IJOEAR-DEC-2017-7

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

slide 1:

International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 32 Evaluation of mass trapping for control of Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann Diptera: Tephritidae in Satsuma mandarin in Hatay province of Turkey Nihat DEMİREL 1 Eda AKYOL 2 Mustafa Kemal University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Plant Protection 31034 Hatay-Turkey. Corresponding author: Dr. Nihat DEMİREL Mustafa Kemal University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Plant Protection 31034 Hatay-Turkey. Tel: 90 326 245 58 45 Fax: 90 326 245 58 32 email: ndemirelmku.edu.tr Abstract — The Mediterranean fruit fly Medfly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the most important pests of citrus in Turkey. The objective of this study was to evaluate mass trapping for the control of Medfly in Satsuma mandarin in Hatay province of Turkey. The studies were conducted in 2011-2012 using eostrap® invaginada traps baited with 95 Trimedlure impregnated in a polymeric plug-type dispenser. In the first year 48 traps per 0.7 ha were placed in an experimental site from 1 st August to December. In the second year 23 traps per 0.7 ha were placed in the same site from 14 August to December. After two years of the study the population density of medfly varied in each of the sampling year. In the first year a total of 8968 medfly adults were caught by traps. The largest mean of catches per trap were recorded on 31 October 64.21 followed by 24 October 31.29 17 October 22.48 7 November 20.64 3 October 17.60 and 10 October 16.71. In the second year a total of 1307 medfly adults were caught by traps. The largest mean of the catches per trap were recorded on 25 September 7.35 followed by 13 November 5.83 6 November 5.52 18 September 5.43 and 30 October 4.26 respectively. The percentages of damage rates of medfly observed in both years. The damage rates of Medfly were 10.91 and 8.56 in 2011 and 2012 respectively. In conclusion the population density of medfly on satsuma mandarin increased in September and October due to high temperature. The mass trapping was not enough to control medfly on satsuma mandarin. Therefore the mass trapping should be used with pesticides to decrease the population density of medfly during September and October in Hatay province of Turkey. Keywords — Medfly trimedlure traps satsuma mandarin Turkey. I. INTRODUCTION Satsuma mandarin Citrus unshiu Marc. Rutaceae: Sapindales is one of the main cultivated Citrus variety in Turkey. Satsuma mandarin production is consisting of approximately 23413.1 ha with a total produce of 795.050 tons of fruit per annum in Turkey and Hatay province’s share is 10466.1 ha and 402.601 tons 1. The Mediterranean fruit fly Medfly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann Diptera: Tephritidae is the most destructive pest among economically important fruit fly species 23. The medfly is a highly adaptive polyphagous tropical fruit fly attacking more than three hundred and fifty plant species 45. The female flies lay eggs below the skin of fruits which are destroyed by larval feeding 6. Protein bait sprays mixed with malathion or low toxicity insecticides spinosad lambda-cyhalothrin are successfully used to control medfly populations 78. Traps baited with trimedlure are important tools for detection monitoring and controlling of the medfly 2. The mass trapping has proved to be effective in suppression of the Medfly and advantage of reduced environmental impact when comparing with toxic bait sprays 910. In addition mass trapping has been developed in several countries using traps baited with trimedlure hydrolysed proteins or food-based attractants 111213 14 15 1617. This method has been conducted on different fruit trees like peach 18 cherimoya 19 citrus 142021 fig 22 persimmon and coffee 7 and apple23. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate mass trapping for the control of Medfly in Satsuma mandarin in Hatay province of Turkey. II. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in 2011-2102 at a satsuma mandarin orchard in Hatay province of Turkey. The study was carried out using the Eostrap® invaginada traps Sanidad Agricola Econex Santomera Murcia Spain baited with 95 Trimedlure formulated in a polymeric plug-type dispenser Sanidad Agricola Econex Santomera Murcia Spain and dichlorvos or 2.2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate DDVP tablet Sanidad Agricola Econex Santomera Murcia Spain. In the first year the study was conducted with 48 traps/0.7 ha and placed in the experimental site from 1 st August to December. In the second year the study was carried out with 23 traps/0.7 ha and placed in the same site from 14 th August to

slide 2:

International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 33 December. The traps were placed 1.5 m above ground and checked weekly trapped medfly adults were counted and removed from the traps. The trimedlure and DDVP tablet in traps were replaced with the new ones in every 90 days. The fruit damage assessment was measured by the percentage of medfly punctures during the harvest. For this purpose all fruits from satsuma mandarin orchard were harvested and checked for medfly punctures and the percentage of the infested fruits were measured as weight at the packaging house. III. RESULTS The population density of C. capitata varied in each of the sampling year. In the first year the mass trapping was conducted with 48 traps/0.7 ha in satsuma mandarin orchard and a total of 8968 medfly adults were caught by traps Figure 1. The first adults were caught by the traps on 8 August and the population density of this pest was gradually low from 8 August through 12 September while it increased from 19 September to 31 October. The largest mean of catches per trap were recorded on 31 October 64.21 followed by 24 October 31.29 17 October 22.48 7 November 20.64 3 October 17.60 and 10 October 16.71. In the second year the mass trapping was conducted with 23 traps/ha at the same orchard and a total of 1307 medfly adults were caught by traps Figure 2. The population density of medfly was very low comparing with previous year. The first adults were caught by the traps on 21 August and the population density of this pest was significantly high from 4 September to 25 September and 30 October through 13 November and yet it was significanly low on 2-23 October due to heavy rain in the sampling orchard. The largest mean of catches per traps were recorded on 25 September 7.35 followed by 13 November 5.83 6 November 5.52 18 September 5.43 and 30 October 4.26. The percentage of the total caught over this period varied for each of the sampling month in both years. The distribution of the total caught of this pest according to the months as percentages were 1.17 August 6.55 September 71.32 October and 10.14 November in 2011 Figure 3. These percentages were 3.67 August 32.13 September 16.37 October and 26.70 December in 2012 Figure 4. The percentages of damage rates of medfly observed in both years. The damage ratios of medfly were recorded at 10 91 percent in 2011 and 8 56 percent in 2012 Figure 5. IV. DISCUSSION The mass trapping has shown significantly effective pest management tool for the Medfly and developed in several countries using traps baited with trimedlure hydrolysed proteins or food-based attractants 2 7 9 12 13 14 15 16 17 24 25 26 27 28 29. The synthetic food-based attractants trimethylamine TMA ammonium acetate AA and putrescine P were the more appropriate for mass-trapping of the medfly 9 11 14 15 3031 32. A various number of traps were used with mass trapping to control medfly on different host plants. Martinez-Ferrer et al. 10 suggested that 25 trap per ha Maxitrap Model baited with Ferag. CC D TM® attractant can be a good stand-alone control method against the Medfly in citrus groves in Spain. In addition IAEA 2 suggested that 20-25 traps per ha density was required by using a mass trapping technique for medfly. Martinez-Ferrer et al. 10 reported that for the Clemenules variety a 25 traps per ha were enough to capture adults flying within the grove and attract the foraging medflies as low percentage of fruits were attacked. A number of researchers reported that if the population density of medfly increase the number of trap per ha will be increased. Therefore during September-October Medfly population is high a 50 trap per ha density has been widely accepted as appropriate for citrus orchards 9323334353637. Martinez-Ferrer et al. 10 reported that for the early-season varieties 50 traps per ha captured as many adults as did 75 and 100 traps per ha but not enough to diminish the adult medflies foraging in the grove under accepted levels. Several studies were conducted by many researchers to evaluate the population density of medfly on various host plants. The present results indicated that the population density of medfly was high in September and October in both year. Our results are similar to those of 103839 reported that the population density of medfly was significantly high in September and October due to high temperatures in citrus- producing area. The percentages damage ratios of medfly varied on different host plants. Martinez-Ferrer et al. 37 found that on early- season varieties Loretina and Marisol mass trapping at a density of 50 Maxitrap® Probodelt® traps/ha baited with Ferag CC D TM® SEDQ and chemical treatments with Malafin® malathion or SpintorCebo® spinosad of the entire groves or the perimeter can protect well the fruits from the Medfly attack as 2 were damaged in the harvest. However on the mid- season variety Clemenules the adult population decline and the number of traps could be lowered to only 25/ha and this tactic applied alone was efficient enough to obtain less than 0.5 of punctured fruits. Boulahia- Kheder et al. 40 reported

slide 3:

International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 34 that combination of 4 aerial spinosad sprays sanitation and female mass trapping with Moskisan® + Biolure® Unipack the damage on Navel oranges reached only 5 at harvest. However Boulahia-Kheder et al.41 reported that mass trapping as a single technique it wasn’t enough to protect the Navel oranges with more than 30 of damaged fruits at the harvest. V. CONCLUSION The present study was conducted by traps baited with trimedlure to evaluate of mass trapping for the control of Medfly in Satsuma mandarin in Hatay province of Turkey. As a result of two-year investigations the population density of this pest varied in each of the sampling year. In the first year 48 trap per 0.7 ha were used with mass trapping to control of the medfly. A significant number of medfly were caught by traps and yet the medfly caused significant damages on satsuma mandarin due to high population density in September and October. In the second year 23 trap per 0.7 ha were used with mass trapping to control of this pest. The population density of medfly was significantly low comparing with that of the previous year. However the mass trapping was not enough to control this pest because of high population density ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by University of Mustafa Kemal of Scientific Research Projects BAP project number: 1105 Y 0105 191. REFERENCES 1 Anonymous 2016. The summary of Agricultural Statistics 21.10.2017 version https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/bitkiselapp/bitkisel.zul. 2 International Atomic Energy Agency 2003. Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes. International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna Austria. 47 p. Retrived from : http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/TG-FFP_web.pdf 3 Thomas M.C. Heppner J.B. Woodruff R.E. Weems H.V. Steck G.J. Fasulo T.R. 2007. Mediterranean Fruit Fly. Ceratitis Capitata Wiedemann Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae. University of Florida Ifas Extension. http://edis.ifas.ufl. edu/pdffiles/IN/IN37100.pdf Accessed on 13 October 2017. 4 Weems H.V. Jr. 1981. Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann Diptera: Tephritidae. Entomology Circular Division of Plant Industry Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. 12 pp. 5 Liquido N.J. Shinoda L.A. and Cunningham R.T. 1991. Host plants of the Mediterranean fruit DipteraTephritidae an annotated world review Miscellaneous Publications 77. Entomol. Soc. Am. Lanham MD. 1863-1878. 6 Christenson L.D. and Foote R.H. 1960. Biology of fruit flies. Annual Review of Entomology. 5: 171-192. 7 McQuate G.T. Sylva C.D. and Jang E.B. 2005. Mediterranean fruit fly Diptera: Tephritidae suppression in persimmon through sprays in adjacent coffee plantings. Journal of Applied Entomology. 2: 110-117. 8 Urbaneja A. Chueca P. Monton H. Pascual-Ruiz S. Dembilio O. Vanaclocha P. Abad-Moyano R. Pina T. and Castanera P. 2009. Chemical alternatives to malathion for controlling Ceratitis capitata Diptera: Tephritidae and their side effects on natural enemies in Spanish citrus orchards. J. Econ. Entomol. 102: 144-151. 9 Navarro-Llopis V. Alfaro F. Domínguez J. Sanchis J. and Primo J. 2008. Evaluation of traps and lures for mass trapping of Mediterranean fruit fly in citrus groves. J. Econ. Entomol. 101:126-131. 10 Martinez-Ferrer M.T. Campos J.M. and Fibla J.M. 2010. Field efficacy of Ceratitis capitata Diptera: Tephritidae mass trapping technique on clementine groves in Spain. Journal of Applied Entomology. 136: 181-190. 11 Epsky N.D. Hendrichs J. Katsoyannos B.I. Vasquez L.A. Ros J.P. Zumreoglu A. Pereira R. Bakri A. Seewooruthun S.I. and Heath R.R. 1999. Field evaluation of female-targeted trapping systems for Ceratitis capitata Diptera: Tephritidae in seven countries. J. Econ. Entomol. 92: 156-164. 12 Katsoyannos B.I. Papadopoulos N.T. Heath R.R. Hendrichs J. and Kouloussis N.A. 1999. Evaluation of synthetic food-based attractants for female Mediterranean fruit flies Dipt. Tephritidae in McPhail type traps. J. Appl. Entomol. 123: 607-612. 13 Cohen H. and Yuval B. 2000. Perimeter trapping strategy to reduce Mediterranean fruit fly Diptera: Tephritidae damage on different host species in Israel. J. Econ. Entomol. 93: 721-725. 14 Miranda M.A. Alonso R. and Alemany A. 2001. Field evaluation of Medfly Diptera Tephritidae female attractants in a Mediterranean agrosystem Balearic Islands Spain. J. Appl. Entomol. 125: 333-339. 15 Heath R.R. Epsky N.D. Midgarden. D. and Katsoyannos B. 2004. Efficacy of 14-Diaminobutane Putrescine in a food based synthetic attractant for capture of mediterranean and mexican fruit fly Diptera: Tephritidae. J. Econ. Entomol. 97:1126-1131. 16 Ortu S. Lentini A. and Cocco A. 2005. Strategie di lotta per il contenimento di Ceratitis capitata Wied. in agrumicoltura. Informatore Fitopatologico. 55: 28-34. 17 Alemany A. Miranda M.A. Alonso R. and Escorza C.M. 2006. Changes in the spatial and temporal population density of the Mediterranean fruit fly Diptera: Tephritidae in a citrus orchard. Span. J. Agric. Res. 4:161. 18 Sastre C. 1999. Eficacia de los productos fitosanitarios en el control de la mosca de la fruta Ceratitis capitata Wied.. Phytoma España. 114: 75-77.

slide 4:

International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 35 19 Ros J. P. Escobar I. García Tapia F. J. and Aranda G. 2000: Pilot experiment to control Medfly Ceratitis capitata Wied. Diptera: Tephritidae using mass trapping technique in a Cherimoyer Annona cherimola Miller orchard. In: Area-wide control of fruit fly and other insect pests ed. K. H. Tan: 639-643. Penerbit University Sains Malaysia Penang. 20 Alonso Muñoz D. Soler J. M. García Marí F. and Blas Correas M. 1999. Frutect®: control de la mosca de la fruta Ceratitis capitata Wied. en el cultivo de los cítricos. Levante Agrícola. 347: 204-211. 21 Llorens J. M. Vinaches P. Marco F. and Llorens J. 2004: Control de Ceratitis capitata Wied. using mass trapping with Tephri traps and Biolure-3 component Lure Tripack in fig trees. 5º Meeting of the working group on fruit flies of the Western Hemisphere 16-21 May Florida. Abstract: 38. 22 Escudero A. Vilajeliu M. and Batllori L. 2005. Captura masiva para el control de a mosca mediterránea de la fruta Ceratitis capitata Wied. en manzano. Phytoma España. 171: 26-31. 23 Ortu S. and Prota R. 1988. Biotechnical control means adopted against Ceratitis capitata Wied. in clementine groves. IOBC/wprs Bull. 11:14-19. 24 Avery J.W. Chambers D.L. Cunningham R.T. and Leonhardt B.A. 1994. Use of ceralure and trimedlure in Mediterranean fruit fly Diptera: Tephritidae mass-trapping tests. J. Entomol. Sci. 29:543-556. 25 Sastre C Melo J.C. and Borreli G. 1999. La captura de hembras: una posible salida en el control de la mosca de la fruta Ceratitis capitata Wied. en melocotonero. Phytoma. 113: 42–46. 26 Ros J.P. Gomila J. Reurer M. Pons P. and Castillo E. 2002. The use of mass trapping against Medfly Ceratitis capitata Wied. in a sustainable agriculture system on Minorca Island Spain. Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on fruit flies of economic importance Stellenbosch South Africa 6-10 May 2002 pp. 361-364. 27 Garcia G. Wong E. Marquez A.L. Garcia S. Olivero J. and Garcia Mari F. 2003. Evaluation and comparison of mass-trapping methods for the control of Ceratitis capitata Wied. in citrus orchards. Bull. OILB SROP. 26:85. 28 Jemâa J.M.B. Bachrouch O. Allimi E. and Dhouibi M.H. 2010. Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack ® as alternative to malathion baitspraying in citrus orchards. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 8: 400–408. 29 Ros J.P. Castillo E. Crespo J. Latorre Y. Martin P. Miranda M.A. Moner P. and Sastre C. 1997. Evaluación en campo de varios atrayentes sintéticos para la captura de hembras de la mosca mediterránea de la fruta Ceratitis capitata Wied. Díptera: Tephritidae. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal Plagas. 23: 393-402. 30 Heath R.R. Epsky N.D. Dueben B.D. Rizzo J. and Jeronimo F. 1997. Adding methylsubstituted ammonia derivates to a food- based synthetic attractant on capture of the Mediterranean and Mexican fruit flies Diptera: Tephritidae. J. Econ. Entomol. 90: 1584- 1589. 31 Alemany A. Alonso D. and Miranda M.A. 2004. Evaluation of improved Mediterranean fruit fly attractants and retention systems in the Balearic Islands Spain. Pages 355-359. In Proceedings 6th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance 6-10 May 2004 Stellenbosch South Africa. 32 Primo E. 2004. Plan Valenciano de actuacio´n contra la mosca de la fruta Ceratitis capitata Wied. campanya 2004. Agricultura: Revista agropecuaria. 867: 790–793. 33 Ros J.P. Wong E. Olivero J. Rubio J.R. Ma´rquez A.L. Castillo E. and Blas P. 2005. Desarrollo de atrayentes y mosqueros para su integracio´n en los programas de trampeo masivo contra la mosca de la fruta ‘‘Ceratitis capitata’’ Wied. y la del olivo ‘‘Bactrocera oleae’’ Gmel. Bol. Sanid. Veg. Plagas. 31: 599–607. 34 Navarro-Llopis V. Sanchis-Cabanes J. Ayala I. Castana Giner V. and Primo-Yu´ fera E. 2004. Efficacy of lufenuron as chemosterilant against Ceratitis capitata in field trials. Pest Manag. Sci. 60: 914–920. 35 Leza M.M. Juan A. Capllonch M. and Alemany A. 2008. Female-biased mass trapping vs. bait application techniques against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Dipt.: Tephritidae. Journal of Applied Entomology 132: 753–761. 36 Martinez-Ferrer M.T. Campos J.M. and Fibla J.M. 2012. Field efficacy of Ceratitis capitata Diptera: Tephritidae mass trapping technique on clementine groves in Spain. Journal of Applied Entomology. 136:181-190. 37 Martınez-Ferrer M.T. Campos J.M. and Fibla J.M. 2006. Population dynamics of Ceratitis capitata on citrus in northeastern Spain: influence of adjacent host fruit trees. IOBC/WPRS Bull. 29: 77–84. 38 Martınez-Ferrer M.T. Alonso Mun˜ oz A. Campos Rivela J.M. Fibla Queralt J.M. and Garcia-Mar F. 2007. Dina´mica poblacional de la mosca de la fruta Ceratitis capitata en tres zonas citrı´colas mediterra´neas. Levante Agrı´cola Num. 385: 92–98. 39 Boulahia-Kheder S. Trabelsi I. and Aouadi N. 2012. From chemicals to IPM against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. In Larramendy M.L. and Soloneski S. eds. Integrated Pest Manage. Pest Control Curr. Future Tactics. Croatie: In Tech. 40 Boulahia-Kheder S. Jerraya A. Fezzani M. and Jrad F. 2010. First results in Tunisia on the mass-trapping an alternative way to control the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Diptera: Tephritidae. Annals INRAT. 82: 168-180.

authorStream Live Help