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Cognitive stylistics: 

Cognitive stylistics … the literary work is not a flower or a fruit. It is the creature smelling the flower and tasting the fruit. Georges Poulet

Slide2: 

Assertion: • The literary work is an expressive, dependent and schematic construction Elaboration: • The literary work expresses intentional acts and cognitive processes • The literary work depends on intersubjective acts and processes in subjects • The literary work is a skeleton which becomes full-fleshed during the act of reading

Virginia Woolf: Mrs. Dalloway: 

Virginia Woolf: Mrs. Dalloway Mrs. Dalloway said she would buy the flowers herself. For Lucy had her work cut out for her. The doors would be taken off their hinges; Rumpelmayer’s men were coming. And then, thought Clarissa Dalloway, what a morning – fresh as if issued to children on a beach. What a lark! What a plunge! For so it had always seemed to her when, with a little squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now, she had burst open the French windows and plunged at Bourton into the open air. How fresh, how calm, stiller than this of course, the air was in the early morning; like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp and yet (for a girl of eighteen as she then was) solemn, feeling as she did, standing there at the open window, that something awful was about to happen; looking at the flowers, at the trees with the smoke winding off them and rooks rising, falling; standing and looking…

Wellek and Warren’s stylistics: 

Wellek and Warren’s stylistics Preferable is the attempt to describe a style com- pletely and systematically, according to linguistic principles. (p. 181) Theory of Literature (1949)

A cognitive transcription: 

A cognitive transcription Preferable is the attempt to describe a style com- pletely and systematically, according to cognitive principles.

Negative Positive: 

Negative Positive Style as deviation Style as specification from of linguistic systems cognitive dispositions

Positive definition: 

Positive definition Style has to do with how language specifies a particular and individual field of attention

Ronald Langacker: 

Ronald Langacker The very foundation of cognitive semantics is the recognition of our ability to construe a situation in alternate ways. It further recognizes that certain recurrent and sharply differentiated aspects of our experience emerge as archetypes, which we nor- mally use to structure our conceptions as far as possible. Foundations of cognitive grammar II, 1991, p. 294.

Two semantic functions: 

Two semantic functions Semantics of grammar Lexical semantics Closed-class semantics Open-class semantics Structure Content

Leonard Talmy: 

Leonard Talmy The grammatical specifications in a sentence, thus, provide a conceptual framework or, imagistically, a skeletal structure or scaffolding for the conceptual material that is lexically specified.

Three cognitive functions: 

Three cognitive functions Semantics of grammar Lexical semantics Image-schemas Conceptual schemas Semi-abstract Encyclopedic The topological The metonymic The metaphoric structuring implication integration Valence, casual Scripts, frames, Mapping, grammar… prototypes… blending…

The topological function: 

The topological function The across-schema • The ant crawled across my palm • The bus drove across the country The container-schema • The students are in the classroom • The coffee is in the cup

Three cognitive functions: 

Three cognitive functions Semantics of grammar Lexical semantics Image-schemas Conceptual schemas Semi-abstract Encyclopedic The topological The metonymic The metaphoric structuring implication integration Valence, casual Scripts, frames, Mapping, grammar… prototypes… blending…

Virginia Woolf: Mrs. Dalloway: 

Virginia Woolf: Mrs. Dalloway Mrs. Dalloway said she would buy the flowers herself. For Lucy had her work cut out for her. The doors would be taken off their hinges; Rumpelmayer’s men were coming. And then, thought Clarissa Dalloway, what a morning – fresh as if issued to children on a beach. What a lark! What a plunge! For so it had always seemed to her when, with a little squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now, she had burst open the French windows and plunged at Bourton into the open air. How fresh, how calm, stiller than this of course, the air was in the early morning; like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp and yet (for a girl of eighteen as she then was) solemn, feeling as she did, standing there at the open window, that something awful was about to happen; looking at the flowers, at the trees with the smoke winding off them and rooks rising, falling; standing and looking…

Party-script: 

Party-script Props (requisites): flowers, drinks, “lovely clothes”, “gold lace”… Participants: host/hostess, esteemed guests (the Prime Minister), friends, servants, despised guests (Ellie Henderson)… Entry conditions: the need for socialisation, curiosity… Entry actions: sending/receiving invitations, buying flowers, taking the bus to the party… Results: acknowledgement, socialization, excitement… Sequence of events: invitations, preparations, arrivals, presentations, host or hostess receiving their guests, conversations…

The metonymical function: 

The metonymical function • Plotting • Elucidation • Disruption • Refreshment

Slide17: 

The clock began striking. The young man had killed himself; but she did not pity him; with the clock striking the hour, one, two, three, she did not pity him, with all this going on […] She felt somehow very like him – the young man who had killed himself. (p. 165)

Big Ben: 

Big Ben • Mechanical • Monumental • Fallocentric • Public • Visual and auditory perceptible

The metaphorical function: 

The metaphorical function • Blending • Refreshment • Reminding (the tunnelling process) • Sub-schematic images

The metonymical function: 

The metonymical function • Plotting • Elucidation • Disruption • Refreshment • Prototype-effects

Slide21: 

Mrs. Dalloway said she would buy the flowers herself. For Lucy had her work cut out for her.

The topological function: 

The topological function • Asyndetically accumulation • Elliptical sentences • Nominalised sentences • Dissolving of the nexus

Slide23: 

And everywhere, though it was still so early, there was a beating, a stirring of galloping ponies, tapping of cricket bats; Lords, Ascot, Ranelagh and all the rest of it; wrapped in the soft mesh of the greyblue morning air, which, as the day wore on, would unwind them, and set down on their lawns and pitches the bouncing ponies, whose forefeet just struck the ground and up they sprung, the whirling young men, and laughing girls in their transparent muslins who, even now, after dancing all night, were taking their absurd woolly dogs for a run; and even now, at this hour, discreet old dowagers were shooting out in their motor cars on errands of mystery…

The topological function: 

The topological function • Asyndetically accumulation • Elliptical sentences • Nominalised sentences • Dissolving of the nexus • Present in the past

Different construals: 

Different construals She looked at the flowers Looking at the flowers The rooks rose The rooks rising The smoke wind of the trees The trees with the smoke winding of

Slide26: 

Mrs. Dalloway said she would buy the flowers herself. For Lucy had her work cut out for her. The doors would be taken off their hinges; Rumpelmayer’s men were coming. And then, thought Clarissa Dalloway, what a morning – fresh as if issued to children on a beach. What a lark! What a plunge! For so it had always seemed to her when, with a little squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now, she had burst open the French windows and plunged at Bourton into the open air. How fresh, how calm, stiller than this of course, the air was in the early morning; like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp and yet (for a girl of eighteen as she then was) solemn, feeling as she did, standing there at the open window, that something awful was about to happen; looking at the flowers, at the trees with the smoke winding off them and rooks rising, falling; standing and looking…

Perspectival Mode: 

Perspectival Mode • Synoptic mode: the adoption of a stationary distal perspective point with global scope of attention. • Sequential Mode: the adoption of a moving proximal perspective point with local scope of attention.

Slide28: 

Mrs. Dalloway said she would buy the flowers herself. For Lucy had her work cut out for her. The doors would be taken off their hinges; Rumpelmayer’s men were coming. And then, thought Clarissa Dalloway, what a morning – fresh as if issued to children on a beach.

The field of attention: 

The field of attention Perspective Configuration Attention Force-dynamic Subjective pole Objective pole

Slide32: 

…she, too, was going that very night to kindle and illuminate; to give her party. But how strange, on entering the Park, the silence; the mist; the hum; the slow-swimming happy ducks; the pouched birds waddling…

Slide33: 

Remember my party, remember my party, said Peter Walsh as he stepped down the street […] he thought, looking rather drearily into the glassy depths, and wondering whether by calling at that hour he had annoyed her […] the sound of St. Margaret’s glides into the recesses of the heart and buries itself in ring after ring of sound […]

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