IJOEAR-MAY-2018-8

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-4 Issue-5 May- 2018 Page | 55 Impact of Biofertilizers on Crop Seeds G .Sumalatha 1 T. Geetha Jebarathnam 2 Department of Agronomy Faculty of Agriculture Annamalai University Annamalai nagar -608002 Tamil Nadu India Email: sulareddygmail.com Abstract — A laboratory experiments were conducted during the year of 2012-2014 at Annamalai University of cuddalore district under irrigated conditions to formulate site –specific nutrient management and efficiency of treatments known by comparing with rice sunflower and black gram seeds. And the treatments includes control 10 5 2.5 and 1 vermicompost 10 5 2.5 and 1 phosphobacteria 10 5 2.5 and 1 azospirillum. And the above treatments are applied to all the three seeds ie rice sunflower black gram. The numbers of seeds used for the experiment are 50 seeds of paddy 20 seeds of black gram and 10 seeds of sunflower. Highest values for plant biomass root and shoot length was noticed in 10 all the treatments. Keywords — Sunflower Nutrient management plant biomass root and shoot length. I. INTRODUCTION Nutrients play an important role in crop growth and development. Among the nutrients N is one of the major nutrients that enhance the metabolic processes that based on protein leads to increases in vegetative reproductive growth and yield of the crop. Phosoporus soulubilizing bacteria possess the ability to bring insoluble phosphorus in the soil into soluble forms by secreting organic acids such as formic acetic propionic glycolic fumaric and succinic acids. And vermicompost is an established organic soil amendment produced by a non-thermophilic process in which the organic matter is broken down through interactions between earth worm and microorganisms under aerobic condition. vermicompost have been demonstrated to be valuable soil amendment that offer a balanced nutritional release pattern to plants. Providing nutrients such as available nitrogen soluble potassium exchangeable calicium mangesium and phosphorus that can be taken readily by the plants Edward 1998 and Edwards and Fletcher 1988. Application of vermicompost along with chemical fertilizers increase the uptake of N P K nutrients when compared to chemical fertilizers alone Bhadoria and Prakash 2003.Chaudhary et al.2004 reported that apart from nutrients supply and availability vermicompost also improves the fertilizer use efficiency by increasing the nutrient uptake of plants. Vermicomposting is a biodegradation system which stabilizes sludge and reduces its pathogenicity. Application of high analysis NPK fertilizers and very limited use of FYM cause micronutrient depletion in soils which appears to have special role in influencing the test weight and seed filling Tufail et al. 1990. Azospirillum reported that Azospirillum inoculation of increased the nitrogen uptake by sunflower Anand 1994. Sivakumar 1994 also stated that seed soaking in GA 3 45 ppm + Azospirillum increased the nitrogen uptake by sunflower. Nandhagopal et al. 2003 reported that inoculation of Azospirillum assisted in N fixation and contributed for the improved nutrient uptake of sunflower. II. MATERIALS AND METHODS A laboratory experiments were conducted during 2013-2014 at Annamalai university Cuddalore located in Western Agro climatic zone of Tamilnadu to find out the impact of bio fertilizers on different crop seeds. The weather of Annamalai nagar is moderately warm with hot summer months. The mean maximum temperature is 32.2C while the mean minimum temperature is 21.5 o C with a mean relative humidity of 88 per cent. The mean annual rainfall is 1500mm of which 1000mm is received during North –East monsoon 400 mm during South-West monsoon and 100mm as summer showers. A laboratory experiment was under taken with varying concentrations of aqueous solutions of biofertilizers i.e. 10 5 2.5 1 solutions of vermicompost azospirillum and phosphobacteria respectively were prepared. Seeds of paddy blackgram and sunflower were placed in filter paper spread in petriplates 50 paddy seeds 20 black gram seeds and 10 sunflower seeds per plate over a moist filter paper dipped in water held in the cover plates kept at the bottom. Observations regarding germination count cumulative upto 3 DAS on 7 th day were recorded and inhibition or stimulation of germination compared to control was expressed in percentage .

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-4 Issue-5 May- 2018 Page | 56 TABLE 1 IMPACT OF BIO-FERTILIZERS AT VARYING CONCENTRATIONS ON THE GERMINATION OF CROP SEEDS FERTILIZER CONC PERCENTAGE OF SPROUTED SEEDS OUT OF SOWN SEEDS SHOOT AND ROOT LENGTH AT TWO LEAF STAGE DRY MATTER PRODUCTION gm Paddy 50 seeds Black gram 20 seeds Sunflower 10 seeds Paddy cm Black gram cm Sunflower cm Paddy gm Black gram gm Sunflower gm Shoot Root Shoot Root Shoot Root Azospirillum 10 100 100 100 6.5 5.5 16 4.8 12 4.5 0.039 0.51 0.19 5 100 95 96 5 4.5 15.7 4.7 11.9 3.5 0.038 0.49 0.14 2.5 98 95 70 4.5 2.5 11 6.2 11 3.2 0.034 0.032 0.1 1 92 85 60 4 2.3 9 4.2 9 2.5 0.02 0.01 0.1 SEd 0.83 2.0 1.6 0.62 0.41 0.12 0.04 0.04 0.41 0.001 0.008 0.02 CDp0.05 2 5 4 1.5 1 0.3 0.1 0.1 1 0.01 0.02 0.05 Phosphobacteria 10 100 100 80 6.9 5.3 15 5 12 3.5 0.046 0.055 0.16 5 98 96 77 6 5.2 14.5 4.5 11.8 2.5 0.028 0.053 0.14 2.5 96 85 70 5 4.3 11.2 3 8 5.0 0.01 0.055 0.12 1 96 80 60 4.5 4.2 6.5 2.3 6.7 2 0.02 0.035 0.09 SEd 0.83 1.6 1.25 0.37 0.04 0.20 0.20 0.08 0.41 0.007 0.0008 0.0008 CDp0.05 2 4 3 0.9 0.1 0.5 0.5 0.2 1 0.01 0.002 0.02 Vermicompost 10 96 95 82 6 7.5 16 6 10 5.5 0.05 0.125 0.37 5 96 94 80 5.5 6.3 13 5.5 9 4.9 0.038 0.06 0.14 2.5 94 90 70 5.3 4.1 8 4.4 8.5 3.5 0.06 0.045 0.12 1 94 85 60 4.5 4.0 7 2 8 3 0.02 0.04 0.37 SEd 0.83 0.41 0.83 0.20 0.5 1.25 0.20 0.41 0.25 0.005 0.02 0.009 CDp0.05 2 1 2 0.5 1.2 3 0.5 1 0.6 0.012 0.06 0.23

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-4 Issue-5 May- 2018 Page | 57 III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The different concentrations of bio-fertilizers compared showed varying levels of germination response of crop seeds. The magnitude of germination was increasing with increasing concentrations of bio-fertilizers and highest germination per cent was observed with increasing concentrations of bio-fertilizers i.e 1 per cent 2.5 per cent 5 per cent and 10 per cent. Hence highest performance of paddy black gram sunflower germination was observed to be as 100 per cent 100 per cent and 100 per cent respectively in 10 per cent concentration of Azospirillum followed by 100 per cent 100 per cent and 80 per cent with 10 per cent concentration of PSB and 96 per cent 95 per cent 82 per cent with 10 per cent concentration of vermicompost. IV. CONCLUSION The study revealed that the different concentrations of bio fertilizers compared showed varying levels of germination response of crop seeds. The magnitude of germination was increasing with increasing concentrations of bio fertilizer. REFERENCES 1 Anand V. 1994. Studies on the Azospirillum brasilence sunflower Rhizobiocoenosis under moisture stress condition. M.Sc. Ag. Thesis submitted to Annamalai Univ. Annamalai Nagar. 2 Bhadaria P.B.S. and Y.S. Prakash. 2003. Relative influence of organic manures in combination with chemical fertilizer in improving rice productivity of lateritic soil. J. Sustainable Agric. 231: 77-87. 3 Choudhary O.P. and Kumar R. 1998. Studies on honey bee foraging behaviour and pollination on niger Guizotia abyssinica. ass cultivation . J. Oil seeds Res. 192: 257-258. 4 Edwards C.A. and K.E. Fletcher. 1988. Interaction between earthworms and microbes in organic matter breakdown. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 203: 235-239. 5 Sivakumar K. 1994. Effect of seed soaking in phytohormones and Azospirillum on growth and yield of sunflower Helianthus annuus L. cv. CO 2 . M.Sc Ag. Thesis Annamalai Univ. Annamalai Nagar.

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