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Kinetics of Ethyl Ester Production from Soybean and Sunflower Oils Catalyzed by Sodium Ethoxide

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International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-4 Issue-2 February- 2018 Page | 19 Kinetics of Ethyl Ester Production from Soybean and Sunflower Oils Catalyzed by Sodium Ethoxide Telma Porcina Vilas Boas Dias 1 Betania Hoss Lunelli 2 Gisele A. Medeiros Hirata 3 Paulo Mielke Neto 4 Luis Alberto Follegatti-Romero 5 Eduardo Augusto Caldas Batista 6 Antonio José de Almeida Meirelles 7 1 Faculty of Biochemistry Federal University of São João Del-Rei 35501–296 Divinópolis MG Brazil. 2 Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas Faculdade de Química Campinas São Paulo Brazil. 3 Department of Chemical Engineering Federal University of Sao Paulo UNIFESP 09913-030 - Diadema/SP Brazil. 467 School of Food Engineering University of Campinas – UNICAMP 13083–862 Campinas SP Brazil. 5 Department of Chemical Engineering Polytechnic School University of São Paulo 05508-900 São Paulo Brazil. Abstract —The present paper reports the kinetics of soybean and sunflower oils’ ethanolysis. The transesterification reaction was carried out using a molar ratio of ethanol to oil of 9:1 and 1.0 wt of sodium ethoxide as catalyst under stirring of 400 rpm. The reactions were performed in a stirred batch reactor at three different temperatures 308.15 323.15 and 338.15 K over a period of 120 min. The concentration of compounds was analyzed by High-Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography HPSEC. The kinetic model assumed that ethanolysis occurs in a sequence of three reversible steps with the production of di- and monoacylglycerols as intermediate components. Based on the modeling approach it was possible to determine the rate constants of reaction and activation energies for the transesterification process of soybean and sunflower oils. Despite the phase splitting no mass transfer control was observed and the proposed mathematical model fitted well the experimental data. Keywords: Ethanol ethylic biodiesel kinetics soybean oil sunflower oil. I. INTRODUCTION Biodiesel a clean renewable fuel is considered as the best candidate for a diesel fuel substitution because it can be used in any compression ignition engine without the need for modification 1. Ethyl esters ethyl biodiesel are produced from triacylglycerols which can react with ethanol in the presence of a catalyst usually an alkali or acid catalyst in a process known as transesterification. The transesterification reaction results in the production of three moles of ethyl esters EE and one mole of glycerol GL for each mole of triacylglycerol TG requiring three moles of alcohol. The reaction occurs as a sequence of three steps with intermediate formation of diacylglycerols DG and monoacylglycerols MG 2. Most of the biodiesel produced in the world today is derived from soybean oil however all vegetable oils or triacylglycerols can be converted into biodiesel. Factors such as geography climate and economics determine the vegetable oil of greater interest for potential use in biofuels. Thus in the United States for example soybean oil is regarded as the main raw material and in some tropical countries it is palm oil. The most common vegetable oils whose raw materials are abundant in Brazil are soybean corn peanuts cotton babassu and palm 3.4. Methanol is most often used as alcohol in the biodiesel synthesis because of its suitable physical and chemical properties and low cost but it is usually derived from fossil sources. The production of ethyl esters rather than methyl esters is of considerable interest because the ethyl ester based biodiesel is an entirely agricultural fuel 56. Fatty acid esters are broadly available in nature and have been widely used as high–value fine chemicals in the food cosmetic pharmaceutical and rubber industries. Currently fatty acid esters biodiesel are being considered as a promising substitute for conventional diesel fuels due to environmental and economic problems related to the use of conventional fuels 710. There are several variables such as molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil catalyst type temperature and presence of impurities among others that affect the transesterification process and should be investigated 1112. The transesterification kinetics for vegetable oils has been reported in a few studies. However most of these studies do not take into account the formation of intermediate products only the overall reaction and consider the use of methanol instead of ethanol 1316.

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International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-6 June- 2016 Page | 20 In this study the kinetics of transesterification of soybean and sunflower oils with ethanol was investigated. The molar ratio of alcohol to oil the catalyst concentration sodium ethoxide and the mixing intensity were kept constant while the temperature was varied. Kinetic data were collected at three temperature levels. The reaction rate constants and the activation energies were determined for all the forward and reverse reactions in the three temperature levels. II. EXPERIMENTAL SECTION Anhydrous ethanol and glacial acetic acid were purchased from Merck Germany with purity of 99.5 and 99.0 respectively. Tetrahydrofuran THF from Tedia with purity of 99.8 and sodium ethoxide from Sigma Aldrich with purity of 99 were also used. Refined soybean and sunflower oils were purchased in the local retail market Bunge Campinas/SP Brazil.The fatty acid compositions of the vegetable oils studied in this work are presented in Table 1. These compositions were determined by gas chromatography of the fatty acid methyl esters using the official AOCS method 1–62 17. Prior to the chromatographic analysis the fatty compounds of the samples were converted into their respective fatty acid methyl esters using the method of Hartman and Lago18. The chromatographic analyses were carried out using a capillary gas chromatography system and the experimental conditions were obtained from Basso et al.19. TABLE 1 FATTY ACID COMPOSITIONS OF THE VEGETABLE OILS Fatty acid Symbol Cx:y a M c g.mol -1 Soybean oil Sunflower Oil 100w d Dodecanoic L C12:0 200.32 0.00 0.06 Tetradecanoic M C14:0 228.38 0.05 0.02 Hexadecanoic P C16:0 256.43 10.72 6.30 cis-hexadec-9-enoic Po C16:1 254.42 0.07 0.09 Trans - hexadec-9-enoic C16:1t b 254.42 0.00 0.03 Heptadecanoic Ma C17:0 270.45 0.06 0.03 cis-heptadec-9-enoic Mg C17:1 268.45 0.00 0.03 Octadecanoic S C18:0 284.49 2.80 3.31 cis-octadec-9-enoic O C18:1 282.47 25.94 35.98 ciscis-octadeca-912-dienoic Li C18.2 280.45 53.00 52.75 transtrans-octadeca-912-dienoic C18:2t b 280.45 0.13 0.11 all-cis-octadeca-91215-trienoic Le C18:3 278.44 6.34 0.78 Icosanoic A C20:0 312.54 0.31 0.30 cis–icos–9–enoic Ga C20:1 310.52 0.19 0.21 Docosanoic Be C22:0 340.59 0.39 0.00 a InCx:y x number of carbons and y number of double bonds. b trans isomer. c M molar mass. d w mass fraction Based on the fatty acid compositions the possible compositions of triacylglycerol Table 2 of the vegetable oils were calculated using the algorithm suggested by AntoniosiFilho et al.20. In order to calculate the probable triacylglycerol compositions the quantities of transisomers see Table 1 were computed with their respective cis isomers. In Table 2 the main triacylglycerol represents the component with the greatest composition in the isomer set with x carbons and y double bonds. Additionally iodine values of vegetable oils were calculated from their fatty acid compositions according to the official method Cd 1c-85 recommended by AOCS 17. These values are presented in Table 3 together with tabulated values extracted from Firestone21 for soybean and sunflower oils. The iodine value reflects the degree of unsaturation of fatty compounds so that the higher the iodine value the higher the degree of unsaturation.

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International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-6 June- 2016 Page | 21 TABLE 2 POSSIBLE TRIACYLGLYCEROL COMPOSITIONS OF SOYBEAN AND SUNFLOWEROILS. Main TG a Group x:y b Molar mass g.mol -1 Soybean oil Sunflower oil Main TG a Group x:y b Molar mass g.mol -1 Soybean oil Sunflower oil 100w c 100w c POP 50:1 833.37 0.94 0.43 LiLiP 52:4 855.38 10.63 6.05 POS 52:1 861.42 0.44 0.48 SLnO 54:4 883.43 0.28 - SOS 54:1 889.48 - 0.14 LiLiS 54:4 883.43 2.50 3.41 PLiP 50:2 831.35 1.93 0.63 OOLi 54:4 883.43 10.30 19.90 PLiS 52:2 859.41 0.91 0.71 LiLiA 56:4 911.48 0.25 0.24 OOP 52:2 859.41 2.50 2.77 LiLiBe 58:4 939.54 0.30 - SLiS 54:2 887.46 0.11 0.20 PLiLn 52:5 853.36 2.56 - OOS 54:2 887.46 0.59 1.56 SLiLn 54:5 881.41 0.61 - OOA 56:2 915.51 - 0.10 OOLn 54:5 881.41 1.24 0.20 PLiBe 56:2 915.51 0.11 - LiLiO 54:5 881.41 21.25 29.44 PLnP 50:3 829.34 0.23 - LnLnP 52:6 851.34 0.15 - PLnS 52:3 857.39 0.11 - LiLiGa 56:5 90947 - 011 PLiO 52:3 857.39 10.29 8.18 OLiLn 54:6 879.40 5.10 0.88 SLiO 54:3 885.44 2.42 4.61 LiLiLi 54:6 879.40 14.61 14.52 OOO 54:3 885.44 1.66 4.48 LnLnO 54:7 877.38 0.31 - OLiA 56:3 913.50 0.24 0.32 LiLiLn 54:7 877.38 5.27 0.64 OLiBe 58:3 941.55 0.28 - LnLnLi 54:8 875.37 0.64 - PLnO 52:4 855.38 1.24 - a main TG in the group with x carbons and y double bounds. b In x:y x number of carbons except for carbons of glycerol y number of double bonds. c w mass fraction. TABLE 3 IODINE VALUES AND AVERAGE MOLAR MASSES OF SOYBEAN AND SUNFLOWEROILS. VegetableOil IodineValue Composition 100w a Molar mass gmol -1 Calculated Literature 21 TG DG MG TG DG MG Oil Soybean 137.03 118-139 0.9574 0.0345 0.0081 886.46 622.09 357.77 873.06 Sunflower 130.49 118-145 0.9618 0.0263 0.0119 890.66 624.90 359.17 877.35 a w mass fraction. The ethanolysis of soybean and sun flower oils was carried out at 9:1 molar ratio of ethanol to oil and the sodium ethoxide amount of 1.00 based on the oil weight. The reaction was conducted at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 308.15 323.15 and 338.15 K. An agitation speed of 400 rpm was applied in all experiments. Glass equilibrium cells such as those described by Silva et al.22 were used for the experiments. The Vegetable oil 100.00 g was stirred at the desired temperature for about 30 min. Ethanol and sodium ethoxide were kept at the desired temperature and then added to the system. Each component was weighted on an analytical balance Precisa model XT220A Sweden accurate to 0.0001 g. The agitation was maintained with a magnetic stirrer IkaWerke model RH-KT/C Staufen Germany and the temperature was controlled with a thermostatic bath Cole Parmer model 12101-55 Chicago U.S.A. accurate to 0.01 K. During the reaction samples 0.5 ml were taken from the reaction mixture and immediately dissolved in 25 ml of THF and filtered through a 0.45 m Millipore filter. All samples were analyzed by High Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography HPSEC. The composition of the samples in terms of triacylglycerols TG diacylglycerols DG monoacylglycerols MG ethyl esters EE ethanol ET and glycerol GL was determined by HPSEC. The methodology was adapted from Schoenfelder23 however the columns proposed by this method were replaced by three Phenogel columns 50A 100 A and 500 A 300 mm x 7.8 mm. The quantification was carried out on a Shimadzu VP series HPLC equipped with two LC–10ADVP solvent delivery units for binary gradient elution a model RID10A differential refractometer an automatic injector with an injection volume of 20

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International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-6 June- 2016 Page | 22 μL a model CTO−10ASVP column oven for precision temperature control even at sub−ambient temperatures a model SCL–10AVP system controller and LC–Solution 2.1 software for remote management. The results obtained in the chromatograms were converted to molar concentrations of each component based on calibration curves expressed in mass concentration g.L -1 . The molar concentrations mol.L -1 were calculated from the mass concentrations using molar mass of the components or the average molar mass of the class of components. The same analytical procedure described above was used for evaluating the refined oils composition in terms of TG DG and MG. Based on these results and on the probable triacylglycerol compositions Table 2 the average molar masses of TG DG and MG fractions of the vegetable oils were calculated. These calculations were performed considering the stoichiometry relating the TG fraction to the DG and MG fractions. The oil composition in terms of TG DG and MG and the corresponding average molar masses are given in Table 3. The oil conversion degree in was calculated from the content of acylglycerols in the mixture at the beginning and the end of the reaction process by the following 1: 0 + 0 + 0 − + + 0 + 0 + 0 . 100 Where and are the mass fractions of TG DG and MG at the initial reaction time respectively and and are the corresponding fractions at the final time. The kinetic model assumed for the transesterification process has been fitted with the aid of a program written in FORTRAN software. The integration of the model ordinary differential equations was performed using the Runge-Kutta 4 th order method. To estimate the kinetic parameters an optimization technique based on genetic algorithm GA was used 24. The optimizer algorithm developed by Carroll 25 was adapted as indicated in prior works reported in the literature 26 27 for minimizing the differences between the kinetic model predictions and the experimental data using the following objective function 2: − exp 1 2 1 With varying over time and referring to the molar concentrations of the reaction components or class of components . The kinetic model was based on the approach proposed by Noureddini Zhu 16 in which the following reactions are considered 3: + + + + + + The set of differential equations characterizing the stepwise reaction for oil transesterification is shown below 4 5 6 7 8 and 9: − 1 + 2 1 − 2 − 3 + 4 3 − 4 − 5 + 6 1 − 2 + 3 − 4 + 5 − 6 k 1 k 2 k 3 k 4 k 5 k 6

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International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-6 June- 2016 Page | 23 5 − 6 − Where 1 to 6 are reaction rate constants TG DG MG GL ET and EE are the concentrations of the components in the reaction mixture. Note that the rate constants associated with the overall reaction were not considered since as indicated by Noureddini Zhu 16 their effects are negligible. The initial values of the kinetic constants of reaction were estimated by linear regression of the concentrations of reactants and products over time obtained experimentally and subsequently adjusted using the genetic algorithm optimization method. Having the values of the kinetic constants the activation energies and pre-exponential factors were determined by linearization of the Arrhenius10. − × 1 + Where is the pre-exponential factor is the activation energy and is the gas constant. III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Typical concentration curves for the transesterification of soybean oil at 308.15 K and sunflower oil at 338.15 K are presented in Fig. 1 and 2 respectively. These figures show the rate of consumption of triacylglycerol’s and formation of ethyl esters and glycerol as well as of the intermediate compounds. FIG. 1 –THE COMPOSITION OF THE REACTION MIXTURE DURING THE TRANSESTERIFICATION OF SOYBEAN OIL AT 308.15 K. EXPERIMENTAL DATA: – ◊ – TRIACYLGLYCEROL – □ – DIACYLGLYCEROL – ∆ – MONOACYLGLYCEROL –× – ETHYL ESTER – ○ – GLYCEROL AND – ● – ETHANOL. FIG. 2 – THE COMPOSITION OF THE REACTION MIXTURE DURING THE TRANSESTERIFICATION OF SUNFLOWER OIL AT 338.15 K. EXPERIMENTAL DATA: : – ◊ – TRIACYLGLYCEROL – □ – DIACYLGLYCEROL – ∆ – MONOACYLGLYCEROL – × – ETHYL ESTER – ○ – GLYCEROL AND – ● – ETHANOL.

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International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-6 June- 2016 Page | 24 The first stage of the transesterification of triacylglycerols may be controlled by mass transfer. Due to the fact that the oil is not fully miscible with alcohol this stage might be characterized by slow reaction rates hence the importance of a good stirring at this stage in order to avoid any mass transfer constraint. In general the first step is faster when the reaction is ethanolysis instead of the methanolysis due to the difference in the oil solubility in both. The second stepis rapidand is controlled byreaction kinetics while the latter is dominated by the reaction chemical equilibrium 2829. The production rate of ethyl esters in Fig. 1 and 2 starts with a sudden increase followed by a lower production rate when the reaction approaches equilibrium. Darnako and Cheryan 14 and Noureddine and Zhu 16 have observed a sigmoidal pattern for production of methyl esters. This pattern consists of a slow rate at the beginning followed by a sudden surge and finally a slow rate again especially at low temperatures. These authors explained that the initial mass transfer-controlled region could be eliminated if sufficient mixing is provided. Fig. 1 and 2 show that no period controlled by mass transfer occurs in the present study being the reaction path controlled only by its kinetics. Ahiekpor and Kuwornoo 13 also observed the same behavior in the study of palm oil ethanolysis. The assays were performed at three different temperatures 308.15 323.15 and 338.15 K and the kinetic rate constants were estimated for these temperatures. The calculated values are shown in Table 4. Fig. 3 and 4 show the concentration profiles of experimental and simulated data for the transesterification process of soybean and sunflower oils respectively at 323.15 K. TABLE 4 THE RATE CONSTANTS AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES Rate constants L.mol -1 .min -1 Temperature K Soybean oil 308.15 0.1019 0.0236 0.1254 0.2554 0.0578 0.0042 323.15 0.2720 0.0593 0.3586 0.2671 0.0525 0.0125 338.15 0.3312 0.0615 0.4374 0.2844 0.0927 0.0128 Sunflower oil 308.15 0.1067 0.0286 0.1334 0.2533 0.0464 0.0078 323.15 0.2381 0.0674 0.4693 0.9456 0.1287 0.0197 338.15 0.3483 0.1414 0.9286 1.0942 0.2498 0.0230 FIG. 3 –THE COMPOSITION OF THE REACTION MIXTURE DURING THE TRANSESTERIFICATION OF SOYBEAN OIL AT 323.15 K. – – – – SIMULATION RESULTS AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA : ◊ TRIACYLGLYCEROL □ DIACYLGLYCEROL ∆ MONOACYLGLYCEROL × ETHYL ESTER ○ GLYCEROL AND ● ETHANOL.

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International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-6 June- 2016 Page | 25 FIG. 4 – THE COMPOSITION OF THE REACTION MIXTURE DURING THE TRANSESTERIFICATION OF SUNFLOWER OIL AT 323.15 K. – – – – SIMULATION RESULTS AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA ◊ TRIACYLGLYCEROL □ DIACYLGLYCEROL ∆ MONOACYLGLYCEROL × ETHYL ESTER ○ GLYCEROL AND ● ETHANOL. The dependence of the overall conversion in relation to the temperature is presented in Fig. 5 A and B for soybean and sunflower oils respectively. In accordance with these Figures the tests conducted at higher temperatures resulted in faster and higher conversion rates. These Figures also show that over the temperature range of 308.15-323.15 K approximately forty minutes of reaction time are sufficient to achieve maximum oil conversion to ethyl esters. We can also observe that for the temperature of 338.15K the maximum conversion was already achieved after approximately twenty minutes. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Ethyl Esters conversion Time min 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Ethyl Esters conversion Time min FIG. 5 – THE EFFECT OF THE TEMPERATURE AND TIME ON THE OVERALL CONVERSION TO ETHYL ESTERS FOR SOYBEAN OIL A AND SUNFLOWER OIL B. ▲ 308.15 K ● 323.15 K ■ 338.15 K. The Arrhenius 6 was applied for determining the activation energies and pre-exponential factors for the ethanolysis reactions of soybean and sunflower oils respectively and the values obtained are shown in Table 5. TABLE 5 ACTIVATION ENERGIES AND PRE-EXPONENTIAL FACTORS FOR THE REACTION STEPS OF ETHANOLYSIS OF SOYBEAN AND SUNFLOWER OILS. Reaction Soybean oil Sunflower oil Activation energy cal.mol -1 Pre-exponential factor L.mol -1 .min -1 Activation energy cal.mol -1 Pre-exponential factor L.mol -1 .min -1 → 8203.426 7.59x10 4 8197.167 7.42 x 10 4 → 6698.938 1.53x10 3 11023.56 1.91 x 10 6 → 8702.558 2.13x10 5 13429.72 4.89 x 10 8 → 739.559 8.52x10 -1 10206.87 5.28 x 10 6 → 3183.908 9.42 11637.45 8.79 x 10 6 → 7791.455 1.67x10 3 7498.372 1.84 x 10 3 A B

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International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-6 June- 2016 Page | 26 As it can be seen for soybean oil the first two reactions TG↔DG and DG↔MG are favored by high temperatures. However for the third step MG↔GL the forward reaction has lower activation energy than the reverse reaction indicating a more favorable reverse reaction at higher temperatures. This same behavior was observed by Noureddini Zhu 16 although the calculated activation energies for the three-step reactions in the present case are slightly lower than the corresponding values obtained by these authors for the methanolysis of soybean oil. In case of sunflower oil the observed behavior is different since the last two reactions DG↔MG and MG↔GL are favored by high temperatures. On the other hand in the first step TG↔MG the forward reaction has lower activation energy than the reverse reaction indicating a more favorable reverse reaction at higher temperatures. Values obtained in the present work are within an acceptable range according to data reported in the literature3031. IV. CONCLUSION The experimental data of concentration versus time showed that the production rate of ethyl esters started with a sudden surge followed by a lower production rate when the reaction approaches equilibrium and the concentration profiles did not followed the sigmoidal behavior observed in the methanolysis. The reaction rate constants the corresponding activation energies and pre-exponential factors reproduced very satisfactorily the process studied showing that the developed kinetic model can be used to describe the ethanolysis process of soybean and sunflower oils adequately. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors acknowledge FAPEMIG Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais CNPq Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico 483340/2012–0 501926/2013-5 406856/2013-3 and 305870/2014- 9 and FAPESP Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo 2008/56258–8 for the financial support. REFERENCES 1 Xu G. Wu G.-y. The investigation of blending properties of biodiesel and No. 0 diesel fuel. Journal Jiangsu Ploytechnic Univers 15 8-16 2003. 2 Ma F. R. Hanna M. A. Biodiesel production: a review. Bioresource Technology 70 1 1-15 1999. 3 Barnwal B. K. Sharma M. P. Prospects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils in India. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 9 4 363-378 2005. 4 Pousa G. P. A. G. Santos A. L. F. Suarez P. A. Z. History and policy of biodiesel in Brazil. Energy Polic 35 11 5393-5398 2007 5 Clark S. J. Wagner L. Schrock M. D. Piennaar P. G. Methyl and ethyl soybean esters as renewable fuels for diesel engines. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society61 10 1632-1638 1984 6 Encinar J. M. González J. F. Rodríguez J. J. Tejedor A. Biodiesel Fuels from Vegetable Oils:  Transesterification of Cynara cardunculus L. Oils with Ethanol. Energy Fuel 16 2 443-450 2002. 7 Keng P. S. Basri M. Zakaria M. R. S. Rahman M. B. A. Ariff A. B. Rahman R. N. Z. A. Salleh A. B. Newly synthesized palm esters for cosmetics industry. Industrial Crops and Products 29 1 37-44 2009. 8 Kim J. Altreuter D. Clark D. Dordick J. Rapid synthesis of fatty acid esters for use as potential food flavors. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 75 12 1109-1113 1998. 9 Pérez-Feás C. Barciela-Alonso M. Sedes-Díaz A. Bermejo-Barrera P. Phthalates determination in pharmaceutical formulae used in parenteral nutrition by LC-ES-MS: importance in public health. Anal Bioanal Chem 397 2 529-535 2010. 10 Vermeulen R. Jönsson B. G. Lindh C. Kromhout H. Biological monitoring of carbon disulphide and phthalate exposure in the contemporary rubber industry. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 78 8 663-669 2005. 11 Freedman B. Pryde E. H. Mounts T. L. Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 61 10 1638-1643 1984. 12 Sankaran V. Transesterification of Triglycerides. United State. Patent 4 866-876 1990. 13 Ahiekpor J. C. Kuwornoo D. K. Kinetics of palm kernel oil and ethanol transesterification. International Journal of Energy and Environment1 1097-1108 2010. 14 Darnoko D. Cheryan M. Kinetics of palm oil transesterification in a batch reactor. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society77 12 1263-1267 2000. 15 Marjanović A. V. Stamenković O. S. Todorović Z. B. Lazić M. L. Veljković V. B. Kinetics of the base-catalyzed sunflower oil ethanolysis. Fuel 89 3 665-671 2010. 16 Noureddini H. Zhu D. Kinetics of transesterification of soybean oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society 74 11 1457- 1463 1997.

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International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-6 June- 2016 Page | 27 17 AOCS Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. AOCS Press: Champaign IL 1998 5th ed. 18 Hartman L. Lago R. C. A. Rapid Preparation of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters From Lipids. Laboratory Practice London 22 475-476 1973. 19 Basso R. C. de Almeida Meirelles A. J. Batista E. A. C. Liquid–liquid equilibrium of pseudoternary systems containing glycerol + ethanol + ethylic biodiesel from crambe oil Crambe abyssinica at T/K 298.2 318.2 338.2 and thermodynamic modeling. Fluid Phase Equilibria 333 0 55-62 2012. 20 Filho N. R. A. Mendes O. L. Lanças F. M. Computer prediction of triacylglycerol composition of vegetable oils by HRGC. Chromatographia 40 9-10 557-562 1995. 21 Firestone D. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Oils Fats and Waxes. p 151 1999. 22 Silva L. H. M. d. Coimbra J. S. R. Meirelles A. J. d. A. Equilibrium Phase Behavior of Polyethylene glycol + Potassium Phosphate + Water Two-Phase Systems at Various pH and Temperatures. Journal of Chemical Engineering Data 42 2 398-401 1997. 23 Schoenfelder W. Determination of monoglycerides diglycerides triglycerides and glycerol in fats by means of gel permeation chromatography C-VI 5b02. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 105 1 45-48 2003. 24 Holland J. H. Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology Control and Artificial Intelligence. MIT Press p 228 1992. 25 Carroll D. L. Chemical laser modeling with genetic algorithms. AIAA Journal 34 2 338-346 1996. 26 Lunelli B. H. Melo D. N. C. Morais E. R. d. Victorino I. R. S. Toledo E. C. V. d. Maciel M. R. W. Filho R. M. Real-time optimization for lactic acid production from sucrose fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum. 21st European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering 1396-1400 2001. 27 Victorino I. R. d. S. Optimization of an industrial reactor of cyclic alcohol production using genetic algorithms. PhD Thesis in Portuguese. School of Chemecal Engineering UNICAMP Campinas/SP 2005. 28 Zhou W. Boocock D. G. B. Phase distributions of alcohol glycerol and catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 83 12 1047-1052 2006. 29 Zhou W. Boocock D. G. B. Phase behavior of the base-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 83 12 1041-1045 2006. 30 Bambase M. E. Jr. Nakamura N. Tanaka J. Matsumura M. Kinetics of hydroxide-catalyzed methanolysis of crude sunflower oil for the production of fuel-grade methyl esters. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 82 3 273-280 2007. 31 Vicente G. Martinez M. Aracil J. Esteban A. Kinetics of sunflower oil methanolysis. Industrial Engineering Chemistry Research 44 15 5447-5454 2005.

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