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Outline: Outline Packet switching paradigms Bridges and extended LANs Cell switching Switching hardware Scalable Networks : Scalable Networks Switch forwards packets from input port to output port port selected based on address in packet header Advantages cover large geographic area (tolerate latency) support large numbers of hosts (scalable bandwidth) Packet Switching Paradigms: Packet Switching Paradigms Virtual circuit switching (routing) Datagram switching (routing) Source routing Source Routing: Source Routing The information to route the packet is provided by the source host and included in the packet Example of implementing source routing: Assign a number to each switch output port Include the list of output ports that the packet has to go through The list is rotated by the intermediate switches before forwarding Disadvantage: Packet initiators need to have a sufficient information about the network topology The header has a variable lengthSource Routing: Source RoutingVirtual Circuit (VC) Switching: Virtual Circuit (VC) Switching Explicit connection setup (and tear-down) phase Subsequent packets follow same circuit (path) Sometimes called connection-oriented model Analogy: phone call Each switch maintains a VC tableVirtual Circuit Switching: Virtual Circuit Switching Connection Setup approaches: Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVC): manually setup/removed by network administrators Switched Virtual Circuits (SVC): dynamically setup through signaling over some control channels Connection state => VC table incoming interface, VC Identifier (VCI), outgoing interface, outgoing VCI SVC: The setup message is forwarded over the network New entries are created in the VC table and destination switches choose incoming VCI When the setup message reaches the destination, connection acknowledgements and chosen VCI are communicated back to the source Virtual Circuits: Virtual Circuits Examples of Virtual Circuit Technology: Frame Relay, X.25, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Frame Relay was popular for creating virtual private networks (VPNs) using PVC. ATM is a more complex technology that provides mechanisms for supporting quality of serviceDatagram Switching: Datagram Switching No connection setup phase Each packet forwarded independently Sometimes called connectionless model 0 1 3 2 0 1 3 2 0 1 3 2 Switch 3 Switch 2 Host A Switch 1 Host C Host D Host E Host G Host H Analogy: postal system Each switch maintains a forwarding (routing) table Switch 4Virtual Circuit Model: Virtual Circuit Model Setup: Typically wait full RTT for connection setup before sending first data packet. Header: While the connection request contains the full destination address, each data packet contains only a small identifier, making the per-packet header overhead small. Quality of Service (QoS): Connection setup allows resource reservation If a switch or a link in a connection fails, the connection is broken and a new one needs to be established. Datagram Model: Datagram Model Setup: There is no round trip time delay waiting for connection setup; a host can send data as soon as it is ready. Header: Since every packet must carry the full address of the destination, the overhead per packet is higher than for the connection-oriented model. Quality of Service (QoS): Source host has no way of knowing if the network is capable of delivering a packet or if the destination host is even up. Since packets are treated independently, it is possible to route around link and node failures. Successive packets may follow different paths and be received out of order. Outline: Outline Packet switching paradigms Bridges and extended LANs Cell switching Switching hardware Bridges and Extended LANs: Bridges and Extended LANs LANs have physical limitations (e.g., 2500m) Connect two or more LANs with a bridge accept and forward strategy level 2 connection (does not add packet header) Ethernet Switch is a LAN Switch = BridgeLearning Bridges : Learning Bridges Do not forward when unnecessary Maintain forwarding table Host Port A 1 B 1 C 1 X 2 Y 2 Z 2 Learn table entries based on source address Table is an optimization; need not be complete Always forward broadcast frames Spanning Tree Algorithm : Spanning Tree Algorithm Problem: loops Bridges run a distributed spanning tree algorithm select which bridges actively forward developed by Radia Perlman now IEEE 802.1 specification Algorithm Overview : Algorithm Overview Each bridge has unique id (e.g., B1, B2, B3) Select bridge with smallest id as root Select bridge on each LAN closest to root as designated bridge (use id to break ties) Each bridge forwards frames over each LAN for which it is the designated bridgeAlgorithm Details: Algorithm Details Bridges exchange configuration messages id for bridge sending the message id for what the sending bridge believes to be root bridge distance (hops) from sending bridge to root bridge Each bridge records current best configuration message for each port Initially, each bridge believes it is the rootAlgorithm Detail (cont): Algorithm Detail (cont) When learn not root, stop generating config messages in steady state, only root generates configuration messages When learn not designated bridge, stop forwarding config messages in steady state, only designated bridges forward config messages Root continues to periodically send config messages If any bridge does not receive config message after a period of time, it starts generating config messages claiming to be the rootBroadcast and Multicast: Broadcast and Multicast Forward all broadcast/multicast frames current practice Learn when no group members downstream Accomplished by having each member of group G send a frame to bridge multicast address with G in source field Limitations of Bridges: Limitations of Bridges Do not scale spanning tree algorithm does not scale broadcast does not scale Do not accommodate heterogeneity Caution: beware of transparency Bridged LANs do not always behave as single shared medium LAN: they drop packets when congested, higher latencyVirtual LANs (VLAN): Virtual LANs (VLAN) VLANs are used to: increase scalability: reduce broadcast messages provide some basic security by separating LANs VLANs have an ID (color). Bridges insert the VLAN ID between the ethernet header and its payload Packets (unicast and multicast) are only forwarded to VLAN with the same ID as the source VLAN You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.