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Project File : 

Project File Topic: Pollution Subject: Environmental Education Submitted To: Ms. Surbhi Khanna Submitted By- 1)Ananya Bhatnagar 2)Aditi Saxena 3)Ayushi Namdev 4)Abhishek Rawat 5)Abhishek Singh 6)Akhil Shrivastav 7)Alok Shrivastav 8)Aman Chaturvedi 9)Amrish Pandey 10)Ankit Singh 11)Ankur

Pollution : 


Contents : 

Contents Introduction Forms Of Pollution Pollutants Sources of Water Pollution Sources of Air Pollution Effects of Air Pollution Sources of Land Pollution Effects Of Land Pollution Regulation and Monitoring Pollution Control Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Next

Introduction : 

Introduction Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. The Blacksmith Institute issues annually a list of the world's worst polluted places. In the 2007 issues the ten top nominees are located in Azerbaijan, China, India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine and Zambia. In the late industrial age, the term over pollution was common, representing a view that was both critical of industrial pollution, but likewise accepted a certain degree of pollution as nominal industrial practice. Back To Contents

Forms Of Pollution : 

Forms Of Pollution The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular pollutants relevant to each of them: Air pollution, the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous air pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Particulate matter, or fine dust is characterized by their micrometre size PM10 to PM2.5. Light pollution, includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference. Littering Noise pollution, which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar. Back To Contents Next

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Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals, MTBE, herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Radioactive contamination, resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment. (See alpha emitters and actinides in the environment.) Thermal pollution, is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence, such as use of water as coolant in a power plant. Visual pollution, which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines, motorway billboards, scarred landforms (as from strip mining), open storage of trash or municipal solid waste. Water pollution, by the release of waste products and contaminants into surface runoff into river drainage systems, leaching into groundwater, liquid spills, wastewater discharges, eutrophication and littering. Back

Pollutants : 

Pollutants A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its chemical nature, the concentration and the persistence. Back To Contents

Sources of Water Pollution: : 

Sources of Water Pollution: Acids: Both organic and inorganic acids are discharged into rivers as industrial wastes. Sulphuric acid is the main constituents with nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid. These acids can damage metals or concrete structures by their corrosive action.  Alkalis: Alkalis alter the pH value in rivers resulting in the break off of the natural buffer system. Alkalis too destroy bacterial and other micro-organisms to restrict the self-purification of the stream. Fishes and other aquatic life are also affected in the process. Suspended Impurities: Insoluble matter in suspension is the common form of pollution as it is present in sewage and industrial waste waters reducing the photosynthetic activity of water-plants. Suspended matter chokes the gills of fish and destroys aquatic life. Back To Contents Next

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Gaseous Pollutants:  It includes ammonia, free chlorine, hydrogen sulphide, ozone and phospine. Ammonia produces a spasm of the glottis leading to death and acts like poison to fishes when it enters their body through gills. Oils: Replacement of coal by oil as a fuel has aggravated the problem of pollution. Oil spreads over the surface of water, thus inhibiting the diffusion of oxygen into water thereby coating the gills of fishes and affecting their respiration.   Toxic Metals:  It includes metals such as mercury, cadmium, lead, chromium, copper and arsenic. Back

Sources of Air Pollution : 

Sources of Air Pollution Sulphur Oxides (SOx) - Especially sulfur dioxide, a chemical compound with the formula SO2. SO2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) - Especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from high temperature combustion. Can be seen as the brown haze dome above or plume downwind of cities. Carbon Monoxide – It is a colourless, odourless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas. It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood. Back To Contents Next

Slide 11: 

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - A greenhouse gas emitted from combustion but is also a gas vital to living organisms. It is a natural gas in the atmosphere. Volatile Organic Compounds - VOCs are an important outdoor air pollutant. In this field they are often divided into the separate categories of methane (CH4) and non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which contributes to enhanced global warming. Within the NMVOCs, the aromatic compounds benzene, toluene and xylene are suspected carcinogens and may lead to leukemia through prolonged exposure. Particulate Matter - Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM) or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. Back Next

Slide 12: 

Toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium and copper. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - Harmful to the ozone layer emitted from products currently banned from use. Ammonia (NH3) - Emitted from agricultural processes. Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Odors — Such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes . Radioactive pollutants - produced by nuclear explosions, war explosives, and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of radon. Back

Effects Of Air Pollution : 

Effects Of Air Pollution Rapid industrialization in the country poses problems of air pollution and affects health of plants and animals; serious dangers to plants and non-living things can also be observed. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of USA has estimated that air pollution takes an actual toll of 6.10 billion $ because of sickness, loss of working time ,medical bills and premature death. Damage to crops and vegetation is estimated at another 100 Billion $; damage to various materials at 4.7 billion $ and damage to residential property at 5.2 billion $ annually. Back To Contents

Sources of Land Pollution : 

Sources of Land Pollution Acid Rain: Acid rain has become a standard part of our water cycle. The water cycle begins with collection of water droplets off the ocean into clouds. The clouds then move over land, dumping the load of droplets in the form of rain, snow or sleet. Once the cloud releases these droplets, outdoor air quality becomes an issue. Droplets traveling through heavily polluted air capture the acid particles. These entrapped particles are released into the soil when the droplets hit the ground as rain or snow. Back To Contents Next

Slide 15: 

Industrial Pollution: In a perfect world, every industry would act responsibly and never pollute the environment if it could be avoided. In reality, incidences of soil pollution occur every day. Industrial runoff finds its way into stream beds and rivers contaminating the soil along the banks. Many industries contribute to the pollution in the air as well. Chemical, electrical and machine factories generate pollution, as do food, paper and agricultural sources. Some industries dump harmful waste products that contain chemicals such as radioactive materials, ammonia, acids and other harsh chemicals. Back Next

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Herbicides & Pesticides: Weed killers (herbicides) and pesticides to kill insects seeps into the soil. This affects the soil at a biological level, killing organisms that live in the soil as well as insects and pests. Natural bacteria in the soil carry nutrients to the roots of plants. Topical applications of herbicides and pesticides upset this balance. In addition, rain can cause runoff that transports both herbicides and pesticides to local streams and rivers. This pollutes the water source and the soil near the water source. Back

Effects of Land Pollution : 

Effects of Land Pollution Agricultural: Reduced soil fertility Reduced nitrogen fixation Increased erodibility Larger loss of soil and nutrients Deposition of silt in tanks and reservoirs Reduced crop yield Imbalance in soil fauna and flora Industrial: Dangerous chemicals entering underground water Ecological imbalance Back To Contents Next

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Release of pollutant gases Release of radioactive rays causing health problems Increased salinity Reduced vegetation Urban: Clogging of drains Inundation of areas Public health problems Pollution of drinking water sources Foul smell and release of gases Waste management problems Back

Regulation and monitoring : 

Regulation and monitoring To protect the environment from the adverse effects of pollution, many nations worldwide have enacted legislation to regulate various types of pollution as well as to mitigate the adverse effects of pollution. Back To Contents

Pollution Control : 

Pollution Control Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. Without pollution control, the waste products from consumption, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment. In the hierarchy of controls, pollution prevention and waste minimization are more desirable than pollution control. Practices: Recycling Pollution control devices: Dust collection systems Baghouses Cyclones Electrostatic precipitators Back To Contents Next

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Scrubbers Baffle spray scrubber Cyclonic spray scrubber Ejector venturi scrubber Mechanically aided scrubber Spray tower Wet scrubber Sewage treatment Activated sludge biotreaters API oil-water separators Biofilters Dissolved air flotation (DAF) Powdered activated carbon treatment Sedimentation (water treatment) Vapor recovery systems Back

Green House Gases and Global Warming : 

Green House Gases and Global Warming Carbon dioxide, while vital for photosynthesis, is sometimes referred to as pollution, because raised levels of the gas in the atmosphere are affecting the Earth's climate. Disruption of the environment can also highlight the connection between areas of pollution that would normally be classified separately, such as those of water and air. Recent studies have investigated the potential for long-term rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide to cause slight but critical increases in the acidity of ocean waters, and the possible effects of this on marine ecosystems. Back To Contents

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