Current RFID Technology Dale Blasi


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Breakout Session V- Technology OpportunitiesCurrent Technology : 

Breakout Session V- Technology Opportunities Current Technology Dale A. Blasi Kansas State University

Presentation Outline: 

Presentation Outline Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) ISO Standards Challenges/issues Future developments


Ever seen characters like this?: 

Ever seen characters like this?




Problem Front end to the computer is a HUMAN





What is Radio Frequency ID? : 

What is Radio Frequency ID? Sister technology to barcodes Radio waves vs light waves Reads through non-metallic materials Does not require line-of-sight Withstand harsh environments


Radio Frequency Spectrum


ISO 11784 – Agricultural Equipment – Radio Frequency Identification of Animals Code structure ISO 11785 – Agricultural Equipment – Radio Frequency Identification of Animals Technical concept

International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR): 

International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) Primary mission Standardize procedures and methods used in recording of livestock data Establish test procedures for the approval of equipment and methods for recording data Based on general agreement with ISO (Resolution ISO/TC 23/SC 19 N 113, No. 45; August, 1996), ICAR has been developing procedures to verify compliance of RFID systems with the standards and the user requirements

ISO 11785: 

ISO 11785 Transponders (tags) meet req. set forth by clause 6 of the international standard Tranceivers (readers) are in conformance provided they meet the req. set forth by clause 6 and annex A, provided the latter is applicable Clause 6 sets forth the activation field and frequency (134.2 + 13.42 x 10-3) and defines the timing sequence for both HDX and FDXb air interfaces ISO does not have the responsibility of determining compliance with ISO standards


ISO 11785 permits either one-way at a time signal transmission (HDX) or simultaneous two-way signal transmission. It is necessary to have the combination of the two systems into one reader in order to be an ISO-compliant reader. Combining both systems slightly deteriorates their performance. FDX functions better without the interruption of the activation field, necessary for HDX Half duplex (HDX) and Full duplex (FDX)


TRANSmitter/resPONDER Passive vs active Data carrying options Data read rates Programming options Physical form Costs


Passive vs Active Transponders Passive No internal battery Lighter Less expensive Virtual unlimited operational life Active Internal battery- finite lifetime Read/write devices Greater size/cost Greater communication range Higher data transmission rates


Data Carrying Options Identifier Numeric/alpha-numeric string for ID purposes Simple 'lookup' number Portable data files Decentralized database Increased tag complexity usually accompanied by an increase in the data memory of the device which, in turn, generally reflects an increase in cost


Transponder cost Complexity of circuit function Construction and memory capacity Manner in which the transponder is packaged


Functions: Transmit and receive RF signals Contain a control unit to execute commands Incorporate an interface to transfer data Receives commands from the host computer Responds to software commands from the host computer Reader/Interrogator/Scanner


Readers can differ considerably Depends upon the type of transponders being supported Intended function Handheld vs stationary Sophisticated functions Signal conditioning Parity error checking and correction

Challenges/Issues LF RFID: 

Challenges/Issues LF RFID Environment Read range Contention


Physical form


Factors that affect Reader Range Power available to the reader Power available within the tag to respond Antenna characteristics and size Competition from other devices emitting electric signals




Dielectric Materials: 

Dielectric Materials Materials that freely: Conduct radio energy Absorb it Detune it Reflect it Liquids and metals present the biggest challenges




Defined… Term(s) used to denote an event when two or more transponders compete for attention from the reader at the same time resulting in potential misreading. Anti-contention/collision:


Loss in efficiency Added costs – Equipment/labor Excessive handling



Read Distance of Four eID Tags as Influenced by Reader : 

Read Distance of Four eID Tags as Influenced by Reader 50 tags were randomly selected to represent each manufacturer USAIP Bovine Standards Subcommittee 5/18/04


Analysis of Performance of FDX-b Transponders: 

Analysis of Performance of FDX-b Transponders Manufacturer Resonance Freq Tag Response (mVolt) A 129.0 30 A 128.7 23 B 124.0 no response B 125.0 no response C 131.0 23 D 134.0 79 D 133.9 78 D 134.6 80 E 135.2 39 E 135.6 39 E 135.0 40

Read Distance of Eight eID Tags as Influenced by Reader : 

Read Distance of Eight eID Tags as Influenced by Reader

Animal ID Resources: 

Animal ID Resources


Dale A. Blasi Kansas State University KSU Animal ID Knowledge Laboratory

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