Lecture 4

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Russian Federation: Market Liberalization, Authoritarianism, and Oil: 

Russian Federation: Market Liberalization, Authoritarianism, and Oil

The formation of the USSR: 

The formation of the USSR Formed in 1917: Bolsheviks against Czar Nicholas II. Lenin and Marx: The communist party and capitalism New Economic Program: hybrid of capitalism and socialism The ideals of communism: Redistribution of power to the proletarian. Stalin and the birth of the command economy. Soviet Authoritarianism, 20 million deaths, the repression of media and political dissent. Ethnicity in the USSR: the Russianization of the region.

Oil and the Command Economy: 

Oil and the Command Economy Control over resources and infrastructure: State run monopolies and the consolidation of power in Central Asia.

Map of the Current Federation: 

Map of the Current Federation Formed after the fall of the USSR in 1991 following a failed coup. Causes of failure: Misallocation of goods and services, an overemphasis on industry over agriculture, Cold War Military expenditure. Is Central Asia a member of the federation?

The Privatization of Russia: 

The Privatization of Russia Failure of Socialism required new economic model: Capitalism. Foreign Direct Investment and the Dismantling of the Command Economy. Loss of State revenue and debt. By 1998 Russia’s debt was 90 percent of its GDP.

The birth of the Oligarch : 

The birth of the Oligarch Rise in cost of goods and loss of personal savings: limiting the entrepreneur. Sale of state run industries: political power, corruption and bribes. Consolidation of wealth and power and the effects on social services.

NeoLiberalism in Russia: Shock Therapy: 

NeoLiberalism in Russia: Shock Therapy Dramatic rise in the costs of goods. Life expectancy: Male: 1990 63.9, 2003 59 Female: 1990 74.4, 2003 72 No other country in the world has experienced this large of a difference during peacetime. Causes: Job loss, stress and alcoholism.

Neoliberalism and the Rise of a New Russian Authoritarianism: 

Neoliberalism and the Rise of a New Russian Authoritarianism Authoritarianism: of or pertaining to a governmental or political system, principle, or practice in which individual freedom is held as completely subordinate to the power or authority of the state, centered either in one person or a small group that is not constitutionally accountable to the people.


Continued… Privatization of Russian Oil empowers multinational oil companies and oligarchs. Russian state losses revenue to pay for social services: social unrest. Multinational oil companies pushing private oil companies to construct new pipelines in Central Asia that by-pass Russia. Weakens Russia’s regional power


Gazprom Primarily State owned oil and gas monopoly: Vladimir Putin the next president of Gazprom? The imprisonment of an Oligarch: Yukos and Mikhail Khodorkovsky.


Videos http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/july-dec04/yukos_12-23.html#


Conclusion The rapid privatization and neoliberalization of Russian industry in the 1990’s and early 2000’s were responsible for the return of authoritarianism in Russia. People’s experience with privatization, their loss of well-being, has given political support to Putin’s aggressive authoritarian tactics.

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