gulf war 2 desert storm

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The Gulf War: 

The Gulf War The Influence of Sea Power on a Desert Victory

Iraqi Military Capabilities, 1990: 

Iraqi Military Capabilities, 1990 4th Largest Army - one million regular troops Republican Guard Forces Command (RGFC): Most capable and loyal force; best training and equipment. Experienced from 8 year war with Iran Regular Army: Mostly infantry, vintage equipment Popular Army: Ba'ath Party militia (same as Sadaam Hussein), mission restricted to rear area security

Iraqi Military Capabilities, 1990: 

Iraqi Military Capabilities, 1990 Navy: Osa patrol boats and auxiliaries Offensive Silkworm: surface-to-surface missile (100 km) Air forces: Largest in the Middle East with modern French and Soviet combat aircraft

Iraqi Military Capabilities, 1990: 

Iraqi Military Capabilities, 1990 Largest ground forces in Region 5000 main battle tanks 5000 armored infantry vehicles 3000 artillery pieces > 100mm Scud missiles estimated total of 400 Up to 750 km range. Could reach Israel, Turkey, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iran and Jordan. Biological and chemical weapon capable.

The Invasion of Kuwait: 

The Invasion of Kuwait Late July - Troops massed at the Kuwait border. U.S. did not expect an invasion. U.S. ambassador received a promise from Hussein of no attack. 2 August 1990, 0100 3 RGFC divisions attack across frontier Special Operations force assaults Kuwait City

The Invasion of Kuwait: 

The Invasion of Kuwait 2 August 1990, 0100 Amphibious assaults against Emir's palace and key facilities Emir escaped and a large portion of Kuwaiti funds were electronically transferred out of the country. Therefore, the "exiled" government had funds to operate. By 1900, Kuwait City secured by Iraqi troops.

The Invasion of Kuwait: 

The Invasion of Kuwait 3 August, Iraqi troops in position near Kuwaiti-Saudi border U.S. military reaction: 0200, 2 August 1990, CVBG in Indian Ocean ordered to Gulf of Oman. CVBG in Med ordered to Eastern Med in preparation for entering Red Sea. CVBG later positioned to Persian Gulf and Red Sea

WHY?: 

WHY? Possible Reasons: Dispute over Warbah and Bubiyan Border Disputes Ar-Rumaylah Oil Field - Iraq accuses Kuwait of extracting oil from this field. Large war debt owed to Kuwait and Saudis from Iran-Iraq war

The Invasion of Kuwait: 

The Invasion of Kuwait The SECDEF Cheney’s meetings with Saudi Arabia resulted in agreement that U.S. would provide forces to defend Saudi Arabia and would leave the Kingdom when the job was done. Diplomatic negotiations began to enlist worldwide condemnation and organization of the coalition.

The Invasion of Kuwait: 

The Invasion of Kuwait Overall concern/fear: Iraq would continue aggression and take over all of the Saudi Peninsula; thereby controlling forty percent of the oil resources in the world U.N. reaction: Condemned the invasion and demanded withdrawal. On 6 August trade and financial embargoes were imposed.

The Coalition: 

The Coalition Nearly 50 countries made a contribution. 38 countries deployed air, sea, or ground forces. Coalition members, other than U.S., provided $54 billion of the estimated $61 billion costs. About 2/3 of this was from the Gulf states. About 1/3 from Japan and Germany (both countries' constitutions prohibited direct military involvement)

The Coalition: 

The Coalition The United States, United Kingdom, France, and Canada sent naval support the first week. Italy, Spain, Germany, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and Turkey provide bases. Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria commit noncombatant military units and humanitarian assistance

The Coalition: 

The Coalition Gulf Cooperation Council (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the UAE, Oman, and Kuwait) provided access to bases and logistic assistance. Despite traditional Islamic political and religious ties, Egypt regarded attack as a breach of faith and provided troops and acted as a center for Kuwaiti exiles. Also allowed passage of Allied naval units through the Suez Canal. Syria and Morocco also deployed troops to Saudi Arabia.

The Coalition: 

The Coalition Jordan and Iran: Officially neutral; did not adhere to economic sanctions; smuggled across borders. Jordan's actions resulted in a Coalition naval unit trade embargo of the Red Sea port of Aqaba. Supporters of Iraq: Yemen and Sudan

Israel: 

Israel Maintained low profile Did not respond to Scud attacks U.S. placed Patriot missile batteries in Israel for defense against Scuds

Iraqi occupation: 

Iraqi occupation Republican Guard units eventually withdrawn to border, replaced by Popular Army and Regular Army units Atrocities included torture, rape, looting, executions, etc. Most of the provisions of the Geneva Convention concerning Protection of War Victims (civilians) and Prisoners of War were violated by Iraq.

Iraqi occupation: 

Iraqi occupation Westerners in Kuwait and Iraq were taken as hostages and used as human shields against attack (ultimately freed in December). Iraq conducted environmental terrorism by releasing millions of gallons of oil into the Persian Gulf and setting fire to Kuwaiti oil fields.

Operation Desert Shield: 

Operation Desert Shield Coalition Objectives Withdrawal of all Iraqi forces from Kuwait Restoration of Kuwait's legitimate government Security and stability of Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf

Operation Desert Shield: 

Operation Desert Shield U.S. national policy objectives Safety and protection of the lives of American citizens abroad Repayment of war reparations Destruction of nuclear, biological, chemical and long range attack weapons, under U.N. inspections and supervision.

Operation Desert Shield: 

Operation Desert Shield Defend coastal area in Saudi Arabia Needed for build up Needed to ensure Saudi Oil continued to flow Prevent Iraqis from gaining negotiation leverage Defend Saudi Borders against further Iraqi advance Build up for offensive operations

Naval Role in Desert Shield: 

Naval Role in Desert Shield First on the scene, CVBG and JTF Middle East. Provided power projection and strike capability. The initial force equalizer MIO ops commenced upon U.N. approval of the trade embargo (6 August 1990) ARG - Marine forces (defense and amphibious assault threat)

Naval Role in Desert Shield: 

Naval Role in Desert Shield Maritime Prepositioning Ships deployment Ready Reserve Fleet ships activated and fast sealift ships began loading army units 95 percent of all equipment went by sea Carrier air wings and Marine aircraft wings aided in the achieving and maintaining air supremacy in Saudi airspace. SEAL special forces operated behind enemy lines and conducted amphibious invasion deceptions.

Operation Desert Storm: 

Operation Desert Storm Four-phased campaign Phase I: Strategic air campaign Phase II: Air supremacy in theater Phase III: Battlefield preparations Phase IV: Offensive ground campaign

Operation Desert Storm: 

Operation Desert Storm Air campaign: Naval Contribution 17 Jan 1991 Tomahawks Launched from surface ships and submarines 52 in opening salvo. CV aircraft 1/3 of the total U.S. missions. 3 CV in the Gulf and Red Sea, each.

Operation Desert Storm: 

Operation Desert Storm Maritime campaign Tasking of the Naval Commander of all U.S. forces in the theater, NAVCENT (Naval Component, Central Command) in each phase Phase I and II: Participate in air campaign, establish sea control, conduct mine countermeasure operations and attack shore facilities that threaten naval operations

Operation Desert Storm: 

Operation Desert Storm Maritime campaign Phase III: Above plus attack ground forces with aircraft and naval gunfire Phase IV: All above plus conduct amphibious feints, demonstrations and prepare for amphibious assault

Operation Desert Storm: 

Operation Desert Storm Maritime campaign: Anti-surface warfare 143 Iraqi naval vessels destroyed/damaged All Iraqi naval bases/ports damaged All northern Persian Gulf oil platforms searched and secured No attacks by Iraqi surface vessels against coalition forces guns to support ground campaign first time

Operation Desert Storm: 

Operation Desert Storm Maritime campaign: Countermine warfare U.S. assets included MCM-1; two MSO ships; six MH-53E helos Two ships were damaged: U.S.S. Tripoli and U.S.S. Princeton, both in the Northern Persian Gulf

Operation Desert Storm: 

Operation Desert Storm Maritime campaign: Naval gunfire support BB Wisconsin and Missouri - 16-inch guns to support ground campaign. UAV for spotting and real time battle damage assessment

Operation Desert Storm: 

Operation Desert Storm Maritime campaign: Amphibious warfare Amphibious Task Force (ATF) conducted five amphibious operations Raided Umm Al-Maradim Island off Kuwait Against Faylaka Island Against Ash Shuaybah Port Facility Against Bubiyan Island Landing of 5th MEB in Saudi Arabia, mission of I MEF reserve

Operation Desert Storm: 

Operation Desert Storm Maritime campaign: Amphibious warfare Resulted in Iraqi focus on their western flank. Tied down 2-3 Iraqi divisions in Kuwait to defend against invasion

Operation Desert Storm: 

Operation Desert Storm Ground campaign: Marine contribution 24-28 February 100 hour campaign I MEF committed two infantry divisions Naval force continued support in form of prepared amphibious assault on the Kuwait coast. Highest priority was deception

Operation Desert Storm: 

Operation Desert Storm Ground campaign: Marine contribution The I MEF faced the strongest concentration of enemy defenses in theater and breached two defensive belts. By end of the day, I MEF had taken 8000 enemy prisoners of war and attacked twenty miles into Kuwait. All objectives were achieved including Kuwait International Airport by early 27 February.

Conclusions: 

Conclusions Estimated Iraqi losses 100,000 Iraqi soldier dead, 3847 tanks, 1450 armored personnel carriers, 2917 artillery pieces, and 32 aircraft. Estimated 86,000 POWs U.S. fatalities were 313, both combatant and noncombatant.

Conclusions: 

Conclusions The combined Coalition forces--the first coalition warfare the U.S. had seen since WW II--had won one of the fastest and most complete victories in military history. Importance of unity of command, power projection from the sea and littoral warfare Ready land bases may not always be available, reinforcing the importance of the Navy-Marine Corps team

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