Reticulate acropigmentation of kKitamura with mental retardation - A r

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Rajwinder S et al / Int. J. of Allied Med. Sci. and Clin. Research Vol-43 2016 407-411 407 IJAMSCR |Volume 4 | Issue 3 | July - Sep - 2016 www.ijamscr.com Case report Medical research Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura with mental retardation - A rare case report. Rajwinder Singh 1 Ashish Dalal 2 Mayank Kaushik 3 Jaswinder Kaur 4 . 1 M.D Assistant Professor Dept. of DVL MMMCH Kumarhatti Solan H.P. India. 2 M.D Senior resident Department of DVL Saheed Hasan Khan Mewati GMC Nuh Haryana India. 3 M.D Senior Resident Dept. of Dermatology Venereology and Leprology ESI hospital Delhi India. 4 M.D Assistant professor Dept. of Physiology M.M. Medical College Hospital Kumarhatti Solan H.P. India. Corresponding author: Rajwinder Singh Email id: ashishskincaregmail.com ABSTRACT Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura RAPK is a rare pigmentary disorder characterized by a network of freckle-like areas of pigmentation. Although RAPK was first considered to be confined to Japan worldwide case reports have since appeared. We hereby report this case due to its rarity in Indian population and associated mental retardation. Keywords: Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura RAPK Rare pigmentary disorder. INTRODUCTION Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura RAPK is a rare pigmentary disorder first described by Kitamura and Akamatsu in Japan in 1943 1. Although RAPK was first considered to be confined to Japan worldwide case reports have since appeared. It is characterized by a network of freckle-like areas of pigmentation which develop on the dorsa of the hands in the first two decades which may subsequently involve most parts of the body. We hereby report this case due to its rarity in North India and associated mental retardation. CASE SUMMARY A 35 year old female presented with 10 years history of appearance of slightly depressed hyperpigmented macules in a reticulate pattern on the upper limbs neck region and face. There were no symptoms associated with these lesions. Lesions initially appeared on dorsa of both hands and gradually involved both forearms and later on neck region and face. Patient gave history of darkening of lesions on exposure to sunlight. There was no history of any cutaneous or systemic symptoms. There was no family history of similar lesions. There was history of patient having low intelligence quotient IQ. On examination multiple slightly atrophic sharply demarcated hyperpigmented macules were present on bilateral dorsa of hands Fig 1 bilateral foreams Fig 2 on all sides of neck and upper chest region Fig 3. Hypopigmented lesions were not observed. Axillary and inguinal region didn’t ISSN:2347-6567 International Journal of Allied Medical Sciences and Clinical Research IJAMSCR

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Rajwinder S et al / Int. J. of Allied Med. Sci. and Clin. Research Vol-43 2016 407-411 408 show any lesions. Rest of the body was also clear of any lesions. On examination of palms and soles pitting and breaking of dermatoglyphics was observed Fig 4. Nails and hair didn’t show any abnormality. Patient was sent for psychiatric evaluation of her IQ which came out to be 45 and thus patient was labelled as having moderate mental retardation A punch biopsy was taken from hyperpigmented macules and sent for histopathological examination which revealed features of slight epidermal atrophy and increased melanin in basal cell layer Fig 5. Thus a diagnosis of acropigmentation of kitamura with moderate mental retardation was made and patient’s relatives were counselled about the disease and reassured. DISSCUSSION Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura is classically described as a reticulate pattern of ephilide like depressed macules on the extensor surfaces of the hands and feet with palmar pitting and interruption of epidermal ridge pattern. Some reports have been consistent with an autosomal dominant familial transmission 2-4 but most cases are sporadic. The lesions usually start in the first and second decades of life and gradually extend onto the extremities and rarely on the face and eyelids. The lesions usually slowly darken over time. Sunlight may aggravate the condition. Histopathologic examination of the lesions demonstrates epidermal atrophy elongation and melanization of the rete ridges and an increased proportion of dopa-positive basal melanocytes. The differential diagnosis of RAPK includes several conditions that involve pigmentary changes presenting with reticulate or mottled hyperpigmentation like acropigmentation of Dohi RAD Dowling-Degos Disease DDD dyskeratosis congenita dyschromatosis universalis herediteria Franceschetti-Jadassohns syndrome and dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis. Acropigmentation of Dohi also exhibits acral reticulate pigmentation 5 however absence of concomitant hypopigmented and hyperpigmented macules in our case excluded this diagnosis. DDD is also an autosomal dominant pigmented skin disorder characterized by reticular hyperpigmentation on flexor areas such as the neck axilla antecubital fossa submammary area and groin. Rarely hypopigmented macules or papules are observed. Histologically there are pigmented filiform epidermal projections involving the follicular infundibulum as well as the epidermis 6 7. However in our case axillae groins and other flexural areas excluding neck were not involved. Other pigmentary disorders such as dyschromatosis universal is hereditaria incontinentia pigmenti familial progressive hyperpigmentation and incontinentia pigmenti acromians of Ito are not only generalized in distribution but have a whorled or streaked pattern of pigmentary change 8. There are very few case reports of RAPK being associated with other abnornalities in body. Bony anomalies in the form of absence of terminal phalanges of the 2nd 3rd and 4th toes have been reported but it’s not clear whether it as coincidental or linked 9. The association of mental retardation with RAPK as in our case has not been reported earlier to the best of our knowledge. It could not be elucidated whether this association is linked or coincidental. Unfortunately there are no effective treatment options for these conditions. So reassuring the patient is the best modality that can be offered the same was done in our case. This case is thus important due to its rarity in Indian population and association with mental retardation.

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Rajwinder S et al / Int. J. of Allied Med. Sci. and Clin. Research Vol-43 2016 407-411 409 Fig.1 Multiple slightly atrophic sharply demarcated hyperpigmented macules present on bilateral dorsa of hands Fig.2 Multiple slightly atrophic sharply demarcated hyperpigmented macules present on foreams

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Rajwinder S et al / Int. J. of Allied Med. Sci. and Clin. Research Vol-43 2016 407-411 410 Fig.3 Multiple slightly atrophic sharply demarcated hyper pigmented macules present on all sides of neck and upper chest region Fig.4 Pitting and breaking of dermatoglyphics was observed on palms

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Rajwinder S et al / Int. J. of Allied Med. Sci. and Clin. Research Vol-43 2016 407-411 411 Fig.5 Histopathological examination revealed features of slight epidermal atrophy and increased melanin in basal cell layer. REFERENCES 1. Kitamura VK Akamatsu S Hirakawa K. Einebesondere form der akropigmentation: acropigmentatioreticularis. Hautarzt 1953 152-6. PMID:1306877 2. Kanwar AJ Kaur S Rajagopalan M. Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura. Int J Dermatol 29 1990 217-9. PMID:2335418 3. Bajaj AK Gupta SC. Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura. Dermatologica 168 1984 247-9. PMID:6724082 4. Sharma R Sharma SC Radotra BD etal. Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura. ClinExpDermatol 14 1989 302-3. PMID:2591095 5. Dhar S Kanwar AJ Jebraili R Dawn G Das A. Spectrum of reticular flexural and acral pigmentary disorder in Northern India. J Dermatol 21 1994 598-603. PMID:7962960 6. Alfadley A Al Ajlan A Hainau B Pedersen KT Al Hoqail I. Reticulate acropigmentation of Dohi: a case report of autosomal recessive inheritance. J Am Acad Dermatol. 43 2000 1 Pt 1:113-7. PMID:10863235 7. Wu YH Lin YC. Generalized Dowling-Degos disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 572 2007 327-34. PMID:17637446 8. Griffiths WAD. Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitanura. Br J Dermatol 95 1976 437-43. PMID:823955 9. El-Hoshy K Hashimoto K. Bony anomalies in a patient with reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura. J Dermatol 23 1996 713-5. PMID: 8973039. How to cite this article: Rajwinder Singh Ashish Dalal Mayank Kaushik Jaswinder Kaur. Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura with mental retardation - A rare case report.. Int J of Allied Med Sci and Clin Res 2016 43: 407-411. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared.

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