Impact of environmental pollution

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Impact of Environmental pollution:

Impact of Environmental pollution Prepared by: Heribert R. Kaijage BSc. MSc. (Health and Environment) DEOH-SPHSS MUHAS


Overview Challenges behind environmental pollution Environmental Pollution and Health Pollution and Impact on the Environment



An Urban Today and Future:

An Urban Today and Future Currently half of world’s population is urban (about 3.2 billion people) Developed world & Latin America: About 75% of population lives in urban areas By 2030, 84% will live in urban areas Developing world: 40% of the population lives in urban areas By 2030 56% will live in urban areas

Slide 5:

Urban Growth Most Rapid in Developing Countries Estimated and Projected Urban and Rural Populations of Developing and Developed Countries, 1950-2030 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 1950 1975 2000 2015 2030 Year Population (in Billions) Developing Countries - Urban Developing Countries - Rural Developed Countries - Urban Developed Countries - Rural Source: United Nations (2002)

Growing Number of Big Cities:

Growing Number of Big Cities 274 114 17 13 Developing 21 17 Megacities 128 Developed 426 Developing Developed Million cities Size of City 4 4 554 388 2015 2000 Source: United Nations (2002)

Slide 7:

Population Distribution of Developing and Developed Countries by Size of Urban Area and Year 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 <0.5 0.5-1 1-5 5-10 >10 Size of Urban Area (in Millions) Population (in Millions) 1975 2000 2015 Developing Countries 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 <0.5 0.5-1 1-5 5-10 >10 Developed Countries Source: United Nations (2002)

Explaining Urban Growth:

Explaining Urban Growth Migration from rural and other urban areas more prominent during initial phases of urbanization Natural population increase more prominent during later phases of urbanization Reclassification of rural areas to urban



Urban Poverty Statistics:

Urban Poverty Statistics Conservative estimates from the World Bank: 30% of poor people live in urban areas By 2020 40% will live in urban areas By 2035 50% will live in urban areas

More World Bank Estimates:

More World Bank Estimates 1988: 330 million urban poor in developing world were living on <$1/day 2000: 495 million urban poor in developing world were living on <$1/day

Insufficient Incomes:

Insufficient Incomes Unemployment levels relatively low in urban areas Shift from formal sector employment to informal labor market Low status Low wages Long hours Unsafe work conditions



Challenge 4: Inadequate Housing and Services:

Challenge 4: Inadequate Housing and Services Over 1 billion urban residents worldwide live in inadequate housing Slum residents usually lack security of tenure Legal housing is scarce and too expensive Urban poor usually pay more for services of inferior quality

Slide 15:

Infant Mortality Rates by Residence and Access to Piped Water, Selected Countries, 1990-1994 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Burkina Faso Cameroon Ghana Kenya Madagascar Morocco Namibia Niger Nigeria Senegal Zambia Infant Mortality Rate Urban with Piped Water Urban without Piped Water Rural Asia 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Indonesia Pakistan Philippines Turkey Infant Mortality Rate Latin America & Caribbean 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Colombia Dominican Rep. Peru Infant Mortality Rate Africa Source: Bicego (1996)


RESULTS OF CHALLENGES Massive environmental pollution Observed impacts to human health Observed impact to environment and ecosystem in general

Pollution and Health :

Pollution and Health

Water and Sanitation:

Water and Sanitation Urbanization can increase per capita use of freshwater WHO and UNICEF: Number of urban residents without access to improved water rose from 113 million in 1990 to 173 million in 2000 1/3 of urban water supplies in Africa and Latin America and 1/2 in Asia operate intermittently

Water-Related Diseases:

Water-Related Diseases Worldwide, about 2.3 billion people suffer from water-related diseases Nearly half of urban residents in Africa, Asia, and Latin America suffer from one or more of the main diseases Diarrheal diseases are responsible for 90% of health problems Estimated 4 billion cases/year, causing 3-4 million deaths

Outdoor Air Pollution:

Outdoor Air Pollution Latin American cities struggle with high suspended particulate matter & ozone levels Asian cities face similar problems, with rapid growth of cities, more fuel use & more vehicles Developed countries have strict environmental standards, but energy consumption is greater & pollution levels often exceed standards

Outdoor Air Pollution:

Outdoor Air Pollution WHO estimates that 1.5 billion urban dwellers face pollution levels that exceed recommended levels In Asia, 1.5 million people die every year from pollution related diseases In the US particulate pollution causes one-fifth of all lung cancers Worldwide health costs of urban air pollution are estimated at $1 billion a year

Indoor Air Pollution:

Indoor Air Pollution A particular problem in rural areas; however, millions of urban poor also suffer Estimates suggest that urban indoor air pollution kills about 600,000 annually Worldwide, 3 billion people rely on biomass fuels for household cooking & heating These fuels emit large amounts of smoke, directly inside dwelling without ventilation

Indoor Air Pollution:

Indoor Air Pollution Urban poor often cannot afford cleaner fuels Women and children suffer the most Cleaning up indoor air is also a compelling public health need A number of technical, behavioral and policy approaches could help

Impact on the Environment:

Impact on the Environment

Urban Environment:

Urban Environment Rapid urbanization can create stress on the natural environment Urban areas take up 2% of the earth’s surface, but account for 75% of industrial wood use 60% of water for human use goes to urban areas Per capita resource consumption, water & air pollution, and soil degradation & contamination have increased

Urban Expansion:

Urban Expansion Unplanned & unregulated urban development leads to haphazard expansion & worsening urban living conditions Industrial development takes place without concern for environment Economic growth can contribute to urban environmental problems Burden of urban environmental problems falls disproportionately on the poor

Heavy Ecological Footprints:

Heavy Ecological Footprints “Ecological footprint” of urban areas weighs heavily on the natural environment Ecological footprint of humankind should be 1.7 hectares of land per capita Ecological footprint is 2.3 hectares In the past 25 years consumption levels in industrialized countries has increased consistently at 2.3% per year In developing countries, per capita consumption has increased, and resource use has soared

Summary of pollution Impact:

Summary of pollution Impact Generally pollution is the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment Three main parts of pollution impacts will be summarized; Water Pollution Air Pollution Land Pollution

Water pollution:

Water pollution

Air pollution:

Air pollution CO2 is a good transmitter of sunlight, but it also partially restricts infrared radiation going back from the earth into space, which produces the so-called greenhouse effect that prevents a drastic cooling of the Earth during the night Increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere reinforces this effect and is expected to result in a warming of the Earth's surface CO2 in atmosphere GLOBAL WARMING

The green house effects:

The green house effects

Acid rain effects on tree:

Acid rain effects on tree

Consequences of air pollution continued:

Consequences of air pollution continued Formation of smog Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone and peroxyacl nitrates (PANs), cause direct damage to leaves of crop plants and trees when they enter leaf pores (stomates) Chronic exposure of leaves and needles to air pollutants can also break down the waxy coating that helps prevent excessive water loss and damage from diseases, pests, drought and frost "In the midwestern United States crop losses of wheat, corn, soybeans, and peanuts from damage by ozone and acid deposition amount to about $5 billion a year". (Miller 498)

A smog city:

A smog city

Land pollution:

Land pollution

Consequences of land pollution:

Consequences of land pollution Land pollution exterminates wild life Acid rain kills trees and other plants The vegetation that provides food and shelter is destroyed Land pollution can seriously disrupt the balance of nature, and, in extreme cases, can cause human fatalities Pesticides can damage crops; kill vegetation; and poison birds, animals, and fish. Most pesticides kill or damage life forms other than those intended. For example, pesticides used in an effort to control or destroy undesirable vegetation and insects often destroy birds and small animals. Some life forms develop immunity to pesticides used to destroy them


References Bicego, G. and Ahmad, O.B. Infant and child mortality. Calverton, Maryland, Macro International, Aug. 1996 (Demographic and Health Surveys Comparative Studies No. 20) 58 p. United Nations (UN). Population Division. World urbanization prospects: The 2001 revision. New York, UN, Mar. 20, 2002. 182 p.



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