PLANT: Creative, imaginative, unorthodox. Solves difficult problems. The RESOURCE INVESTIGATOR: Extrovert, enthusiastic, communicative. Explores opportunities. Develops contacts. The CO-ORDINATOR: Mature, confident and trusting. A good chairman. Clarifies goals, promotes decision-making. The SHAPER: Dynamic, outgoing, highly strung. Challenges, pressurizes, seeks ways round obstacles. The MONITOR EVALUATOR: Sober, strategic and discerning. Sees all options. Judges accurately. THE NINE TEAM ROLES As defined by R.M.Belbin: THE NINE TEAM ROLES As defined by R.M.Belbin The TEAM WORKER: Social, mild, perceptive and accommodating. Listens, builds, averts friction. The IMPLEMENTER: Disciplined, reliable, conservative and efficient. Turns ideas into practical actions. The COMPLETER-FINISHER: Painstaking, conscientious, anxious. Searches out errors and omissions. Delivers on time. The SPECIALIST: Single-minded, self-starting, dedicated. Provides knowledge or technical skills in rare supply. Team Functions The 6 functions that must be performed in a team.: Team Functions The 6 functions that must be performed in a team. PLANNING Seeking all available information; defining team objectives and tasks; making a workable plan INITIATING Briefing team on aims and plan; explaining why aim or plan is necessary; allocating tasks to group members; setting team standards CONTROLLING Maintaining team standards; influencing tempo; ensuring all actions are taken towards objectives; keeping discussion relevant; prodding group to action/decision Team Functions The 6 functions that must be performed in a team.: Team Functions The 6 functions that must be performed in a team. SUPPORTING Acceptance of persons and their contributions; encouraging groups/individuals; disciplining groups/individuals; creating team spirit; relieving tension with humor; reconciling disagreements or getting others to explore them INFORMING Clarifying task and plan; giving new information to the team; keeping everybody 'in the picture'; receiving information from the team; summarizing ideas and suggestions clearly EVALUATING Checking the feasibility of an idea; testing the consequences of a proposed solution; evaluating group performance; helping the team to evaluate its own performance against standards