Introduction to Robotics

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Introduction to Robotics Sookram Sobhan, Polytechnic University


Outline What is it? What can it do? History Key components Applications Future Robotics @ MPCRL


What is a Robot: I Manipulator


What is a Robot: II Wheeled Robot Legged Robot


What is a Robot: III Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

What Can Robots Do: I: 

What Can Robots Do: I Decontaminating Robot Cleaning the main circulating pump housing in the nuclear power plant Jobs that are dangerous for humans

What Can Robots Do: II: 

What Can Robots Do: II Repetitive jobs that are boring, stressful, or labor-intensive for humans Welding Robot

What Can Robots Do: III: 

What Can Robots Do: III The SCRUBMATE Robot Menial tasks that human don’t want to do

Robot Defined: 

Robot Defined Word robot was coined by a Czech novelist Karel Capek in a 1920 play titled Rossum’s Universal Robots (RUR) Robota in Czech is a word for worker or servant Definition of robot: Any machine made by by one our members: Robot Institute of America  A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks: Robot Institute of America, 1979

Laws of Robotics: 

Laws of Robotics Asimov proposed three “Laws of Robotics” Law 1: A robot may not injure a human being or through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm Law 2: A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with a higher order law Law 3: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law

History of Robotics: I: 

The first industrial robot: UNIMATE 1954: The first programmable robot is designed by George Devol, who coins the term Universal Automation. He later shortens this to Unimation, which becomes the name of the first robot company (1962). UNIMATE originally automated the manufacture of TV picture tubes History of Robotics: I

History of Robotics: II: 

PUMA 560 Manipulator History of Robotics: II 1978: The Puma (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly) robot is developed by Unimation with a General Motors design support

History of Robotics: III: 

1980s: The robot industry enters a phase of rapid growth. Many institutions introduce programs and courses in robotics. Robotics courses are spread across mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and computer science departments. Adept's SCARA robots Barrett Technology Manipulator Cognex In-Sight Robot History of Robotics: III

History of Robotics: IV: 

2003: NASA’s Mars Exploration Rovers will launch toward Mars in search of answers about the history of water on Mars 1995-present: Emerging applications in small robotics and mobile robots drive a second growth of start-up companies and research History of Robotics: IV

Knowledgebase for Robotics: 

Typical knowledgebase for the design and operation of robotics systems Dynamic system modeling and analysis Feedback control Sensors and signal conditioning Actuators and power electronics Hardware/computer interfacing Computer programming Knowledgebase for Robotics Disciplines: mathematics, physics, biology, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, computer engineering, and computer science

Key Components: 

Key Components Base Manipulator linkage Controller Sensors Actuators User interface Power conversion unit

Robot Base: Fixed v/s Mobile: 

Robot Base: Fixed v/s Mobile Mobile bases are typically platforms with wheels or tracks attached. Instead of wheels or tracks, some robots employ legs in order to move about. Robotic manipulators used in manufacturing are examples of fixed robots. They can not move their base away from the work being done.

Robot Mechanism: Mechanical Elements : 

Robot Mechanism: Mechanical Elements Inclined plane wedge Slider-Crank Cam and Follower Gear, rack, pinion, etc. Chain and sprocket Lever Linkage


Sensors: I Human senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell provide us vital information to function and survive Robot sensors: measure robot configuration/condition and its environment and send such information to robot controller as electronic signals (e.g., arm position, presence of toxic gas) Robots often need information that is beyond 5 human senses (e.g., ability to: see in the dark, detect tiny amounts of invisible radiation, measure movement that is too small or fast for the human eye to see) Accelerometer Using Piezoelectric Effect Flexiforce Sensor


In-Sight Vision Sensors Part-Picking: Robot can handle work pieces that are randomly piled by using 3-D vision sensor. Since alignment operation, a special parts feeder, and an alignment pallete are not required, an automatic system can be constructed at low cost. Vision Sensor: e.g., to pick bins, perform inspection, etc. Sensors: II


Parts fitting and insertion: Robots can do precise fitting and insertion of machine parts by using force sensor. A robot can insert parts that have the phases after matching their phases in addition to simply inserting them. It can automate high-skill jobs. Force Sensor: e.g., parts fitting and insertion, force feedback in robotic surgery Sensors: III


Infrared Ranging Sensor KOALA ROBOT 6 ultrasonic sonar transducers to explore wide, open areas Obstacle detection over a wide range from 15cm to 3m 16 built-in infrared proximity sensors (range 5-20cm) Infrared sensors act as a “virtual bumper” and allow for negotiating tight spaces Sensors: IV Example


Tilt Sensor Planar Bipedal Robot Tilt sensors: e.g., to balance a robot Sensors: V Example

Actuators: I: 

Actuators: I Common robotic actuators utilize combinations of different electro-mechanical devices Synchronous motor Stepper motor AC servo motor Brushless DC servo motor Brushed DC servo motor


Hydraulic Motor Stepper Motor Pneumatic Motor Servo Motor Actuators: II Pneumatic Cylinder DC Motor


Controller Provide necessary intelligence to control the manipulator/mobile robot Process the sensory information and compute the control commands for the actuators to carry out specified tasks


Controller Hardware: I Storage devices: e.g., memory to store the control program and the state of the robot system obtained from the sensors


Computational engine that computes the control commands BASIC Stamp 2 Module RoboBoard Robotics Controller Controller Hardware: II


Analog to Digital Converter Operational Amplifiers Interface units: Hardware to interface digital controller with the external world (sensors and actuators) Controller Hardware: III LM358 LM358 LM1458 dual operational amplifier


Agriculture Automobile Construction Entertainment Health care: hospitals, patient-care, surgery , research, etc. Laboratories: science, engineering , etc. Law enforcement: surveillance, patrol, etc. Manufacturing Military: demining, surveillance, attack, etc. Mining, excavation, and exploration Transportation: air, ground, rail, space, etc. Utilities: gas, water, and electric Warehouses Industries Using Robots

What Can Robots Do?: 

What Can Robots Do? Industrial Robots Material Handling Manipulator Assembly Manipulator Spot Welding Manipulator Material handling Material transfer Machine loading and/or unloading Spot welding Continuous arc welding Spray coating Assembly Inspection

Robots in Space: 

Robots in Space NASA Space Station

Robots in Hazardous Environments: 

Robots in Hazardous Environments TROV in Antarctica operating under water HAZBOT operating in atmospheres containing combustible gases

Medical Robots: 

Medical Robots Robotic assistant for micro surgery


Robots at Home Sony Aido Sony SDR-3X Entertainment Robot

Future of Robots: I: 

Future of Robots: I Cog Kismet Artificial Intelligence

Future of Robots: II: 

Future of Robots: II Garbage Collection Cart Robot Work Crews Autonomy

Future of Robots: III: 

Future of Robots: III HONDA Humanoid Robot Humanoids

Robotics @ MPCRL—I: 

Robotics @ MPCRL—I Smart Irrigation System Remote Robot Arm Manipulation Remote Emergency Notification System Smart Cane


Local Navigation System Safe N Sound Driver RoboDry Type-X Robotics @ MPCRL—II


Audio Enabled Hexapod Metal Mine Surveyor RoboVac Robotics @ MPCRL—III


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