IJOEAR-DEC-2017-3

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

Physiological Selectivity of Agrochemicals to Predatory Mites of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Rosebushes Growing in Greenhouse

Comments

Presentation Transcript

slide 1:

International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 14 Physiological Selectivity of Agrochemicals to Predatory Mites of Tetranychus urticae Acari: Tetranychidae on Rosebushes Growing in Greenhouse Giselle Christiane Souza-Pimentel 1 Paulo Rebelles Reis 2 Patrícia de Pádua Marafeli 3 João Paulo Alves 4 13 D.Sc. Postgraduate Program Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras MG Brazil. 2 D.Sc. Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais - EPAMIG Sul/EcoCentro Lavras MG Brazil and CNPq 4 Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais - EPAMIG Sul/EcoCentro. FAPEMIG Fellowship biologist. Abstract — The growing of rose Rosa spp. in a greenhouse provides favorable conditions for both the plant and the pest mite Tetranychus urticae Koch Acari: Tetranychidae for which chemical control is still used. Consumers’ demand has encouraged researches to use less aggressive agricultural practices making the biological control as a viable option. The objective of the present study was to investigate the physiological selectivity of plant protection products used on rosebushes for the control of T. urticae and other pests or diseases to Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor Acari: Phytoseiidae both predatory mites of T. urticae on rosebush growing in a greenhouse. According to IOBC/WPRS the residual method of spraying on a glass and leaf surface area was used for the physiological selectivity test of plant protection products for the predatory mites. The obtained results shown that with the exception of the acaricides- insecticide chlorfenapyr all other tested products - fungicides acaricides and acaricides-insecticide - methiram + pyraclostrobin thiofanate-methyl boscalid + kresoxim-methyl chlorothalonil propargite mandipropamid mefenoxam difenoconazol bifenthrin and pyriproxifen were innocuous class 1 or only slightly harmful class 2 to both species. Chlorfenapyr was highly toxic only for N. californicus class 4 however after five days of its application no toxic residue of the product was detected on the glass surface and so the product has been classified as innocuous class 1 as well for this predatory mite species after this period. Keywords — Neoseiulus californicus Phytoseiulus macropilis Rosa spp. Protected crop Agricultural acarology. I. INTRODUCTION The flowers trade in Brazil is growing so that it has been recognized as an emergent business sector of high profitability. In 2014 the sector gains were of approximately R 5.7 billion US 1.42 billion based on the exchange rate as R4.00/dollar and an 8 growth is estimated for the year of 2015 1. The state of Minas Gerais stands out in this sector especially for the production of rosebushes Rosa spp. Rosaceae and of other conventional cutting flowers. Although there is not available up-to-date data of this activity in Minas Gerais the flower production in this state occurs especially in the municipalities of Barbacena Andradas Araxá and Munhoz 2. The rosebush from Asia has developed well in Brazil and is cultivated in various Brazilian regions. A large part of the production occurs in greenhouses. Although this environment offers better conditions for the control of pests and diseases it is also a more favorable environment to the occurrence of these two issues with a special highlight to the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch Acari: Tetranychidae a pest mite that is one of the main problems that affect rosebushes in a protected cultivation system 3. Pest control is one of the challenges found in the cultivation of flowers and others ornamental plants being any damage caused by insects and other arthropods inacceptable by consumers since it depreciates the final product the flower and the foliage that will be commercialized 4. The demand of producers and consumers for the use reduction of agrochemicals is very evident 5. However the spraying of plant protection products is still the main tactic used for the control of pests and diseases being carried out in a preventive

slide 2:

International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 15 way 6 that in many instances causes ecological disequilibrium and environmental contamination 7 especially as a function of the misapplication of these products. Consumers’ concern about human health and environmental preservation has encouraged researchers to investigate the use of less aggressive agricultural practices geared towards sustainability and agroecosystems 6. The biological control of pest mites has been used in fruit trees ornamental plants and other crops for the control of the two- spotted spider mite with the use of predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks Phytoseiidae among others. This biological control method reduces the amount of chemical defensives used in cultivations and holds other benefits such as a lesser exposure of the workers to chemicals and lower amounts of residues 8. In addition studies on the selectivity of plant protection products to predatory mites belonging to the Phytoseiidae family are of great importance since mites of this family have been more widely used for the biological pest control 9 10. In a program of integrated pest management - IPM the use of selective products is highly desirable under certain conditions as when the pest is at excessively high levels 11. Therefore the objective of the present study was to investigate the physiological selectivity of plant protection products used on rosebushes for the control of T. urticae and other pests or diseases on P. macropilis and N. californicus both predatory mites of the T. urticae on rosebush growing in greenhouse. II. MATERIAL AND METHODS The present study was conducted in the Acarology Laboratory of the Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais - EPAMIG-Sul / Centro de Pesquisa em Manejo Ecológico de Pragas e Doenças de Plantas - EcoCentro Lavras MG Brazil under controlled conditions at temperature of 25 ± 2ºC RH of 70 ± 10 and 14 hours of photophase. The predatory mites as well as the pest mite T. urticae were obtained from the Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia do Sul de Minas - Campus de Inconfidentes Minas Gerais Brazil. 2.1 Lab rearing of the two-spotted spider mite Uncapped Petri dishes 15 cm in diameter were used and 1 cm thick foam which was maintained moist with distilled water occupying the entire bottom surface of each Petri dish. A Jack-bean leaflet Canavalia ensiformis L. DC Fabaceae was placed on top of the foam and surrounded by strips of hydrophilic cotton that were also in contact with the damp foam in order to prevent the mites from escaping and to better conserve the leaflet. The pest mites T. urticae were put on top of the Jack-bean leaflets which were switched out weekly. 2.2 Lab rearing of predatory mites The predatory mite P. macropilis was reared in rectangular arenas of black flexible PVC plastic sheets 26 x 22 cm were used. These were put on Styrofoam TM of equal size and in turn these were placed in water on plastic trays 32 x 26.5 x 5.5 cm. Cotton was placed around the Styrofoam TM and the arena and it was in contact with the water from the tray. The cotton was used to prevent the mites from escaping in addition to preserving the Jack-bean leaflets. The leaflets were placed on the arenas with the petiole under the damp cotton and were infested by T. urticae which served as food for predatory mites as the leaflets withered other new and infested by T. urticae were placed on the old leaflets 12. The predatory mite N. californicus was reared in arenas of flexible PVC plastic 3 cm in diameter floating in distilled water in Petri dishes 15 cm in diameter 13 and the predatory mite were fed with pollen of castor bean plant Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae 14. 2.3 Physiological selectivity assays A survey on listed plant protection products used by producers for the control of pests and diseases on rosebushes in the region of Campos das Vertentes in the state of Minas Gerais Brazil was carried out for the physiological selectivity tests and 11 of these products were tested in this work Table 1.

slide 3:

International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 16 TABLE 1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS USED ON ROSEBUSHES AND TESTED ON NEOSEIULUS CALIFORNICUS AND PHYTOSEIULUS MACROPILIS UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS Active ingredient Commercial product Chemical group Dose per 100 liters of water Agronomic class Toxicological Classification 1 Methiram + Pyraclostrobin Cabrio Top ® Dithiocarbamate + strobilurins 200 g Fungicide III Thiofanate-Methyl Cercobin 700 WP ® Benzimidazole 70 g Fungicide I Boscalid + Kresoxim- methyl Collis ® Anilide + strobilurins 50 mL Fungicide III Chlorothalonil Daconil BR ® Isoftalonitrils 200 g Fungicide I Propargite Omite 720 EC ® Alkyl sulphite 30 mL Acaricide I Chlorfenapyr Pirate ® Pyrazole analog 50 mL Acaricide- insecticide III Mandipropamid Revus ® Mandelamide ether 60 mL Fungicide II Mefenoxam Metalaxyl-M + Mancozeb Ridomil Gold MZ ® Acilalaninate + dithiocarbamate 300 g Fungicide III Difenoconazol Score ® Triazole 80 mL Fungicide I Bifenthrin Talstar 100 EC ® Pyrethroid 30 ml Acaricide- insecticide III Pyriproxifen Tiger 100 EC ® Pyridyloxypropil Ether 75 mL Insecticide I 1 Toxicological classification used in Brazil: Class I - Extremely toxic Class II - Highly toxic Class III - Average toxicity Class IV - Low toxicity The experimental design used was the completely randomized with 12 treatments being 11 products and one control group sprayed with only distilled water seven repetitions for N. californicus and five repetitions for P. macropilis. The spraying of products was carried out in a laboratory Potter tower at pressure of 15 lb/pol 2 with an amount of 1.5 ± 0.5 mg/cm 2 of surface 15. The maximum dosages recommended by manufacturers to use in the control of pests and diseases on rosebushes were also used in the selectivity assays. 2.4 Physiological selectivity assays to Neoseiulus californicus The residual spraying method on glass surface was used for the predatory mite N. californicus recommended method as a standard under laboratory conditions to test adverse or side effects of plant protection products to predatory mites 16. Glass coverslips for microscopy of 20 x 20 mm floating in water on an uncapped Petri dish 5 cm in diameter x 2 cm in depth were used as a surface for the application of the products and as a support for the mites 15. Under these conditions the coverslip was relatively in the center of the dish not touching the edge and making it difficult for mites to scape. After the application of the products the coverslip were set aside for one hour to dry in room temperature. Then five female of N. californicus were transferred from the lab rearing with a fine-tipped brush to each of coverslip. Only predatory mite females were used in the assay because this is the stage responsible for the species perpetuation also because one of the objectives was to evaluate the effect of the products on the predatory mite reproduction. Castor bean pollen was offered as food to the survivor’s predatory mites 14. 2.5 Physiological selectivity assays to Phytoseiulus macropilis The residual method of spaying on leaf surface was used for the physiological selectivity tests to the predatory mite P. macropilis. This method is also recommended as standard to test adverse effects of pesticides to predatory mites under laboratory conditions 16. Arenas 3 cm in diameter were made up from Jack-bean leaflets and placed on Petri dishes 5 cm in

slide 4:

International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 17 diameter filled with agar-water at 3. The Petri dishes that contained the leaf discs were sprayed with the products and set aside for one hour to dry in room temperature. After that five female of P. macropilis were transferred from de lab rearing with the use of a fine-tipped brush to each arena. A mixture of all stages of the two-spotted spider mite was offered as food to the survivors. The Petri dishes were sealed with plastic wrap to impede two-spotted spider mites from escaping. This methodology was not used for N. californicus because since they are white mites in color it would be more difficult to find them and their eggs in the agar-water and on the Petri dish and also because T. urticae was offered as food to the survivor’s P. macropilis rather than pollen once the possible survivor’s pest mites need plant leaves to feed. 2.6 Selectivity assessment During six days after the application of plant protection products daily assessments were carried out for the verification of the residual effect of these products on predatory mites with the aid of a stereomicroscope. The number of predatory mite females alive of laid eggs and of hatched larvae were evaluated in order to obtain information on the number and eggs’ viability. The adverse or total effect E was calculated taking into account the corrected mortality in the treatment Mc as a function of the control group mortality 17. The reproduction effect Er was calculated based on IOBC/WPRS 16 being E 100 - 100 - Mc x Er. Daily during six days it was counted the number of alive female mites as well as the number of viable eggs larvae hatched and removed the dead females. The reproduction effect Er was obtained by dividing the female eggs production R in the treatment by the production of eggs in the control group Er R Treatment /R Control group . The average production of eggs for each female R was obtained by the relation: R number of viable eggs/number of alive females. The tests considered valid were the ones in which the mortality of the control group was at the most 20 16. Values of the total effects found for each tested product were grouped in classes of 1 through 4 according to the criteria established by IOBC/WPRS in order to categorize agrochemicals based on the adverse effect caused to beneficial organisms in laboratory tests 16 18 being: class 1 E 30 innocuous class 2 30 ≤ E ≤ 79 slightly harmful class 3 80 ≤ E ≤ 99 moderately harmful and class 4 E 99 harmful. A new experiment was carried out with the goal of evaluating the duration of the residual effect of products grouped in classes 3 and 4 moderately harmful and harmful which acted as harmful to predatory mites. For this new bioassay approximately 50 glass cover slips will be sprayed with the products all coverslips in the same day and experiments with 5 repetitions and 5 female of predatory mite each were set up daily. The coverslips were evaluated daily until no more female mortality was found. In the control group the coverslips were sprayed with distilled water. These coverslips when free of residue were evaluated during another six days so the product residual effect could be verified in the reproduction of females and only at that time a new classification was attributed to the product based on the IOBC/WPRS scale 16. III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 Physiological selectivity assays From all the tested products only the acaricide-insecticide chlorfernapyr Pirate ® was highly toxic class 4 and only for N. californicus Table 2. The other tested products were innocuous or slightly harmful for N. californicus Table 2 as well as for P. macropilis Table 3. In the present study since only the product chlorfenapyr Pirate ® was highly toxic to N. californicus Table 2 another experiment was carried out in order to determine the residual effect of this product until all females remained alive. Based on the results of the new experiment after five days of evaluation the product residue did not have any more effect on the mortality of N. californicus females Table 4 and after another six days of evaluation to verify the effect on the predatory mite reproduction and the calculation of the total effect the product that was initially categorized in class 4 Table 4 was changed to class 1 as innocuous Table 5.

slide 5:

International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 18 TABLE 2 EFFECT OF ACARICIDES INSECTICIDES AND FUNGICIDES USED ON ROSEBUSHES IN THE REGION OF CAMPO DAS VERTENTES IN THE STATE OF MINAS GERAIS ON ADULT FEMALES OF NEOSEIULUS CALIFORNICUS UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS AT TEMPERATURE OF 25 ± 2ºC UR 70 ± 10 AND 14 HOURS OF PHOTOPHASE Treatment Number of specimen evaluated Mortality Mc 1 Er 2 E 3 Class of toxicity 4 Control group 35 14.30 - - - - Bifenthrin 35 22.90 10.00 0.61 44.97 2 Boscalid + Kresoxim-methyl 35 25.70 13.30 1.23 0.00 1 Chlorfenapyr 35 100.00 100.00 - 100.00 4 Chlorothalonil 35 48.60 40.00 0.98 41.27 2 Difenoconazole 35 22.90 10.00 0.46 58.73 2 Metalaxyl-M + Mancozeb Mefenoxam 35 34.30 23.30 0.42 67.72 2 Mandipropamid 35 31.40 20.00 0.40 67.72 2 Methiram + Pyraclostrobin 35 20.00 6.70 0.61 42.86 2 Propargite 35 17.20 3.30 0.59 42.86 2 Pyriproxifen 35 14.30 0.00 0.34 66.14 2 Thiofanate-Methyl 35 5.40 0.00 0.17 79.00 2 ¹Corrected mortality 2 Reproduction effect 3 Total effect 4 Class of toxicity based on IOBC/WPRS: Class 1 E 30 innocuous or non-harmful Class 2 30 ≤ E ≤ 79 slightly harmful Class 3 80 ≤ E ≤ 99 moderately harmful and Class 4 E 99 harmful. TABLE 3 EFFECT OF ACARICIDES INSECTICIDES AND FUNGICIDES USED ON ROSEBUSHES IN THE REGION OF CAMPO DAS VERTENTES IN THE STATE OF MINAS GERAIS ON ADULT FEMALES OF PHYTOSEIULUS MACROPILIS UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS AT TEMPERATURE OF 25 ± 2ºC UR 70 ± 10 AND 14 HOURS OF PHOTOPHASE Treatment Number of specimen evaluated Mortality Mc 1 Er 2 E 3 Class of toxicity 4 Control group 25 4.00 - - - - Bifenthrin 25 40.00 37.50 0.72 54.88 2 Boscalid + Kresoxim-methyl 25 28.00 25.00 0.62 53.56 2 Chlorfenapyr 25 72.00 70.80 0.93 72.82 2 Chlorothalonil 25 28.00 25.00 0.98 26.65 1 Difenoconazole 25 68.00 66.70 1.29 56.99 2 Metalaxyl-M + Mancozeb Mefenoxam 25 32.00 29.20 1.04 26.65 1 Mandipropamid 25 16.00 12.50 0.57 50.13 2 Methiram + Pyraclostrobin 25 48.00 45.80 1.30 29.55 1 Propargite 25 72.00 70.80 1.59 53.56 2 Pyriproxifen 25 40.00 37.50 1.14 29.02 1 Thiofanate-Methyl 25 36.00 33.30 0.47 68.87 2 ¹Corrected mortality 2 Reproduction effect 3 Total effect 4 Class of toxicity based on IOBC/WPRS: Class 1 E 30 innocuous or non-harmful Class 2 30 ≤ E ≤ 79 slightly harmful Class 3 80 ≤ E ≤ 99 moderately harmful and Class 4 E 99 harmful

slide 6:

International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 19 TABLE 4 RESIDUAL EFFECT OF THE ACARICIDE - INSECTICIDE CHLORFENAPYR ON ADULT FEMALES OF NEOSEIULUS CALIFORNICUS AT 24 48 72 96 AND 120 HOURS AFTER THE APPLICATION OF THE PRODUCT AT TEMPERATURE OF 25 ± 2ºC UR 70 ± 10 AND 14 HOURS OF PHOTOPHASE Hours after the application N 1 Number of mites alive Percentage of mortality 24 25 0 100 48 25 0 100 72 25 0 100 96 25 11 44 120 25 25 0 1 N Number of specimens of N. californicus studied TABLE 5 EFFECT OF THE ACARICIDE - INSECTICIDE CHLORFENAPYR ON THE MORTALITY AND REPRODUCTION OF FEMALE ADULTS OF NEOSEIULUS CALIFORNICUS AFTER 120 HOURS OF THE APPLICATION OF THE PRODUCT AT TEMPERATURE OF 25 ± 2ºC UR 70 ± 10 AND 14 HOURS OF PHOTOPHASE Treatment Number of specimens evaluated Mortality Mc 1 Er 2 E 3 Class of toxicity 4 Control group 25 0 0 - - - Chlorfenapyr 25 0 0 151 0 1 ¹Corrected mortality 2 Reproduction effect 3 Total effect 4 Class of toxicity based on IOBC/WPRS: Class 1 E 30 innocuous or non-harmful Class 2 30 ≤ E ≤ 79 slightly harmful Class 3 80 ≤ E ≤ 99 moderately harmful and Class 4 E 99 harmful. The predatory mite N. californicus was highly tolerant to the acaricide-insecticide bifenthrin in CL50 equal or higher than the recommended concentration for the use in citrus Citrus spp. Rutaceae 19. Regarding the mortality of mites by the product it was observed in the present study that the CL50 value was also below 50 and bifenthrin was grouped in class 2 slightly harmful for both predatory mites therefore being considered selective Table 2 and Table 3. Other studies that took into account only adult females of N. californicus and P. macropilis alike in the present study have reported that the fungicide boscalid + kresoxim-methyl caused mortality lower than 20 for both mites being N. californicus less susceptive to the product 20. The same result was observed in the present study and although this product has been considered selective to both predatory mites the mortality and total effect of the product was lower for the N. californicus which was classified as innocuous class 1 to this species. The same product was classified as slightly harmful to the predatory mite P. macropilis class 2 Table 2 and Table 3. It has been reported that the fungicide chlorothalonil has caused lower mortality than 20 for N. californicus and P. macropilis therefore being selective 20. In the present study this fungicide was also considered selective to both predatory mites however P. macropilis suffered a lesser effect and this product was considered innocuous class 1 to this species. The effect of this fungicide was slightly greater for N. californicus and it was considered slightly harmful class 2 Table 2 and Table 3. The fungicide difenoconazole was slightly harmful class 2 to predatory mites N. californicus and P. macropilis and considered selective Tables 2 and Table 3. Although studies on the selectivity of this product to predatory mites have not been found in the literature the difenoconazole was considered innocuous to other group of natural enemies as adults of the Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogramma atopovirilia Outman Platner Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in apple tree crops 21 and to adult parasitoids of T. atopovirilia found in citrus 22. In the present study the fungicide metalaxyl-M + mancozeb was slightly harmful class 2 to N. californicus Table 2 and innocuous to P. macropilis class 1 Table 3 as well as to adults of the predator Orius insidiosus Say Hemiptera: Anthocoridae 23. The fungicide mandipropamid was slightly harmful class 2 to N. californicus and to P. macropilis Tables 2 and 3. Although reports on the selectivity of this fungicide to beneficial organisms have not been found in the literature this product is widely used for the control of mildew on rosebushes.

slide 7:

International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 20 In the present study the fungicide methiram + pyraclostrobin was slightly harmful class 2 to N. californicus Table 2 and innocuous class 1 to P. macropilis Table 3. Different results have been reported that N. californicus was less susceptive to this product than P. macropilis when taking into account only the female mortality 20. In the present study considering only the corrected mortality it was observed that N. californicus was also less affected Mc 6.7 than P. macropilis Mc 45.8. However regarding also the predatory mite reproduction effect or total effect it was observed that N. californicus was more affected Table 2 than P. macropilis Table 3 because of that there is a difference when the total effect is examined although this fungicide is considered equally selective to both predatory mites. The fungicide thiofanate-methyl in this work was classified as slightly harmful class 2 to both predatory mites Tables 2 and Table 3 therefore it can be considered selective to both although it has been also classified as innocuous to P. macropilis class 1 24. The acaricide propargite was classified as slightly harmful class 2 to both predatory mites in the present study Tables 2 and Table 3. These results are different than that found in other studies in which the propargite was highly toxic to N. californicus and P. macropilis 25 24 19 26. However in those studies only the mortality of the mites by the product was considered which could have led to the differences between the results of both works. When the total effect on P. macropilis was considered alike in the present study the propargite was also classified as slightly harmful class 2 27. Still describing the acaricide propargite this product was classified as innocuous class 1 to N. californicus and it was suggested that the resistance of the predatory mite to this active ingredient was probably selected in the strawberry cropping in which the mite was collected for these tests since this acaricide is frequently used in this type of cropping or due to a natural tolerance of the predatory mite 28. This fact could have also occurred in the present study in which propargite was considered slightly harmful to the predatory mite N. californicus. The insecticide pyriproxifen was considered selective to both predatory mites slightly harmful class 2 to N. californicus Table 2 and innocuous class 1 to P. macropilis Table 3. However when only the mortality by the product is observed N. californicus is more resistant than P. macropilis. In contrast although this product has not caused mortality in N. californicus it has reduced the oviposition by the female which made this insecticide be classified as slightly harmful class 2. For P. macropilis there was mortality of females due to the application of this product however the product did not cause decrease in the oviposition of females which was larger than the oviposition of the control group. Therefore the product becomes less harmful to the predatory mite because the females will leave their descendants Table 3. In the present study the acaricide-insecticide chlorfenapyr was the only tested product that caused mortality of 100 of the predatory mite N. californicus and therefore this product was considered harmful class 4 to this predatory mite Table 2. Chlorfenapyr was also considered harmful to N. californicus in other studies found in the literature 29 28 19 as well as to Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark Muma and Euseius alatus DeLeon Phytoseiidae in the tested doses of this product for its use in citrus 20. Different than that chlorfenapyr was considered slightly harmful to P. macropilis in the present study class 2 Table 3. Chlorfenapyr did not exhibit a toxic residue to N. californicus only after five days of its application Table 4. After this period the residue of this acaricide-insecticide in the leaves also stimulated the oviposition of females and an Er value above 1 was found Er 1.51 Table 5. The phenomenon of hormoligosis has probably occurred in which sub lethal dose of this product produce a direct stimulus in the reproduction 31 32. The results of the residual effect of up to seven days after the application of the chlorfenapyr to the mite N. californicus have also been reported in others studies 29 33. The high toxicity of chlorfenapyr to N. californicus on the strawberry plant could be associated to the fact that this product had not yet been used in the field where the study was carried out. Thus the mites probably had not yet suffered any pressure of selection to resistance at this product until that moment 29. Chlorfenapyr or Pirate ® is a product widely used by flower growers in the control of T. urticae and other pests. If the two- spotted spider mite infestation is very high the strategy of the integrated management of pest mite might be used by first apply the product to reduce mite infestation and only after five days can the predatory mite N. californicus be released to continue the control. IV. CONCLUSIONS The following products bifenthrin boscalid + kresoxim-methyl chlorotalonil difenoconazole metalaxyl-M + mancozeb mandipropamid methiram + pyraclostrobin propargite pyraclostrobin and thiofanate-methyl are selective to N. californicus

slide 8:

International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 21 and P. macropilis and could be used as a strategy in the integrated management of insects mites and diseases in rosebushes without affecting both predatory mite species. The acaricide-insecticide chlorfenapyr is non-toxic to the predatory mite P. macropilis and therefore might be used as a tactic to the integrated management of the two-spotted spider mite in rosebushes. However this product may not be used together the predatory mite N. californicus because this mite is sensitive to the product. The predatory mite N. californicus in integrated management program using the acaricides-insecticide chlorfenapyr should only be released after five days of this product application. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS To the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq for the financial support and scholarships granted and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais - FAPEMIG for the grant of scholarship REFERENCES 1 Ibraflor - Instituto Brasileiro de Floricultura. Available from: http://www.ibraflor.com/publicacoes/vw.phpcod246. Access in: 15 Jun 2015 2 Landgraf P.R.C. and Paiva P.D.D. 2009. Production of cut flowers in the state of Minas Gerais. Ciência e Agrotecnologia 33 1:120-126. 3 Barbosa J.G. Grossi J.A.S. Santos J.M. Pivetta K. and Finger F.L. 2007. Rosa Rosa spp.. p. 675-682. In: Paula Junior T.J. and Venzon M. Eds. 101 Culturas: manual de tecnologias agrícolas. EPAMIG Belo Horizonte. 800 p. 4 Carvalho L.M. Bueno V.H.P. Santa-Cecília L.V.C Silva R.A. and Reis P.R. 2009. Pragas na floricultura: identificação e controle. Informe Agropecuário 30 249: 36-46. 5 Severino C.A.M. 2007. Controle biológico de pragas e doenças em floricultura. Salvador Rede de Tecnologia da Bahia. 24p. Dossiê Técnico. 6 Carvalho L.M. Almeida K. Taques T.C. Soares C.S.A. Almeida E.F.A. and Reis S.N. 2012. Manejo de pragas em cultivo de roseira de sistema de produção integrada e sistema convencional. Bioscience Journal 28 6:938-944. 7 Torres F.Z.V. Carvalho G.A. Souza J.R. and Rocha L.C.D. 2007. Seletividade de inseticidas a Orius insidiosus. Bragantia 66 3:433-439. 8 Barbosa M.F.C. Demite. P.R. Moraes G.J. Poletti M. 2017. Controle biológico com ácaros predadores e seu papel no manejo integrado de pragas. Engenheiro Coelho Promip Holding S.A. 69p. Available from: www.promip.agr.br. Accessed in: 29 Nov 2017. 9 Pilkington L.J. Messelink G. Van Lenteren J.C. and Mottee K.L. 2010. “Protected biological control” - Biological pest management in the greenhouse industry. Biological Control 52:216-220. 10 McMurtry J.A. Sourassou N.F. and Demite P.R. 2015. The Phytoseiidae Acari: Mesostigmata as Biological Control Agents. p. 133-149. In: Carrillo D. Moraes G.J. and Peña J.E. Eds. Prospects for Biological Control of Plant Feeding Mites and Other Harmful Organisms. Switzerland Springer 328 p. 11 Silva F.R. Vasconcelos G.J.N. Gondim Júnior M.G.C. and Oliveira J.V. 2006. Toxicidade de acaricidas para ovos e fêmeas adultas de Euseius alatus DeLeon Acari: Phytoseiidae. Revista Caatinga 19 3: 294-303. 12 Souza-Pimentel G.C. Reis P.R. Silveira E.C. Marafeli P.P. Silva E.A. and Andrade H.B. 2014. Biological control of Tetranychus urticae Tetranychidae on rosebushes using Neoseiulus californicus Phytoseiidae and agrochemical selectivity. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 40 1:80-84. 13 Reis P.R. and Alves E.B. 1997. Criação do ácaro predador Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark Muma Acari: Phytoseiidae em laboratório. Neotropical Entomology formerly Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 26 3:565-568. 14 Marafeli P.P. Reis P.R. Silveira E.C. Souza-Pimentel G.C. and Toledo M.A. 2014. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus McGregor 1954 Acari: Phytoseiidae when laboratory fed with castor bean plant Ricinus communis L. pollen. Brazilian Journal of Biology 74 3: 691-697. 15 Reis P.R. Chiavegato L.G. and Alves E.B. 1998. Seletividade de agroquímicos ao ácaro predador Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark Muma Acari: Phytoseiidae. Neotropical Entomology formerly Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 27 2:265- 274. 16 Bakker F.M. Grove A. Blümel S. Calis J. and Oomen P. 1992. Side-effect test for Phytoseiidae and their rearing methods. IOBC /WPRS Bulletin 15 3:61-81. 17 Abbott W.S. 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology 18:265-267. 18 Hassan S.A. Bigler F. Bogenschütz H. Boller E. Brun J. Calis J.N.M. Coremans-Pelseneer J. Duso C. Grove A. Heimbch U. Helyer N. Hokkanen H. Lewis G.B. Mansour F. Moreth L. Polgar L. Samsøe - Petersen L. Sauphanor B. Stäubli A. Sterk G. Vainio A.: Van De Veire M. Viggiani G. and Vogt H. 1994. Results of the sixth joint pesticide testing programme of the IOBC /WPRS - Working Group “Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms”. Entomophaga 39 1:109-119. 19 Silva M.Z. Sato M.E. Oliveira C.A.L. and Rais D.S. 2011. Toxicidade diferencial de agrotóxicos utilizados em citros para Neoseiulus californicus Euseius concordis e Brevipalpus phoenicis. Bragantia 70 1:87-95.

slide 9:

International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 22 20 Poletti M. Collette L.P. and Omoto C. 2008. Compatibilidade de agrotóxicos com os ácaros predadores Neoseiulus californicus McGregor e Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks Acari: Phytoseiidae. BioAssay 3 3:1-14. 21 Manzoni C.G. Grützmacher A.D. Giolo F.P. Härter W.R. Castilhos R.V. and Paschoal M.D.F. 2007. Seletividade de agroquímicos utilizados na produção integrada de maçã aos parasitóides Trichogramma pretiosum Riley e Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman Platner Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. BioAssay 2 1:1-11. 22 Matos M.M. 2007. Seletividade a Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman Platner 1983 de agroquímicos utilizados na citricultura paulista para o controle do bicho-furão-dos-citros Gymmandrosoma aurantianun Lima 1927. 54p. Dissertação Mestrado em Entomologia - Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz - ESALQ-USP Piracicaba 2007. 23 Rocha L.C.D. Carvalho G.A. Moura A.P. and Torres F.Z.V. 2006. Toxicidade de produtos fitossanitários para adultos de Orius insidiosus Say Hemiptera: Anthocoridae. Bragantia 65 2:309-315. 24 Amin M.M. Mizell R.F. and Flowers R.W. 2009. Response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis Acari: Phytoseiidae to pesticides and kairomones of three spider mite species Acari: Tetranychidae and non-prey food. Florida Entomologist 92 4:554- 562. 25 Ruiz M.G. and Moraes G.J. 2008. Mortalidade do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus Acari: Phytoseiidae em testes de toxicidade residual de inseticidas e acaricidas usuais em pomáceas. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 30 4:919-924. 26 Veronez B. Sato M.E. and Nicastro R.L. 2012. Toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 47 4:511-518. 27 Costa R. Rocha L. C.D. Freitas J.A. Coura Júnior G.M. Santos O.M. and Couto E.O. 2012. Efeito de agrotóxicos usados na cultura do morangueiro sobre o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks em laboratório semicampo e campo no sul de Minas Gerais. Revista Agrogeoambiental 4 3:1-12. 28 Silva M.Z. and Oliveira C.A.L. 2006. Seletividade de alguns agrotóxicos em uso na citricultura ao ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus McGregor Acari: Phytoseiidae. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 28 2:205-208. 29 Sato M.E. Silva M. Gonçalves L.R. Souza Filho M.F. and Raga A. 2002. Toxicidade diferencial de agroquímicos a Neoseiulus californicus McGregor Acari: Phytoseiidae e Tetranychus urticae Koch Acari: Tetranychidae em morangueiro. Neotropical Entomology 31 3:449-456. 30 Reis P.R. and Sousa E.O. 2001. Seletividade de chlorfenapyr e fenbutatin-oxide sobre duas espécies de ácaros predadores Acari: Phytoseiidae em citros. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 23 3:584-588. 31 Reis P.R. and Teodoro A.V. 2000. Efeito de oxicloreto de cobre sobre a reprodução do ácaro-vermelho-do-cafeeiro Oligonychus ilicis McGregor 1917. Ciência e Agrotecnologia 24 2:347-352. 32 Reis P.R. and Zacarias M.S. 2007. Ácaros em cafeeiro. Belo Horizonte: EPAMIG 76p. Boletim Técnico 81. 33 Silva M.Z. and Oliveira C.A.L. 2007. Toxicidade residual de alguns agrotóxicos recomendados na citricultura sobre Neoseiulus californicus McGregor Acari: Phytoseiidae. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 29 1:85-90.

authorStream Live Help