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Slide1: 

Specialty and Small-Scale Poultry Processing

Slide2: 

Types of processing On-farm processing Mobile Processing Units (MPUs) Small plants (I.e. pilot plant) Large plants

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Activities required for ready-to-cook poultry: Pre-slaughter: catching and transport Immobilization, kill, and bleed Feather removal: scalding and picking Evisceration Chilling Packaging

Slide5: 

Feed withdrawal Catching Loading Transport

Slide8: 

Immobilize/stun Kill Bleed

Slide10: 

Types of scalding equipment: Homemade scalders and dunkers Stockpot Used electric or propane water heaters Very labor intensive Scalder bath Multi-stage scalders Overflow Temperature control Pathogen control

Scalding 101: 

Scalding 101

Slide14: 

Types of pickers Homemade pickers Used washing machines Plastic 55-gallon drums Small pickers Drum Tub In-line pickers

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Drum picker Tubpicker Tub picker

Slide17: 

Remove head, oil glands, and feet

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Eviscerate

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Evisceration Guts remain attached to bird for inspection Avoid tearing gut and causing microbial Harvest giblets Wash carcass Specialty evisceration New York dressed

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Chilling Lower temperature of carcass Broilers (4-lb) 40F within 4 hours (4-8 lbs) 40F within 6 hours Turkeys (greater than 8 lbs) 40F within 8 hours

Slide23: 

Rule of thumb: One pound of ice per pound of meat Used dairy equipment

Slide24: 

Chilling: Ice bath Static

Slide25: 

Pre-chilling Prevents cold shortening Gradual temperature reduction Water uptake 8-12% water in carcass

Slide26: 

Large chillers Counter current Overflow Air Bubbles Paddles or rakes 32F 45 minutes Pre-chiller 55-60F 15 minutes

Slide27: 

Air chill Soft scald Temperature 20-35F Takes longer: 2 hours No water uptake/less microbial contamination More expensive equipment, space, utilities Less water Homemade air chill?

Slide29: 

Yield 67% for broilers without giblets Whole birds Further processed Cut-up Parts Deboned Sizing and portioning Formed Whole (deli loaves) Comminuted (nuggets) Emulsified (hot dogs) Curing and smoking Brining

Slide30: 

Hand deboning

Slide31: 

Aging Tenderness: Poultry meat must age at least 4 hours before eating or freezing Rigor mortis Stress before slaughter can lead to dark, dry meat

Slide32: 

Packaging: On-farm: bags, shrink bags Shelf life: 6 days Small plants: shrink bags, vacuum packing, totes Shelf life: up to 12 days (vacuum) Large plants: tray packs, bulk ice packs Shelf life: 21 days (crust-frozen tray pack) 7-28 days (bulk, depending on modified atmosphere)

Slide37: 

Storage: Home refrigerators or freezers Freezing extends shelf life to 6-12 months Rate of freezing: Slow freezing (3-72 hours): large ice crystals that damage cells Fast freezing (30 minutes): small ice crystals

Slide38: 

Methods of freezing: Still air (slow) used by home freezers Blast freezing (fast) Bone darkening seen in young chickens after freezing

Slide40: 

Clean up On-farm: hoses Plants: pressure washers.

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Waste: Offal, feathers, blood Wastewater Treatment: Screen out big chunks Remove small particles in water Fat trap Dissolved air flotation Break down organic matter Aerobic lagoons Anaerobic lagoons Trickling filters Land application Composting

Slide42: 

Processing diverse species Broilers, Cornish game hens, stewing hens, ducks, geese, squab, turkeys Multispecies processing: Rabbits Red meat and poultry in the same plant

Slide43: 

Putting It All Together: Batch vs continous processing Processing rate: Working alone with minimal equipment: 6 birds per person per hour Experienced processor with equipment handling at least 4 birds at a time: 15 birds per person per hour

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On-farm processing set-ups: Less than $1000

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Less than $15,000

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Mobile Processing Units (MPU): A shared resource $7,000-$12,000

Slide48: 

1 Kentucky MPU - $70,000

Slide50: 

Small Plant Establishment $100,000- $400,000

Slide51: 

Small Plants Usually enclosed building Separate areas for killing and evisceration Keep edible product from coming in contact with inedible. GMP SOP SSOP HACCP Code of Federal Regulations