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Ecological and Agricultural monitoring of Sebou river waters at Kariat Bamohamed (Taounate-Morocco


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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 7 Ecological and Agricultural monitoring of Sebou river waters at Kariat Bamohamed Taounate-Morocco ELHAMMOUMI Tarik 1 Saad ABOUBAKER 2 Ayoub ELATMANI 3 Mohamed SIBARI 4 Mostafa Lakhlifi 5 Driss BELGHYTI 6 Khadija EL KHARRIM 7 1-7 Lab. Biotechnology Environment Faculty of Sciences University Ibn Tofail 14000 Kenitra Morocco. 3 Studies Technical Office Rabat Morocco. 4 ONEP Regional Office of Water and Electricity Kenitra Morocco Abstract — Kariat Bamohamed is an agricultural region located to the west of the city of Taounate and north of the city of Fez. The surface waters in the region are mainly composed by the Sebou river and many natural springs. The study concerns the analysis of hydrochemical parameters T° pH CE MES O 2 BOD 5 COD Cl- PO 4 3 NH 4 + and NO 3 - along the middle Sebou river region of Kariat Bamohamed in order to establish a diagnosis of the state of pollution of the surface waters of this part of the river. Water sampling was carried out at four study stations during flood period and during low water period. In the light of the results obtained on the surface waters of the Sebou river it is concluded to a degradation of water quality in both the winter and summer periods. In particular an increase in the values of ammonium COD and BOD 5 in addition to an acidic pH due to margine discharges and leaching of fertilizers and other discharges of wastewaters from the cities of Fez and Kariat Bamohamed. Keywords — Sebou River Waters Hydrochemistry Irrigation Kariat Bamohamed Morocco. I. INTRODUCTION In Morocco superficial flows are dependent on rainfall and exhibit high spatial variability 1-2. In general the water resources available to Morocco are limited and subject to extreme cyclical variations 3. Similarly the qualitative situation of the waters is far from satisfactory 4. Indeed population growth accompanied by rapid urbanization that causes many disturbances to natural environments 5. Industrialization the irrational use of fertilizers and pesticides and the lack of awareness of the population towards the protection of the environment lead as much to an imbalance of the ecosystem and generate polluting elements that can affect the physico-chemical quality biological and aquatic receiving environments 6 but also alter the uses of water water collection swimming ... etc 7. The sub-basin of Sebou river drains the Kariat Bamohamed region and is particularly affected by the problem of continuous development of the agricultural sector 8. Indeed discharges of wastewaters pesticides and fertilizers drained by rainwater and irrigation in addition to domestic discharges generated by the small town of Kariat Bamohamed and the city of Fez are dumped directly into the Sebou river 9. The present research on the Bamohamed region is aimed at the prospection of the hydrochemistry of the waters of the Sebou river. The study will be based on a monitoring of the indicators of the physicochemical pollution of the water and the determination of the seasonal fluctuations of these parameters between the period of low water and the period of flood. II. MATERIAL AND METHOD 2.1 Study area Kariat Bamohamed is a region of Taounate province of high agricultural intensity. It is located at 34° 22 08 " North and 5° 12 35" West. 58 km northwest of the city of Fes and 90 km west of the city of Taounate Fig. 1. Its population is estimated at about 20000 inhabitants. The area includes the town of Kariat Bamohamed surrounded by several rural communes Bni Snous Sidi El Abed Sidi Daoud Sebt Loudaya Mkansa. 2.2 Study method 2.2.1 Sampling Four stations S1 to S4 distributed along the Sebou wadi Fig. 1 have been retained in such a way that they are accessible and reflect the real characteristics of the surface waters of Sebou river at the level of the Kariat Bamohamed study.

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 8 FIGURE 1: LOCATION OF SAMPLING STATIONS S1 S2 S3 AND S4 AT THE SEBOU RIVER OF KARIAT BAMOHAMED 2.2.2 Sampling and analysis Along the Sebou river and throughout the study area Fig.2 water samples were taken during wet periods December January and February and in dry periods June July and August. The wet period has an intense rain and a violent flood. At each sampling the samples were kept in plastic bottles previously rinsed with water from the station. The bottles were then transported to the laboratory at 4 ° C. The temperature is measured "in-situ" using a mercury thermometer graduated 1/10 from 0 to 50 ° C. The hydrogen potential pH the EC electrical conductivity the dissolved oxygen O2 are determined using a CONSORT-Model 835 multi- parameter analyzer an oxymeter and a pH meter. The suspended solids MES are determined by filtration of a volume of water on a 0.45 μm cellulose filter according to Rodier 10. The BOD5 is determined by the respiratory method using a BOD-meter brand WTW model 1020T according to the technique described by DIN 11. The COD is determined by acid oxidation by the excess of potassium dichromate at the temperature of 148 ° C of the oxidizable materials under the conditions of the test in the presence of silver sulphate as catalyst and mercury sulphate according to DIN 12. The chlorides are determined by a volumetric acid determination HNO3 by a solution of mercuric nitrate in the presence of a pH indicator. Nitrates ammonium and orthophosphates are analyzed by colorimetric methods using a Visible Type 722 S Beijing UV spectrophotometer.

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 9 FIGURE 2: SAMPLING WATERS AT KARIAT BAMOHAMED SEBOU RIVER AREA III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 Water temperature In the study area recorded temperatures Tab.1 oscillate between 9 °C station S1 and 12 ° C stations S3 and S4 during wet periods and between 25 ° C S4 and 27.68 ° C S4 in dry period. These variations follow the temperature of the climate of the region. With measured water temperatures of 9 to 27.6 ° C the Sebou river belong to the middle class to excellent according to Moroccan standards 6 13. 3.2 pH The pH is a measure of the acidity of the water that is to say the concentration of hydrogen ions H +. The pH scale extends in practice from 0 very acidic to 14 very alkaline the median value 7 corresponds to a neutral solution at 25 ° C. The observed values Tab.1 reveal that the pH is acidic in the rainy period and neutral to slightly alkaline in the dry period. The pH varies between 5.8 S1 and 6.8 S3 in winter and between 7.1 S2 and 7.8 S4 in summer. This is probably due to the discharge of vegetable water in December and January from several oil mills between Fez and Kariat Bamohamed. 3.3 Suspended materials For both flood and low water seasons recorded values range from 128 mg / L to 3200 mg / L. The spatio-temporal evolution of suspended solids content MES Tab.1 in Sebou river shows two distinct periods:  A winter period where heavy loads recorded in all stations between 3200 mg / L S1 in December 2014 and 2450 mg / L S3 in February 2015. These high levels may be the result of a sudden hydrological event flood whose load in alluviants can be attributed to an intense erosion of the watershed following stormy rains accentuated by discharges of water-gardens

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 10  A summer period where concentrations drop in all stations from 128 mg / L S1 in August 2015 to 165 mg/L S3 in June 2015. The comparison of the contents of suspended solids in the Sebou medium with the Moroccan standard set at 1000 mg / L places these waters in the medium to very poor grid 13. 3.4 Electrical conductivity The measurement of the conductivity is a good appreciation of the degree of mineralization of water where each ion acts by its concentration and its specific conductivity. The average recorded values of conductivity Tab.1 show that they fluctuate between 240 μS / cm and 320 μS / cm during flood water periods. These low levels are due to dillution by the rains. In the dry period the intensities of the electrical conductivity increase and vary between 2730 μS / cm and 3340 μS / cm exceeding the Moroccan standard for surface water 2700 μS / cm 13. This indicates excessive mineralization attributed mainly to wastewater from the city of Fez. TABLE 1 STATISTICAL DATAS ON HYDROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SEBOU RIVER AT KARIAT BAMOHAMED MOROCCO Stations déc-14 janv-15 févr-15 juin-15 juil-15 Aout-2015 T°C S1 9.14 9.12 11 25 26.24 27.44 S2 10 9.67 10.68 25.34 26.42 28 S3 10.42 9 10.14 26 27.12 27.68 S4 11.12 10 12 26.22 27.14 27 pH S1 5.8 6.2 6.7 7.1 7.6 7.4 S2 6.1 6.3 6.8 7.1 7.7 7.4 S3 5.9 6.3 6.6 7.3 7.8 7.6 S4 6.2 6.4 6.7 7.2 7.5 7.7 O 2 mg/L S1 2.12 2.86 4.22 3.22 3.66 2.18 S2 2.08 3.1 4.48 3.44 2.88 2.34 S3 3.24 2.64 4.84 2.98 3.22 2.48 S4 2.84 2.42 4.78 4.18 2.22 2.1 CE µS/cm S1 320 280 240 2830 3120 3320 S2 290 284 250 2780 2950 3340 S3 310 300 264 2980 3240 3325 S4 295 265 268 2870 3180 3125 Cl- mg/L S1 840 770 760 884 986 1420 S2 1220 842 784 820 1120 1530 S3 1620 920 820 790 1220 1600 S4 980 910 910 834 1240 1130 MES mg/L S1 3200 2860 2460 156 148 128 S2 3140 2670 2480 162 152 130 S3 2760 2630 2450 165 146 132 S4 3050 2480 2520 157 140 129 DBO5 S1 8 6 5 14 18 22 S2 10 8 5.8 16.2 19 21.8 S3 9 9 6.2 16.4 20.4 20.6 S4 8 10 6.4 16.8 20 21.9 DCO S1 12 10 8 22 40 36 S2 14 17 9.5 34 38 32 S3 16 16 9 36 28 30 S4 12 15 11 24 32 29 PO 4 3- mg/L S1 0.58 0.53 0.56 0.82 0.86 0.92 S2 0.6 0.72 0.53 0.84 0.88 0.89 S3 0.62 0.76 0.58 0.86 0.84 0.91 S4 0.7 0.68 0.61 0.9 0.85 0.9 NH 4 + mg/L S1 2.66 2.7 2.44 2.54 2.77 2.76 S2 2.68 2.76 2.48 2.58 2.78 2.8 S3 2.7 2.78 2.56 2.62 2.76 2.78 S4 2.78 2.82 2.52 2.57 2.79 2.81 NO 3 - mg/L S1 14.24 15 14 2.12 1.45 1.8 S2 16.62 16.2 16.22 2.14 1.66 1.66 S3 19.45 20.18 17.1 2.21 1.88 1.76 S4 18.34 20.42 17.8 2.28 1.84 2

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 11 3.5 Chlorides Chloride ion concentrations in the waters of Sebou river at Kariat Bamohamed Tab.1 ranged from 760 mg / L S1 to 1620 mg / L S3 during flood periods and between 720 mg / L S1 and 1600 mg / L S3 in the low water period. This evolution indicates the influence of an anthropic contribution which can be of urban or industrial origin. For both periods of study chlorides record levels that exceed the Moroccan standards set at 750 mg / L 13. This makes it possible to classify these waters in the bad grid of the surface waters. 3.6 Dissolved oxygen Oxygen is an excellent indicator of water quality. This is one of the most sensitive parameters to pollution. Seasonal evolution of dissolved oxygen shows low concentrations in fact the recorded levels Tab.1 vary between 2.08 mg / L and 4.84 mg / L and between 2.1 mg / L and 4.18 mg / L respectively during the flood period and during the dry period. The low levels recorded during the rainy season are mainly due to the rejections of the vegetable waters and also to the self- cleaning capacity which is inhibited. However during the summer season the warming of the water and the low flow of the river cause a decrease in the dissolution of dissolved oxygen aggravated by an increase in oxygen consumption by living organisms in the water. River and a drop in wind speed in addition to the organic load of urban discharges from the city of Fes and the town of Kariat Bamohamed. Our results show that the waters of the Sebou river at the level of the study area are of bad quality to very bad quality 13. 3.7 Biochemical oxygen demand BOD 5 or biochemical oxygen demand is the amount of dissolved oxygen consumed by microorganisms in the dark and at 20 °C for 5 days to degrade organic matter. It allows the evaluation of the biodegradable organic matter overload. BOD 5 values range from 5 mg / L to 10 mg / L in winter and from 14 mg / L to 22 mg / L in dry periods Tab.1. The increase in BOD 5 levels in the dry period can be explained by the introduction of conditions of degradation of organic matter by microorganisms whose activity intensifies with the decrease of the flow rate and with the warming of water. This activity which consumes oxygen is at the origin of self-purification of water 13. On the contrary during wet periods rainwater contributes to the dilution of the organic load emanating from urban wastewater. 3.8 Chemical oxygen demand The chemical oxygen demand COD represents the amount of oxygen consumed by the chemical oxidation of the materials contained in the water. It represents most of the organic compounds but also oxidizable mineral salts sulfides chlorides etc.. The levels of COD recorded in the water studied range from 8 mg / L to 17 mg / L during the flood period and from 22 mg / L to 40 mg / L during the dry period Tab.1. The grid of Moroccan standards makes it possible to classify these waters as of average quality 13. 3.9 Orthophosphate Orthophosphates follow relatively marked spatial variation with a tendency to increase in the dry period. The recorded values Tab.1 range from 0.53 mg / L to 0.76 mg / L in the flood period and from 0.82 mg / L to 0.92 mg / L. This availability of orthophosphates can be explained by urban discharges from neighboring agglomerations and the release of phosphorus trapped in large quantities in sediments. The atmospheric agents wind and rain also represent sources of phosphates especially when the river flow is weak 14. The recorded concentrations remain below the Moroccan standard of 1 mg / L. These values then make it possible to classify these waters in the middle class with poor quality 13. 3.10 Ammonium Ammonium is the product of the final reduction of nitrogenous organic substances and inorganic matter in water and soil. It also comes from the excretion of living organisms and the reduction and biodegradation of waste without neglecting domestic industrial and agricultural inputs.

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 12 This element exists in a small proportion less than 0.1 mg / L of ammoniacal nitrogen in natural waters. In the surface waters it comes from nitrogenous organic matter and gaseous exchanges between water and the atmosphere 15. It is therefore a good indicator of the pollution of watercourses by urban effluents. Usually the ammonium values found during the flood period are clearly much lower than those of the dry period especially downstream of the study area thus reflecting the effect of the dilution and testifying to a good oxygenation of the waters. This causing oxidation of nitrogen in winter. But the analysis of the ammonium profile of the waters studied Tab.1 shows that there is not a big difference between the two seasons: the contents vary between 2.44 mg/L and 2.82 mg / L in the flood period and between 2.54 mg / L and 2.81 mg / L in the dry period. This is certainly due to the rejections of the wastewater from oil mills margine during the month of December. The values recorded in ammonium in the waters of Sebou river at the level of the Kariat Bamohamed area make it possible to place them in the bad class 13. 3.11. Nitrates Nitrate NO 3 - is the highest form of nitrogen in water. Their concentrations in natural waters are between 1 and 10 mg / L. However their levels in untreated wastewater are low 15.The nitrate levels recorded Tab.1 range from 12.5 mg / L to 20.18 mg / L and 1.45 to 2.28 mg / L respectively in flood and low water periods. The high levels of nitrates recorded in December 2014 may be due to the leaching of fertilizers used in agricultural soils located on the banks of Sebou river. IV. CONCLUSION In the light of cumulative results after monitoring the physicochemical parameters of the surface waters of the Sebou river in the Kariat Bamohamed Midle Sebou region it was concluded that the quality of the water deteriorated both during the winter and the summer period 16-19. Indeed during the winter period an increase in the values of ammonium COD BOD 5 and an acidic pH was noted. Discards of vegetable waters and leaching of fertilizers are held responsible in addition to the usual factors such as discharges of raw sewage from the cities of Fes and Kariat Bamohamed. During the summer season the low flow of the river the increase of the water temperature and the activity of the microorganisms explain the fact that the recorded values of the BOD 5 and the COD are more important than that recorded in winter. In addition high values of electrical conductivity indicate excessive mineralization that exceeds the drinking norms 20. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors acknowledge the Regional Office of Drinking Water Mkansa-Fez who allowed this physico-chemical monitoring. REFERENCES 1 MATUHE. Rapport sur l’Etat de l’Environnement du Maroc REEM Ministère de l’Aménagement du Territoire de l’Eau et de l’Environnement Département de l’Environnement Observatoire National de l’Environnement du Maroc ONEM Octobre Ed. 2 296p. 2001. 2 L Benaabidat. Caractérisation du bassin versant de Sebou hydrologie qualité des eaux et géochimie de sources thermals. Thèse en hydrologie à FST- Saïs 250p. 2000. 3 DRPE Direction de la Recherche et de la Planification de l’Eau. Rapport National sur les ressources en eau au Maroc. 2004. 4 DGH. Direction Générale de l’Hydraulique. Rapport sur Processus d’action et de renforcement des capacités l’eau et l’environnement. 1996. 5 A Agoumi A Debbarh. Ressources en eau et bassin versants du Maroc: 50 ans de développement 1955-2005. 2006. 6 D Belghyti H Daifi A Alemad K Elkharrim M Elmarkhi Y Souidi F Benelharkati B Joti Z Elmoukrifi A Ibeda Y Azami-Idrissi S Baroud F Elkhayyat O Elrhaouat S Sadeq Y Taboz H Sbai R Naser H Chigger N Derwich. Groundwater management for sustainable production of drinking water quality in Maamora 2nd International Conference on Water and Society 4 - 6 September 2013 New Forest UK 2013 Vol 178 pp.242 -254 doi:10.2495 / WS130201 2013. 7 O.N.E.P. Alimentation en eau potable Menaces de pollution. Rapport1999. 8 ORMVAG: Office Régional de Mise en Valeur Agricole Gharb Maroc. Etude pédologique au1/20000 de la Troisième Tranche d’Irrigation TTI sur une superficie de 100000 ha Zone M’nasra Z1-Z2 Kénitra Maroc Rapport inédit 180p. 1994. 9 E Derwich Z Beziane L Benaabidate D Belghyti. Evaluation de la qualité des eaux de surface des oueds fès et sebou utilisées en agriculture maraîchère au Maroc. Larhyss Journal n° 07 2008 59-77.

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International Journal of Environmental Agriculture Research IJOEAR ISSN:2454-1850 Vol-3 Issue-12 December- 2017 Page | 13 10 J. Rodier. Lanalyse de leau eaux naturelles eau résiduaires eau de mer 7e edition Dénod 1383p. Paris 1996. 11 DIN 1992a. Détermination de la Demande Biologique en Oxygène DBO selon DIN Laboratoire National de lEnvironnement Rabat. 1992. 12 DIN 1992b. Détermination de la Demande Chimique en Oxygène DCO selon DIN 38409-H52. Laboratoire National de lEnvironnement - Rabat. 1992. 13 CNS. Comité Normes et Standards. Ministère de l’Environnement du Maroc. Rabat 1994. 14 CSE. Conseil Supérieur de l’Eau. Aménagement optimal des eaux de l’oued Ouergha: Réalisation du barrage Mjara. Rabat Maroc. 1988. 15 A Krira B Chakour H Fouta. Intensification de l’agriculture et son impact sur l’environnement. Cas des nitrates dans la nappe phréatique de M’nasra du Ghab Actes 1er Colloq Sur le Développement agric Rech Agron Au niveau de la région du Ghab. 2001. 16 M Fekhaoui. Recherches hydrobiologiques sur le moyen de Sebou soumis aux rejets de la ville de Fès suivi d’une Macro-pollution et élévation de son incidence sur les composantes physiques chimiques et biologiques de l’écosystème. Thèse d’état Univ Med V Rabat Maroc 152p.1990. 17 T El Hammoumi D Belghyti. Caractérisation physicochimique des eaux potables produites par la station de traitement de Mkansa Maroc. Scienceslib. 2012. 18 O.N.E.P. Contrôle de la pollution des eaux destinées à l’alimentation en eau potable. Rapport 1998. 19 O.N.E.P. Alimentation en eau potable Menaces de pollution. Rapport 1999. 20 WHO eds World Health Organization. Guideline for Drinking Water Quality Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information. 2 nd Edition Vol.2 Geneva pp.940-949 2004.

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