1. COMPOSITION OF AND FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD BY DR QAZI IMTIAZ RASOOL EX.

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EX- H.O.D. DEPARTMENT PHYSIOLOGY DR. QAZI IMTIAZ RASOOL

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HEMATOLOGY = study of blood :

HEMATOLOGY = study of blood DR QAZI IMTIAZ RASOOL

OBJECTIVES   1.Discuss its Composition (cellular and non-cellular)   2. Describe the various functions 3.Discuss the origin and functions of plasma proteins 4.Enumerate the types of plasma proteins 5.Explain the variations in plasma proteins concentrations   :

OBJECTIVES   1 . Discuss its Composition (cellular and non-cellular)   2. Describe the various functions 3.Discuss the origin and functions of plasma proteins 4.Enumerate the types of plasma proteins 5.Explain the variations in plasma proteins concentrations  

Hematology:

Hematology Spleen Kidneys Liver Bone Marrow Blood Hematopoietic System

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Special and only Connective tissue in fluid form Fluid of life – carries o 2 ,C o 2 Fluid of growth – carries nutritive substances from the GIT and hormones from endocrine gland to all the tissues. Fluid of health – protects the body against diseases and get rid of unwanted substances by transporting them into excretory organs like kidney. Where and What is Blood?

Physical Characteristics of Blood a sticky, opaque fluid with a metallic taste Color is from scarlet to dark red :

Physical Characteristics of Blood a sticky, opaque fluid with a metallic taste Color is from scarlet to dark red - Volume of blood: 80ml/kg 5–6 L ♂ ; 4–5 L ♀ Viscosity 4 - 5 (H 2 O = 1) pH 7.35–7.45 ; Osmolarity = 300 mOsm +/- 10 Salinity = 0.85% Reflects the concentration of NaCl in the blood Temperature is 38  C , slightly higher than “normal” body temperature 8% of body weight

Plasma =55% Extracellular Matrix yellowish clear liquid, :

Plasma =55% Extracellular Matrix yellowish clear liquid, 1. H 2 O = 90-91% 2. Proteins = 7 % (all synthesized by the liver) Albumin = 60%, Globulins = 36%, α , β , ɣ Fibrinogen = 4%, (Largest) blood coagulation Clotting proteins,etc 3. Other solutes (>100 solutes) TOTAL (< 1%) : Electrolytes - Na + , K + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ Organic nutrients – Glucose,amoinoacids,Monoglycerides Gases - O 2 , N 2 , CO 2 NPN – lactic acid, urea, Creatinine 4.Regulatory substance - hormones, Enzymes,Vitamins,Wastes  

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BLOOD LEVELS Except Proteins i.e. Albumin, globulin & fibrinogen all the substances in % will be in mg. Proteins→7 to 8gm% Fat cholesterol→150 to 250mg% Carbohydrate glucose→80 to 100mg% Calcium→9 to 10mg% Phosphorus→5mg% NaCl→500 to 600 mg% Urea→30mg% Uric acid→2mg% N.P.N→30mg% Creatine & creatinine→1.5mg%each

Functions of Plasma:

Functions of Plasma 1 . Water: Transport medium; carries heat 2 . Electrolytes: Membrane excitability Osmotic distribution of fluid ( ECF & ICF) Buffering of pH changes 3. Transport of Nutrients , wastes, gases, hormones 4.Antibodies (e.g. ɣ globulins) 5.Clotting factors (e.g. fibrinogen) 6. Buffers

Formed Elements Hematopoiesis (hemato = blood, poiesis = to make):

Formed Elements H ematopoiesis (hemato = blood, poiesis = to make) Blood derived from cells in bone marrow = from mesoderm Process in which formed elements of the blood develop Erythropoiesis Leukopoiesis Before birth it occurs Yolk sac Later in the liver, spleen, thymus and lymph nodes Last 3 months of gestation in the red bone marrow

Erythrocytes :

Erythrocytes 1. Biconcave disc -Folding ↑ surface area (30% more surface area) -Plasma membrane contains spectrin (RBC their flexibility) 2. Anucleate , no centrioles , no organelles End result - no cell division No mitochondria means they generate ATP anaerobically ( Prevents consumption of O 2 being transported) 3. Filled with Hb - 97% of cell contents 270million mol/ cell 4. Most numerous of the formed elements> 99 % of blood cells( 1000 RBCs/1 WBC ♀ 4.3–5.2 million cells/cu mm ♂ : 5.2–5.8 million cells/cu mm - 2.5 million RBCs are produced/sec or 250 billion cells/ day -1% are destroyed and must be replaced/day

Life Cycle of Red Blood Cells:

Life Cycle of Red Blood Cells

Fate and Destruction of RBC:

Fate and Destruction of RBC life span -100–120 days Travels about 750 miles in that time Old RBC become rigid and fragile, and their HB begins to degenerate Dying RBC are engulfed by macrophages Heme and globin are separated Iron is removed from the heme and salvaged for reuse Stored as hemosiderin or ferritin in tissues Transported in plasma by beta-globulins as transferrin

Granulocytes:

Granulocytes Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils Contain cytoplasmic granules that stain specifically (acidic, basic, or both) with Wright’s stain Are larger and usually shorter-lived than RBCs Have lobed nuclei Are all phagocytic cells

Formation of Leukocytes:

Formation of Leukocytes

Platelets:

Platelets Platelets are fragments of megakaryocytes Their granules contain serotonin, Ca 2+ , enzymes, ADP, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF ) In the clotting mechanism by forming a temporary plug that helps seal breaks in blood vessels ( Coagulation) 4. Platelets not involved in clotting are kept inactive by Nitric Oxide (NO) and prostaglandins ( Anticoagulation ) 5. Thrombolysis 6. Inflammation 7. Wound Healing

Comparison of Cells:

Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets 1 Site of formation formed in bone marrow , life-span: 4 months formed in bone marrow or thymus formed in blood marrow 2 Shape biconcave discs , no nucleus , red colour phagocytes: irregular, lobed nucleus & granular cytoplasm irregular shape , no nucleus, tiny pieces of cell fragments , no colour Comparison of Cells

Comparison of Cells:

Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets 3. Size small in size some large & some small tiny cell fragments 4. Number 5,000,000 /mm 3 7,000 /mm 3 250,000/mm 3 5.Function contain haemoglobin to carry oxygen from lungs to all parts of body phagocytes kill pathogens & digest dead cells lymphocytes produce antibodies for killing pathogens for blood clotting Comparison of Cells

Plasma Proteins :

Plasma Proteins Over 300 proteins have been detected in plasma . The concentration of many of these are affected by pathological processes Functions : Transport, Maintaining plasma oncotic pressure Buffering pH changes Humoral immunity Enzyme activity Clotting The acute inflammatory response. Role in viscosity Role in ESR

General properties of plasma proteins:

General properties of plasma proteins 1. Most are synthesized in the liver E xception : -globulins – synthesized in plasma cells 2. Synthesized as pre-proteins on membrane-bound polyribosomes; then they are subjected to posttranslational modifications in ER and Golgi apparatu s 3. Almost all of them are glycoproteins E xception : albumin 4. ½ t in the circulation (albumin – 20 days) 5. Many of them exhibit polymorphism ( immunoglobulins , transferrin… )

Fractions of plasma proteins:

F ractions of plasma proteins Fraction Rel. amount (%) c (g/l) Albumins: albumin pre-albumin (transthyretin) 52 – 58 34 – 50  1 -globulins: thyroxin-binding globulin, transcortin,  1 -acid glycoprotein,  1 -antitrypsin,  1 -lipoprotein (HDL),  1 -fetoprotein 2 . 4 – 4 . 4 2-4  2 -globulins: haptoglobin, macroglobulin, ceruloplasmin 6 . 1 – 10 . 1 5 – 9 -globulins: transferrin, hemopexin, lipoprotein (LDL), fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, C3 and C4 components of the complement system 8 . 5 – 14 . 5 6 – 11 -globulins: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE 10 – 21 8 – 15

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Electrophoresis pattern for normal serum proteins Albumin a1 a2 b g - + Measurement of plasma proteins

Functions of albumin :

Functions of albumin 1. Oncotic pressure : Albumin is responsible for ~ 80% of the plasma oncotic pressure. It is a major determinant of the distribution of fluids between intravascular & extravascular compartments. Hypoalbuminemia leads to edema. 2- Buffering . acid base balance 3- Transport : Many substances are transported in the blood bound to albumin e.g. Lipid-soluble substances Hormones e.g. thyroid hormones & steroid hormones Calcium Drugs e.g. salicylates Free fatty acids (FFA) Billirubin  

Causes of hypoalbuminemia :

Causes of hypoalbuminemia Artfuctual : Diluted sample Physiological : Pregnancy - Recumbence Decreased amino acids : Reduced essential amino acids in diet & reduced synthesis of nonessential aa Manlnutrition Malabsorption . 4.Increased catabolism : Surgery Trauma Infections 5.Defective synthesis in liver: Chronic liver diseases 6.Increased loss : From the kidney : Nephrotic syndrome From GIT : Protein loosing entropathies

Functions of Blood:

Functions of Blood Substance transport O 2 , N and C O 2 from the lungs Nutrients from the digestive tract Metabolic wastes from cells to the lungs and kidneys for elimination Hormones from endocrine glands to target organs

2. Regulation of conditions by maintaining :

2. Regulation of conditions by maintaining 1.Appropriate body temperature by absorbing and distributing heat 2.Normal pH in body tissues using buffer systems 3.Regulation of H 2 O balance 4.Maintenance of ionic concentration i.e. Na, K, Ca, P 5. Adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system NOTE: π is created by salts and plasma proteins in the blood. - the H 2 O exchange is not equal – some H 2 O is not returned to the capillary. The excess tissue fluid is picked up by the lymph is returned to the systemic venous blood at the subclavian vein.

3. Body protection :

3. Body protection 1. From blood loss by: Coagulation Activating plasma proteins and platelets Prevents loss Initiating clot formation when a vessel is broken 2. From infection by: -Synthesizing and utilizing antibodies -Activating complement proteins -Activating WBCs to defend the body against foreign invaders

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Links the body’s internal and external environments Maintance Homeostasis Plays a vital role in homeostasis

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