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DEVELOPMENTAL READING I Developing Reading Proficiency


Reading Reading is the interpretation of printed and written symbol of thought. It is an active dialogue between the author and the reader and is a basic tool for learning in all subjects. Reading is done to extend one’s knowledge, to enrich one’s experiences, to develop permanent interest in reading, to develop desirable attitudes, habits and skills.

Nature of Reading:

Nature of Reading Reading, similar to listening, spea -king and writing, is a communication skill. Reading is a process because it has series of acts proceeding from one step to the next.


Miles Zints (1972) illustrates reading process as follows: 1. Word perception – the ability to pronounce the word as a meaningful unit. 2. Comprehension – the skill in making individual words construct useful ideas as they are read in context.


Reaction – a judgment on what the author has said. 4. Integration – the ability to assimilate idea or concept into one’s background of experience so that it is useful as part of the individual’s total experience.

Kinds of Reading:

Kinds of Reading Efferent reading : reading to “take away” particular bits of information. Here, the reader is focused on obtaining a piece of information. Rosenblatt states, “the reader’s attention is primarily focused on what will remain as a residue after the reading — the information to be acquired, the logical solution to a problem, the actions to be carried out. This reading is also described as “reading for the purpose of getting information.”


Aesthetic reading : reading to explore the work and oneself. Here, readers are engaged in the experience of reading, itself. Rosenblatt states, “In aesthetic reading, the reader’s attention is centered directly on what he is living through during his relationship with that particular text.” Reading aesthetically involves concentrating upon the images, associations, and feeling.


Academic Reading : Academic reading requires a more active, probing and recursive strategy than does recreational reading. It is an essential skill for completing a written assignment. Reading strategically is integral to the process of understanding your topic, fin-ding research materials, and developing your ideas.


Academic reading involves layers of: Asking questions Reflecting on relationships among parts of the text Interpreting meaning Making connections with other readings Refining your topic and purpose


Skimming : reading by the sign posts or clues in the selection. It is a fast reading in which the reader reads headings and topic sentences and spot-reads parts of paragraphs. It is the easiest and fastest kind of reading.


Scanning : glancing through a page to locate a particular kind of information. This requires the reader to first identify key words or phrases rela -ted to the information sought and then focus attention on just those words as he glances over a page.


Ideal reading : a rapid reading for the main idea. Moving swiftly, the eyes catch large phrases at each glance and register in the brain only the most significant words in those phrases.


Exploratory reading : is done when one aims to get a fairly accurate picture of a whole presentation of ideas. Materials that call for this type of reading contain a few headings and cues and require more concentration like long articles in magazines, descriptive literature, and light fiction.


Study reading : learner gets a maximum understanding of the main ideas and their relationships. The SQ3R (survey, question, read, recite and review) reading formula is a good example of the procedure.


Techniques involved in study reading are: Preliminary skimming Thinking and questioning oneself before reading Concentrating on small units at a time with breaks for thinking and note taking between units Reviewing the basic ideas before close reading


Critical reading : reader stops to consider the facts carefully. It weighs facts and ideas to form judgments or conclusions. This kind of reading is used on mate- rials loaded with propaganda devices designed to sway opinions or sell products.


Analytic reading : this type demands careful attention to each word and its relative importance in relation to other words in the sentence or paragraph.


Silent reading – is carried on with the use of eyes alone and with the absence of audible speech. Work type – done for the purpose of securing information. This type of reading is entitled a definite period in the daily program during which effective drill lessons and activities may be taught.


Recreatory type - done for the purpose of securing recreation or pleasure. This type of reading is a purely recreational job and will not make use of drill methods, but it will have a large share of the total reading time because of its extensive local use. It develops appreciation of good prose and poetry in children.


Oral reading – reading done aloud especially with an audience. Reading aloud develops oral speech. Work type – done to provide information.


Recreatory type - done for the purpose of pleasure or enjoyment, not only for oneself but also for others.


Processes that affect reading by Miles Zints (1972): Reading is a social process. Reading is a psychological process. Reading is a physiological process. Reading is a perceptual process. Reading is a linguistic process. Reading is an intellectual process.

Factors that affect reading…:

Factors that affect reading… In Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Students, Snow, Burns, & Griffin (1998) present a synthesis of research on the conditions that affect reading. The authors identify the following factors as predictors of success and failure in reading. Although these factors refer to young readers, they also "pave the way" for reading development in later grades.

Factors that affect reading…:

Factors that affect reading…

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