IJOEAR-MAR-2018-9

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-4 Issue-5 May- 2018 Page | 1 Study of the impact of Oum Azza landfill leachates on the environment of Rabat - Morocco EL ATMANI Ayoub 1 ELMIMOUNI Naim 2 EL BORJY Aziz 3 SIBARI Mohamed 4 TABTI Safae 5 EL BAKOURI Ahmed 6 ELKHARRIM Khadija 7 BELGHYTI Driss 8 125678 Centre des Etudes Doctorales Faculté des Sciences Université Ibn Tofail. B.P. 133 code postale 14000 Kénitra Maroc. 1 Studies Technical Office Rabat Morocco. 3 RAK Régie Autonome d’Eau et d’Electricité Kénitra. 4 ONEP Regional Office of Water and Electricity Kenitra Morocco. Corresponding author. Email: ayoub.elatmanigmail.com belghytihotmail.com Abstract — The problem of solid household waste has arisen with great sharpness in recent decades. In particular the management of leachates and the neutralization of their environmental impacts. The need for Morocco to meet the environmental challenge and put itself in logic of sustainable development has led to an awareness of this issue and the promulgation of the new law 28-00 on waste management and their elimination. The objective of this research work is the characterization of the organic and mineral load of leachate from the Oum Azza landfill and the evaluation of its environmental impacts on the city of Rabat. For this a campaign of 24 samples was undertaken in 2011. The physicochemical characterization of leachates has revealed that these liquid discharges are: • Very high in organic matter with mean MES 470mg / L Average BOD5 5522 mg of O2 / L and COD 12626 mg / L • Very charged in mineral matter expressed in terms of electrical Conductivity mean 33969 μs / cm • Have an average temperature of 24.5 ° C and a pH of 8 • A chloride concentration of 4289 mg / L • Average sodium levels in the order of 3049 mg / L • Average total nitrogen levels of 4090 mg / L and ammonia in the order of 3207 mg / L • Average level of phosphates of the order of 35 mg / L • Average sulphates levels of 35 mg / L. The Rabat landfill represents a real nuisance for health and the environment because of the toxic characteristics of pollutants and bad odors. It is therefore essential to treat these liquid discharges and install a WWTP to mitigate the environmental impact of leachate. Keywords — Oum Azza discharge leachates physicochemistry Pollution Impacts Odors Rabat Morocco. I. INTRODUCTION In Morocco like all the countries of the world socio-economic activities coupled with population growth and changes in consumption patterns generate a large production of household solid waste 1.

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-4 Issue-5 May- 2018 Page | 2 In the face of demographic industrial urbanistic and tourist development the problem of waste has arisen with great acuteness. The amount of household waste produced poses a serious threat to the environment as the current conditions for the collection transport disposal recycling or destruction of such waste are inadequate 2. The dump of Oum Azza is located a few kilometers east of the city of Rabat on the right bank of the A5 motorway from Rabat to Casablanca and Kenitra. Initially it was a wild dump located near the urban perimeter of El Menzeh center and Ouled Mbarek Commune. The proximity to the main wind direction facilitates the spread of smoke odors and plastic bags to nearby cities. Like other Moroccan cities Rabat faces an exponential increase in the amount of household waste produced by its inhabitants. Unfortunately the landfilling of waste and the accumulation of leachates in large storage ponds has contributed to the birth of a new environmental problem due to their pollutant loads and the nauseating odors that emerge 3. The present work aims to characterize and evaluate the pollutant load of the Oum Azza de Rabat landfill by physicochemical analyzes of raw leachates collected in 2011. II. STUDY AREA The region of Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaër which covers an area of 18194 km 2 or 1.3 of the country is bounded Figure 1: • North and Northeast by the Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen Region • In the West by the Atlantic Ocean • East and South-East by the Meknes-Tafilalt Region • South and Southwest by Chaouia-Ouardigha Region. The population of the Rabat-Sale-Kenitra amounts to 4552585 inhabitants or 8.07 of the total national population of whom 3172955 in urban areas and 1379630 in rural area of the total population. Total regional population with an average density for this region of 251.8 inhabitants / km 2 . The national average is 41.7 inhabitants / km 2 4. The landfill of Oum Azza is chosen from the large number of landfills in Morocco. It is located in Rabat-Sale. This landfill produces a leachate that is suspected of causing environmental pollution of groundwater and surface water as well as ambient air by the propagation of very bad toxic and allergenic odors 5. The waste comes mainly from the transfer centers of Rabat Sale and Temara. They are therefore transported by large trucks carrying 20 to 25 tons. Municipalities close to the site and some private organizations or companies bring their waste directly to the Oum Azza site. Treated waste is garbage refuse from composting household waste and ordinary industrial waste. Production was estimated at 500 000 tons during 2011 6. 2.1 Rainfall The rainfall recorded by the Rabat-Sale airport weather station in the region is shown in Table 1. The water slide in Rabat during the whole of the year is about 555 mm. There are summer months June July August and September marked by very low rainfall. In contrast November December January and February are marked by heavy rains 7. TABLE 1 ANNUAL MEANS RAINFALL mm IN 25 YEARS. Station Jan Feb Mar April May Jun Jull Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Rabat 85.1 72.6 64.9 54.6 19.8 6.5 0.48 1.05 5.5 42.3 79.5 111

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-4 Issue-5 May- 2018 Page | 3 FIGURE 1: LOCATION OF THE RABAT-SALE-ZEMMOUR-ZAËR REGION MATEE 1997 2.2 Temperature The analysis of monthly temperatures Table 2 indicates that the Rabat region appears to be one of the most temperate in Morocco since the annual temperature ranges between the mean maximum temperature and the average minimum temperature are about 9.5 ° C 7. TABLE 2 MONTHLY AVERAGE TEMPERATURES T °C IN RABAT. Jan Feb. Mar April May Jun Jull Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 126 131 144 150 173 199 220 225 22.2 182 158 130 2.3 Wind According to the wind rose provided by the Rabat weather station at Rabat-Salé airport the prevailing winds in Rabat come from the western sector in winter spring and autumn. They are followed closely by those from the North and South. Only the East sector winds play a relatively negligible role during the wet season. Note in the Atlantic region the Gharbi a westerly wind actually from north-west to southwest blows in any season on the western coast. Always fresh it is also a source of moisture and precipitation. The desiccating Chergui is of little relevance to the Rabat region Figure 2.

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-4 Issue-5 May- 2018 Page | 4 A B FIGURE 2: WIND FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION WIND ROSE FROM 1995 TO 2004 A AND 2017 B. 2.4 Landfill of Oum Azza The wild landfill is located in the rural commune of Oum Azza on the plateau of Aïn Aouda 20 km from Rabat. It is located between the Akrach River in the west and the reservoir of the Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah dam in the east at a range between 160 and 200 NGM. Its area is about 110 Ha. The purpose of the landfill is to treat household and similar waste from the 13 urban and rural communes for a population of 572717 inhabitants with a maximum annual production of about 700000 tons per year Figure 3-4 8 FIGURE 3: LEACHATE STORAGE POND AT THE OUM AZZA LANDFILL

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-4 Issue-5 May- 2018 Page | 5 FIGURE 4: LOCATION AND ACCESS TO THE SITE OF THE OUM AZZA LANDFILL PIZZORNO-MOROCCO III. MATERIAL AND METHOD The physicochemical analyzes are carried out as follows 9-12:  In the field: • The pH of the samples was measured using a Hanna pH meter • The temperature and the conductivity of the samples are determined by a conductivity meter of Cond315i / SET type WTW82362  Kenitra Faculty of Science Environmental Laboratory: • The chemical oxygen demand COD was determined using a DBC reactor • The biological oxygen demand BOD5 consumed for 5 days was assayed using a DBOmeter • Suspended Materials MES were measured by filtration and assay • Ammonium and nitrogen were measured by the distillation method of Parnas and Wagner by a distiller • Sodium was measured using a flame photometer type: JENWAY CLINICAL PFP7 • Sulfates mg / l were determined by the colorimetric method

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-4 Issue-5 May- 2018 Page | 6 • Chlorides Cl- were dosed by Argentimetrie.designation. IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The pH is an indicator of water pollution. The recorded pH values during the study period ranged from neutrality at 7.3 to a basic pH of 8.8 with an average of about 8.06. Measurements of leachate temperature give mean values of 24.52 ° C maximum of 40 ° C and minimum of 10 ° C Tables 3-4. Thermal exchanges between the atmosphere and the surface of cells or compartments are balanced 13. So the rise of temperature during the summer and its fall during the winter are in concordance with the seasonal variation of the atmospheric temperature. The maximum value of the leachate temperature is above 30 ° C considered as limit value of direct discharges in the receiving environment 14. At the Oum Azza landfill in Rabat-Sale there are high concentrations of nitrogen 1204 to 5804 mg / L and ammonia 644- 4480 mg / L. Similarly the phosphate concentration is high and varies between 8.1 and 75.8 mg / L. In the leachate of the Rabat landfill concentrations remain high in the unloading concerned. During the 2011 campaigns the electrical conductivity is higher and exceeds the standard of 2700 μS / cm and varies from 20115 to 47100 μs / cm. The concentration of Na + varies from 1308 to 4630 mg / L and that of Cl- also varies from 2340 to 7100 mg / L. At the same time the concentration of sulphates is relatively modest and ranges from 16 to 55 mg / L. The leachate from the Oum Azza landfill shows significant concentrations of suspended solids ranging from 88 to 1480 mg/L. These high loads generate strong measurements of BOD 5 and COD. BOD 5 varies considerably between 761 to 12976 and 48801mg / L and the COD vary from 7296 to 23789 and even reach 71880 mg / L. TABLE 3 PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF THE LEACHATE OF THE OF OUM AZZA LANDFILL. Oum Azza T°C pH CE MES DCO DBO 5 Cl- Na+ NH 4 + NTK PT SO 4 2- S1 234 81 32800 392 13296 6126 6898 3446 1958 1960 178 37 S2 15 81 47100 211 18048 6526 3470 3010 3976 4340 81 47 S3 12 78 30100 298 18144 9638 2886 3020 2576 4844 758 21 S4 27 83 36900 662 10944 2956 4570 3200 4368 5880 408 45 S5 305 82 20115 567 7872 2406 4590 3020 3881 4095 464 42 S6 32 78 28000 995 7296 2756 5020 3470 3010 4396 199 34 S7 35 85 38500 308 11328 2876 7100 4630 4480 5908 429 49 S8 35 85 38500 308 11328 2876 4890 3450 4480 5908 429 54 S9 312 79 26600 161 10708 6461 5480 3680 2728 2982 227 55 S10 40 756 40200 730 23789 12301 5930 4270 3626 4480 267 37 S11 151 734 27060 1467 10160 12976 3028 1308 3330 3770 437 26 S12 18 79 35000 1480 7488 4800 2970 2560 3986 4410 452 20 S13 204 81 35720 88 7910 761 2560 2340 2499 3710 379 25 S14 22 79 35700 415 17203 7581 2800 2030 3850 4494 486 16 S15 10 88 37000 204 13065 3086 2340 2160 644 1204 165 22 S16 194 8 36725 3908 15108 6312 4456 3169 3220 4256 356 375 S17 331 82 31279 3206 9456 2729 5400 3643 3963 5077 38 448 S18 356 77 33400 4455 17249 9381 5705 3975 3177 3731 247 46 S19 171 8 34096 7308 11165 5841 2740 2080 2862 3518 384 218 S20 236 79 28315 8134 99048 65538 45932 2803 31766 3443 352 36 S21 262 79 31860 938 7603 17585 3790 2905 27545 4053 289 295 S22 247 78 35333 481 19712 9840 3872 3107 33507 4606 503 247 S23 323 84 37967 426 11200 29026 5520 3760 44427 5899 422 493 S24 10 88 37000 204 13065 3086 2340 2160 644 1204 1653 22

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-4 Issue-5 May- 2018 Page | 7 TABLE 4 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL LEACHATE DATA Variables Observations Minimum mg/L Maximum mg/L Mean Error T°C 24 1000 4000 2452 877 pH 24 734 880 806 035 CE µs/cm 24 2011500 4710000 3396958 552371 MES 24 8800 148000 47068 37096 DCO 24 729600 2378900 1262674 440576 DBO 5 24 76100 1297600 552208 337581 Cl- 24 234000 710000 428951 141966 Na+ 24 130800 463000 304981 78174 NH 4 + 24 64400 448000 320760 104582 NTK 24 120400 590800 409034 130285 PT 24 810 7580 3524 1463 SO 4 2- 24 1600 5500 3506 1197 Other analyzes were carried out on the raw and aged leachates as part of the evaluation of the remediation possibilities. The results are summarized in Table 5. The results showed that the leachate kept its pollutant load after several treatment trials 15-16. TABLE 5 RESULTS OF LEACHATE ANALYZES OF THE OUM AZZA LANDFILL CE µs/cm DCO mg/L DBO 5 mg/L Site 1 : Lixiviat brut 26880 71880 48801 Site 2 : Treated leachate 24600 45120 30744 Site 3: Treated leachate 25400 42320 22400 Site 4: Treated leachate 26300 38400 19368 Site 5: Treated leachate 20000 12500 1900 Site 6: Treated leachate 18000 9900 1390 Site 7: Treated leachate 17500 4830 600 The PCA Principal Component Analysis of the 24 sampling stations with the physicochemical parameters studied shows that the correlation between the temperature and the other parameters tested allowed us to note that there is a significant correlation with chlorides sodium and sulphates with coefficients of r 0.809 r 0.798 and r 0.690 Table 6. The PCA analysis Figure 5 shows that the F1 axis expresses 34.45 of the variance and the F2 axis 22.52 with 56.97 of inertia for the factorial plane F1F2 in a two-dimensional system of the twelve parameters studied. These considerations allowed us to obtain the graphical representation of the correlations between the different variables Figures 6-8. In the PCA analysis the projection of the variables on the factorial plane F1-F2 Figure 6 shows that pH BOD5 and MES are negatively correlated with the F1 axis. On the other hand BOD5 COD MES Temperature NPK PT NH4 + are correlated negatively with the axis F2. The analysis of the projection of the individuals on the factorial plane F1-F2 Figure 7 allowed us to define a distribution of the stations along the axis F1 which is an increasing gradient of mineral pollution.

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-4 Issue-5 May- 2018 Page | 8 FIGURE 6: PROJECTION OF VARIABLES ON FACTORIAL F1X F2 56.66 TABLE 6 CORRELATION MATRIX Variables T°C pH CE MES DCO DBO 5 Cl- Na+ NH 4 + NTK PT SO 4 2- T°C 1 -0142 -0095 -0125 -0003 -0068 0809 0798 0590 0540 -0013 0690 pH -0142 1 0327 -0443 -0227 -0721 -0040 0054 -0231 -0152 -0220 0170 CE -0095 0327 1 -0172 0483 -0016 -0050 0153 0116 0169 -0271 0067 MES -0125 -0443 -0172 1 -0073 0470 -0134 -0331 0294 0102 0304 -0244 DCO -0003 -0227 0483 -0073 1 0692 0053 0214 -0025 0007 0014 -0074 DBO5 -0068 -0721 -0016 0470 0692 1 -0001 -0072 0035 -0045 0174 -0189 Cl- 0809 -0040 -0050 -0134 0053 -0001 1 0873 0408 0330 -0159 0759 Na+ 0798 0054 0153 -0331 0214 -0072 0873 1 0416 0452 -0085 0735 NH 4 + 0590 -0231 0116 0294 -0025 0035 0408 0416 1 0911 0400 0501 NTK 0540 -0152 0169 0102 0007 -0045 0330 0452 0911 1 0554 0411 PT -0013 -0220 -0271 0304 0014 0174 -0159 -0085 0400 0554 1 -0239 SO 4 2 - 0690 0170 0067 -0244 -0074 -0189 0759 0735 0501 0411 -0239 1 FIGURE 5: DIAGRAMS OF EIGENVALUES T°C pH CE MES DCO DBO5 Cl- Na+ NH4+ NTK PT SO42- -1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 -1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 F2 2252 F1 3445 Variables axes F1 et F2 : 5697 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Cumulative Variability Value of Factors Factors Scree plot

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-4 Issue-5 May- 2018 Page | 9 FIGURE 7: PROJECTION OF OBSERVATIONS ON FACTORIAL F1X F2 6531 FIGURE 8: PROJECTION OF OBSERVATIONS AND VARIABLES ON FACTORIAL F1X F2 65 31 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 S17 S18 S19 S20 S21 S22 S23 S24 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 F2 2252 F1 3445 Observations axes F1 et F2 : 5697 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 S17 S18 S19 S20 S21 S22 S23 S24 T°C pH CE MES DCO DBO5 Cl- Na+ NH4+ NTK PT SO42- -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 F2 2252 F1 3445 Biplot axes F1 et F2 : 5697

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-4 Issue-5 May- 2018 Page | 10 V. CONCLUSION The electrical conductivity reflects the total mineralization of water 9. The average value recorded is 20115 μs / cm and is much higher than the Moroccan standards for the quality of water intended for irrigation limit value 8700 and gives leachates a highly alkalizing power that is very dangerous for all cultivated plants 17. The sodium has an average concentration of 3049.8 mg / L. This concentration of Na + ion is higher in leachate and exceeds the Moroccan standard of water quality for irrigation. A large amount of sodium ions in the water affects the permeability of the soil and poses infiltration problems. This is due to the fact that the sodium present in the soil in exchangeable form replaces the calcium and magnesium adsorbed on the soil clays and causes the dispersion of the particles in the soil. This dispersion results in the alteration of soil aggregates. The soil then becomes hard and compact reducing the infiltration rates of water and air and consequently modifying the soil structure. The sulphates ions SO 4 2- are sulphated compounds whose presence in water results from a contamination mainly related to the discharge of domestic and industrial effluents or a phenomenon of natural reduction of sulphates. The average value in leachate is of the order of 35 mg / L. They are the source of bad odors emanating from leachates. The ammonium ion NH4 + is the reduced form of nitrogen. It comes mainly from the decomposition of natural proteins contained in phytoplankton and zooplankton. It can also be derived from the input of effluents from domestic industrial or agricultural waste. The average value of the concentration of the NH4 + ion of the leachate of Oum Azza recorded during the study period is 3207 mg / L. According to the standard standard committee and Law 11-03 14 ammonium does not meet discharge standards. The chloride ions are anions of chlorine. This element is very abundant in the environment. It is present in water soil rocks as well as in wastewater and leachate. The average chloride contents are 4289 mg / L. These results are consistent with those of previous studies 18-22. In addition the ammonium ion NH 4 + by nitrification is transformed into nitrites NO 2 - and nitrates NO 3 - and oxidized by the bacteria of the genus Nitrosomonas then by the bacteria of the genus Nitrobacter 23. Nitrates are very soluble in water they migrate easily into the water table 24. The average value of the BOD 5 of the leachates studied is 5522 mg of O2 / L and it is well above the limit value of the Moroccan standard of direct discharges which is 100 mg of O2 / L. Similarly the COD value of 12626 mg / L exceeds the norm and can be the basis of a strong fermentation. Bad odors systematically accompany a project of storage of household waste. Odors are due to the presence of hydrogen sulphide in the landfill gas and the decomposition of organic matter. Landfill gas is composed of methane carbon dioxide oxygen nitrogen carbon monoxide hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide. Only carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulphide are likely to be toxic to humans beyond a threshold. Unfortunately in the project of Oum Azza smells and fumes of gas have a real impact given the proximity of homes not far from the site of Oum Azza. This is the example of the El Manzeh housing estate about 2 km west of the project site. However a dominance of the west sector winds closely followed by wind from the north significantly reduces the impact of odors and different gaseous emissions to this new subdivision 25-26. This situation is exacerbated by the non-control and control of industrial special and hazardous waste generally sent to wild dumps without pre-treatment 27-28. In conclusion the concentrations found in the raw leachates of Oum Azza exceed the standards for wastewater quality recommended by WHO 29 and 14. In addition spatiotemporal monitoring of several other factors such as pathogens trace elements and pesticides must provide us with the true level of pollution. Thus the area of the landfill is affected by biological and chemical pollution that puts at risk the underlying water table. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Authors acknowledge all responsible from Municipality of Rabat and Pizzorno Society who have aided in accomplishing this study.

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-4 Issue-5 May- 2018 Page | 11 REFERENCES 1 Anonyme ‘‘Rapport sur l’Etat de l’environnement du Maroc chap. IV : déchets’’ Secrétariat d’état chargée de l’environnement Maroc 2001. 2 Anonyme ‘‘Loi n° 28-00 relative à la gestion des déchets et à leur elimination BO n°5480 du 7 décembre 2006 : « ’’ Royaume du Maroc Ministère de l’Aménagement du territoire de l’eau et de l’environnement 2006a. 3 A. Chofqi ‘‘ Mise en évidence des mécanismes de contamination des eaux souterraines par les lixiviats d’une décharge incontrôlée ElJadida – Maroc géologie hydrologie géo-électrique géochimie et épidémiologie’’. Thèse doctorat national Facultés des sciences El Jadida Maroc. 2004. 4 RGPH ‘‘Recensement Général de la Population et de l’Habitat’’ Haut Commissariat du Plan 2014. 5 AFNOR ‘‘Déchets: caractérisation d’un échantillon de déchets ménagers et assimilés’’ édition AFNOR France 1996. 6 R. 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