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Leonardo's Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Ben Shneiderman Founding Director (1983-2000), Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory Professor, Department of Computer Science Member, Institutes for Advanced Computer Studies & Systems Research University of Maryland ben@cs.umd.edu : 

Leonardo's Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Ben Shneiderman Founding Director (1983-2000), Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory Professor, Department of Computer Science Member, Institutes for Advanced Computer Studies & Systems Research University of Maryland ben@cs.umd.edu

Slide2: 

Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory Interdisciplinary research community - Computer Science & Psychology - Information Studies & Education (www.cs.umd.edu/hcil)

Scientific Approach (beyond user friendly): 

Scientific Approach (beyond user friendly) Specify users and tasks Predict and measure time to learn speed of performance rate of human errors human retention over time Assess subjective satisfaction (Questionnaire for User Interface Satisfaction) Accommodate individual differences Consider social, organizational & cultural context

Design Issues: 

Design Issues Input devices & strategies Keyboards, pointing devices, voice Direct manipulation Menus, forms, commands Output devices & formats Screens, windows, color, sound Text, tables, graphics Instructions, messages, help Collaboration & communities Manuals, tutorials, training www.awl.com/DTUI usableweb.com hcibib.org useit.com

Library of Congress: 

Library of Congress Scholars, Journalists, Citizens Teachers, Students

Visible Human Explorer (NLM): 

Visible Human Explorer (NLM) Doctors Surgeons Researchers Students

NASA Environmental Data: 

NASA Environmental Data Scientists Farmers Land planners Students

Bureau of Census: 

Bureau of Census Economists, Policy makers, Journalists Teachers, Students

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519): 

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Renaissance Man Painter Inventor Visionary Mathematician Philosopher Engineer

Mona Lisa: 

Mona Lisa

Lady with Ermine & Leda with Swan: 

Lady with Ermine & Leda with Swan

Last Supper Fresco: 

Last Supper Fresco

Remarkable Drawing Skill: 

Remarkable Drawing Skill

Faces of Old Men: 

Faces of Old Men

Anatomical Drawings: 

Anatomical Drawings

Machine Gun and Giant Crossbow: 

Machine Gun and Giant Crossbow

Why Leonardo Inspires Us: 

Why Leonardo Inspires Us He integrated - Scientific outlook - Practical technology - Artistic skill

Leonardo: An Inspirational Muse: 

Leonardo: An Inspirational Muse Three lessons: 1) Human needs drive innovation 2) Universal usability 3) Creativity support tools

Slide19: 

Jefferson: Life, Liberty & the Pursuit of Happiness Roosevelt: Freedom of speech & expression, religion, from want, from fear Maslow: Hierarchy of human needs Physiological Safety Love Esteem Self-Actualization Covey: Living, Loving, Learning & Leaving a legacy 1) Human needs drive innovation

Spectrum of relationships: 

Spectrum of relationships Family & Friends (2-20 close intimates)   Colleagues & Neighbors (10-1000 regular encounters)   Members & Residents (1000-1,000,000 professionals or city residents )   Citizenry & Markets (larger communities)  

Range of Activities: 

Range of Activities Collect: Information Relate: Communication Create: Innovation Donate: Dissemination

Periodic table: 

Periodic table Relationships: Family & Friends   Colleagues & Neighbors   Members & Residents   Citizenry & Markets   Activities: Collect Relate Create Donate

Periodic table: 

Periodic table Relationships: Family & Friends   Colleagues & Neighbors   Members & Residents   Citizenry & Markets   Activities: Collect Relate Create Donate Skeptics corner - Aren’t relationships more complex - Are these useful activities?

Examples: Collecting information: 

Examples: Collecting information Relationships: Family & Friends   Colleagues & Neighbors   Members & Residents   Citizenry & Markets   Activities: Collect Relate Create Donate LifeLines InfoDoor InfoWall WebBush

Examples: Relating to others: 

Examples: Relating to others Relationships: Family & Friends   Colleagues & Neighbors   Members & Residents   Citizenry & Markets   Activities: Collect Relate Create Donate

Examples: Creating a future: 

Examples: Creating a future Relationships: Family & Friends   Colleagues & Neighbors   Members & Residents   Citizenry & Markets   Activities: Collect Relate Create Donate

Examples: Disseminating & Leading: 

Examples: Disseminating & Leading Relationships: Family & Friends   Colleagues & Neighbors   Members & Residents   Citizenry & Markets   Activities: Collect Relate Create Donate

Human needs drive innovation: 

Human needs drive innovation Relationships: Family & Friends   Colleagues & Neighbors   Members & Residents   Citizenry & Markets   Activities: Collect Relate Create Donate

2) Universal Usability : 

2) Universal Usability Problem: Confusion, frustration, and remorse dominate user experiences Survey of 6000 users finds 5.1 hours/week wasted Incompatible files, interfaces, networks, hardware Poorly designed websites lacking accessibility policy Solutions: Raise user expectations Conduct research Provide practical tools & methods

2) Universal Usability : 

2) Universal Usability Problem: Confusion, frustration, and remorse dominate user experiences Survey of 6000 users finds 5.1 hours/week wasted Incompatible files, interfaces, networks, hardware Poorly designed websites lacking accessibility policy Solutions: Raise user expectations Conduct research Provide practical tools & methods Skeptics corner - Dumbing down - Lowest common denominator

2) Universal Usability : 

2) Universal Usability Problem: Confusion, frustration, and remorse dominate user experiences Survey of 6000 users finds 5.1 hours/week wasted Incompatible files, interfaces, networks, hardware Poorly designed websites lacking accessibility policy Solutions: Raise user expectations Conduct research Provide practical tools & methods

ACM Code of Ethics: 

ACM Code of Ethics In a fair society, all individuals would have equal opportunity to participate in, or benefit from, the use of computer resources regardless of race, sex, religion, age, disability, national origin or other such similar factors.

Internet Use by Education - 1998: 

Internet Use by Education - 1998 Percent of U.S. Households Using the Internet Total U.S., Rural, Urban, and Central City Areas Falling Through the Net: Defining the Digital Divide www.ntia.doc.gov

Internet Use by Income - 1998: 

Internet Use by Income - 1998 Percent of U.S. Households Using the Internet Total U.S., Rural, Urban, and Central City Areas Falling Through the Net: Defining the Digital Divide www.ntia.doc.gov

Research Agenda : 

Research Agenda Technology variety: Support broad range of hardware, software, and network access User diversity: Accommodate users with different skills, knowledge, age, gender, disabilities, disabling conditions (mobility, injury, noise, sunlight), literacy, culture, income, etc. Gaps in user knowledge: Bridge the gap between what users know and what they need to know Communications of the ACM, May 2000

Slide36: 

Technology variety: Support broad range of hardware, software, and network access 1 to 100 range in processor speeds 286 486 Pentium 1 to 100 range in screen sizes Palm devices Laptops Large Desktop or Wall Display 30,000 480,000 3,840,000 pixels Software Versions Compatibility File conversion Multiple platforms Device Independence Input: keyboard, speech,... Output: visual, auditory,... Conversion: Text-speech Speech-text,...

Slide37: 

Language & Culture Western, Eastern, developing... Personality Introvert vs extravert Thinking vs feeling Risk aversion Locus of control Planful vs playful User diversity: Accommodate different users Skills Computer newbie to hacker Knowledge Domain novice to expert Age Young to old Gender Male or Female Income Impoverished to wealthy Disabilities Visual, auditory, motoric, cognitive Disabling conditions Mobility, injury, noise, sunlight

Gaps in User Knowledge - Strategies: 

Online help Context sensitive, tables of contents, Indexes, Keyword search, FAQs, Newsgroups, Chat rooms Online communities Gaps in User Knowledge - Strategies Bridge the gap between what users know and what they need to know Design Layered Level-structured Task-oriented Training Fade-able scaffolding Training wheels Minimalist Online Learning (evolutionary, phased) Introductory tutorials Getting started manuals, Cue cards Walkthroughs/Demos Minimalist/Active Customer service Email Phone Help desks

3) Creativity Support Tools: 

3) Creativity Support Tools More people, more creative, more of the time Revolutionary breakthroughs, paradigm shifts, H-creativity Evolutionary, normal science, music & art, creative knowledge work Impromptu everyday creativity

Eight Activities : 

Eight Activities 1) Searching & browsing digital libraries 2) Consulting with peers & mentors 3) Visualizing data & processes 4) Thinking by free associations 5) Exploring solutions - What if tools 6) Composing artifacts & performances 7) Reviewing & replaying session histories 8) Disseminating results

Eight Activities : 

Eight Activities 1) Searching & browsing digital libraries 2) Consulting with peers & mentors 3) Visualizing data & processes 4) Thinking by free associations 5) Exploring solutions - What if tools 6) Composing artifacts & performances 7) Reviewing & replaying session histories 8) Disseminating results Skeptics corner - Tools can limit imagination - Not everyone wants to be creative - Creativity can be malicious

3) Visualizing data & processes: 

3) Visualizing data & processes The eye… the window of the soul, is the principal means by which the central sense can most completely and abundantly appreciate the infinite works of nature. Leonardo da Vinci (1452 - 1519)

Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think : 

Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think Visual bandwidth is enormous Human perceptual skills are remarkable Trend, cluster, gap, outlier... Color, size, shape, proximity... Human image storage is fast and vast Opportunities Spatial layouts & coordination Information visualization Scientific visualization & simulation Telepresence & augmented reality Virtual environments

Information Visualization: Mantra: 

Information Visualization: Mantra Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand Overview, zoom & filter, details-on-demand

Information Visualization: Data Types: 

Information Visualization: Data Types 1-D Linear Document Lens, SeeSoft, Info Mural, Value Bars 2-D Map GIS, ArcView, PageMaker, Medical imagery 3-D World CAD, Medical, Molecules, Architecture Multi-Dim Parallel Coordinates, Spotfire, XGobi, Visage, Influence Explorer, TableLens, DEVise Temporal Perspective Wall, LifeLines, Lifestreams, Project Managers, DataSpiral Tree Cone/Cam/Hyperbolic, TreeBrowser, Treemap Network Netmap, netViz, SeeNet, Butterfly, Multi-trees (Online Library of Information Visualization Environments) otal.umd.edu/Olive

Customer Histories: 

Customer Histories

Slide48: 

LifeLines

Treemap - view large trees : 

Treemap - view large trees Space filling Space limited Color coding Size coding Requires learning (Shneiderman, ACM Trans. on Graphics, 1992) TreeViz (Mac, Johnson, 1992) NBA-Tree(Sun, Turo, 1993) Winsurfer (Teittinen, 1996) Diskmapper (Windows, Micrologic) Treemap97 (Windows, UMd)

Treemap - Stock market, clustered by industry: 

Treemap - Stock market, clustered by industry

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519): 

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Three lessons: 1) Human needs drive innovation 2) Universal usability 3) Creativity support tools

Slide52: 

ACM Conference on Universal Usability Washington, DC November 16-17, 2000 www.acm.org/sigchi/cuu

Slide53: 

Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory www.cs.umd.edu/hcil

For More Information: 

For More Information Visit the HCIL website for 200 papers & info on videos (www.cs.umd.edu/hcil) See Chapter 15 on Info Visualization Shneiderman, B., Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction: Third Edition (1998) (www.aw.com/DTUI) January 1999 book of readings: Card, S., Mackinlay, J., and Shneiderman, B. Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think

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