logging in or signing up process Hillary Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Let's Connect Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 207 Category: Entertainment License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: January 16, 2008 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 0 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide1: Specialty and Small-Scale Poultry Processing Slide2: Types of processing On-farm processing Mobile Processing Units (MPUs) Small plants (I.e. pilot plant) Large plants Slide4: Activities required for ready-to-cook poultry: Pre-slaughter: catching and transport Immobilization, kill, and bleed Feather removal: scalding and picking Evisceration Chilling PackagingSlide5: Feed withdrawal Catching Loading TransportSlide8: Immobilize/stun Kill BleedSlide10: Types of scalding equipment: Homemade scalders and dunkers Stockpot Used electric or propane water heaters Very labor intensive Scalder bath Multi-stage scalders Overflow Temperature control Pathogen control Scalding 101: Scalding 101Slide14: Types of pickers Homemade pickers Used washing machines Plastic 55-gallon drums Small pickers Drum Tub In-line pickersSlide15: Drum picker Tubpicker Tub pickerSlide17: Remove head, oil glands, and feetSlide18: EviscerateSlide20: Evisceration Guts remain attached to bird for inspection Avoid tearing gut and causing microbial Harvest giblets Wash carcass Specialty evisceration New York dressed Slide22: Chilling Lower temperature of carcass Broilers (4-lb) 40F within 4 hours (4-8 lbs) 40F within 6 hours Turkeys (greater than 8 lbs) 40F within 8 hours Slide23: Rule of thumb: One pound of ice per pound of meat Used dairy equipmentSlide24: Chilling: Ice bath StaticSlide25: Pre-chilling Prevents cold shortening Gradual temperature reduction Water uptake 8-12% water in carcassSlide26: Large chillers Counter current Overflow Air Bubbles Paddles or rakes 32F 45 minutes Pre-chiller 55-60F 15 minutesSlide27: Air chill Soft scald Temperature 20-35F Takes longer: 2 hours No water uptake/less microbial contamination More expensive equipment, space, utilities Less water Homemade air chill?Slide29: Yield 67% for broilers without giblets Whole birds Further processed Cut-up Parts Deboned Sizing and portioning Formed Whole (deli loaves) Comminuted (nuggets) Emulsified (hot dogs) Curing and smoking BriningSlide30: Hand deboningSlide31: Aging Tenderness: Poultry meat must age at least 4 hours before eating or freezing Rigor mortis Stress before slaughter can lead to dark, dry meat Slide32: Packaging: On-farm: bags, shrink bags Shelf life: 6 days Small plants: shrink bags, vacuum packing, totes Shelf life: up to 12 days (vacuum) Large plants: tray packs, bulk ice packs Shelf life: 21 days (crust-frozen tray pack) 7-28 days (bulk, depending on modified atmosphere) Slide37: Storage: Home refrigerators or freezers Freezing extends shelf life to 6-12 months Rate of freezing: Slow freezing (3-72 hours): large ice crystals that damage cells Fast freezing (30 minutes): small ice crystals Slide38: Methods of freezing: Still air (slow) used by home freezers Blast freezing (fast) Bone darkening seen in young chickens after freezingSlide40: Clean up On-farm: hoses Plants: pressure washers. Slide41: Waste: Offal, feathers, blood Wastewater Treatment: Screen out big chunks Remove small particles in water Fat trap Dissolved air flotation Break down organic matter Aerobic lagoons Anaerobic lagoons Trickling filters Land application CompostingSlide42: Processing diverse species Broilers, Cornish game hens, stewing hens, ducks, geese, squab, turkeys Multispecies processing: Rabbits Red meat and poultry in the same plantSlide43: Putting It All Together: Batch vs continous processing Processing rate: Working alone with minimal equipment: 6 birds per person per hour Experienced processor with equipment handling at least 4 birds at a time: 15 birds per person per hourSlide44: On-farm processing set-ups: Less than $1000Slide45: Less than $15,000Slide46: Mobile Processing Units (MPU): A shared resource $7,000-$12,000Slide48: 1 Kentucky MPU - $70,000Slide50: Small Plant Establishment $100,000- $400,000Slide51: Small Plants Usually enclosed building Separate areas for killing and evisceration Keep edible product from coming in contact with inedible. GMP SOP SSOP HACCP Code of Federal Regulations You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.