Quality Management : Quality Management Objectives : Objectives To introduce the quality management process and key quality management activities
To explain the role of standards in quality management
To explain the concept of a software metric, predictor metrics and control metrics
To explain how measurement may be used in assessing software quality and the limitations of software measurement Topics covered : Topics covered Process and product quality
Quality assurance and standards
Quality control Software quality management : Software quality management Concerned with ensuring that the required level of quality is achieved in a software product.
Involves defining appropriate quality standards and procedures and ensuring that these are followed.
Should aim to develop a ‘quality culture’ where quality is seen as everyone’s responsibility. What is quality? : What is quality? Quality, simplistically, means that a product should meet its specification.
This is problematical for software systems
There is a tension between customer quality requirements (efficiency, reliability, etc.) and developer quality requirements (maintainability, reusability, etc.);
Some quality requirements are difficult to specify in an unambiguous way;
Software specifications are usually incomplete and often inconsistent. The quality compromise : The quality compromise We cannot wait for specifications to improve before paying attention to quality management.
We must put quality management procedures into place to improve quality in spite of imperfect specification. Scope of quality management : Scope of quality management Quality management is particularly important for large, complex systems. The quality documentation is a record of progress and supports continuity of development as the development team changes.
For smaller systems, quality management needs less documentation and should focus on establishing a quality culture. Quality management activities : Quality management activities Quality assurance
Establish organisational procedures and standards for quality.
Select applicable procedures and standards for a particular project and modify these as required.
Ensure that procedures and standards are followed by the software development team.
Quality management should be separate from project management to ensure independence. Quality management and software development : Quality management and software development Process and product quality : The quality of a developed product is influenced by the quality of the production process.
This is important in software development as some product quality attributes are hard to assess.
However, there is a very complex and poorly understood relationship between software processes and product quality. Process and product quality Process-based quality : Process-based quality There is a straightforward link between process and product in manufactured goods.
More complex for software because:
The application of individual skills and experience is particularly imporant in software development;
External factors such as the novelty of an application or the need for an accelerated development schedule may impair product quality.
Care must be taken not to impose inappropriate process standards - these could reduce rather than improve the product quality. Process-based quality : Process-based quality Practical process quality : Define process standards such as how reviews should be conducted, configuration management, etc.
Monitor the development process to ensure that standards are being followed.
Report on the process to project management and software procurer.
Don’t use inappropriate practices simply because standards have been established. Practical process quality Quality assurance and standards : Standards are the key to effective quality management.
They may be international, national, organizational or project standards.
Product standards define characteristics that all components should exhibit e.g. a common programming style.
Process standards define how the software process should be enacted. Quality assurance and standards Importance of standards : Encapsulation of best practice- avoids repetition of past mistakes.
They are a framework for quality assurance processes - they involve checking compliance to standards.
They provide continuity - new staff can understand the organisation by understanding the standards that are used. Importance of standards Product and process standards : Product and process standards Problems with standards : Problems with standards They may not be seen as relevant and up-to-date by software engineers.
They often involve too much bureaucratic form filling.
If they are unsupported by software tools, tedious manual work is often involved to maintain the documentation associated with the standards. Standards development : Involve practitioners in development. Engineers should understand the rationale underlying a standard.
Review standards and their usage regularly. Standards can quickly become outdated and this reduces their credibility amongst practitioners.
Detailed standards should have associated tool support. Excessive clerical work is the most significant complaint against standards. Standards development ISO 9000 : ISO 9000 An international set of standards for quality management.
Applicable to a range of organisations from manufacturing to service industries.
ISO 9001 applicable to organisations which design, develop and maintain products.
ISO 9001 is a generic model of the quality process that must be instantiated for each organisation using the standard. ISO 9001 : ISO 9001 ISO 9000 certification : ISO 9000 certification Quality standards and procedures should be documented in an organisational quality manual.
An external body may certify that an organisation’s quality manual conforms to ISO 9000 standards.
Some customers require suppliers to be ISO 9000 certified although the need for flexibility here is increasingly recognised. ISO 9000 and quality management : ISO 9000 and quality management Documentation standards : Documentation standards Particularly important - documents are the tangible manifestation of the software.
Documentation process standards
Concerned with how documents should be developed, validated and maintained.
Concerned with document contents, structure, and appearance.
Document interchange standards
Concerned with the compatibility of electronic documents. Documentation process : Documentation process Document standards : Document standards Document identification standards
How documents are uniquely identified.
Document structure standards
Standard structure for project documents.
Document presentation standards
Define fonts and styles, use of logos, etc.
Document update standards
Define how changes from previous versions are reflected in a document. Document interchange standards : Document interchange standards Interchange standards allow electronic documents to be exchanged, mailed, etc.
Documents are produced using different systems and on different computers. Even when standard tools are used, standards are needed to define conventions for their use e.g. use of style sheets and macros.
Need for archiving. The lifetime of word processing systems may be much less than the lifetime of the software being documented. An archiving standard may be defined to ensure that the document can be accessed in future. Quality planning : Quality planning A quality plan sets out the desired product qualities and how these are assessed and defines the most significant quality attributes.
The quality plan should define the quality assessment process.
It should set out which organisational standards should be applied and, where necessary, define new standards to be used. Quality plans : Quality plans Quality plan structure
Risks and risk management.
Quality plans should be short, succinct documents
If they are too long, no-one will read them. Software quality attributes : Software quality attributes Quality control : Quality control This involves checking the software development process to ensure that procedures and standards are being followed.
There are two approaches to quality control
Automated software assessment and software measurement. Quality reviews : Quality reviews This is the principal method of validating the quality of a process or of a product.
A group examines part or all of a process or system and its documentation to find potential problems.
There are different types of review with different objectives
Inspections for defect removal (product);
Reviews for progress assessment (product and process);
Quality reviews (product and standards). Types of review : Types of review Quality reviews : A group of people carefully examine part or all of a software system and its associated documentation.
Code, designs, specifications, test plans, standards, etc. can all be reviewed.
Software or documents may be 'signed off' at a review which signifies that progress to the next development stage has been approved by management. Quality reviews Review functions : Review functions Quality function - they are part of the general quality management process.
Project management function - they provide information for project managers.
Training and communication function - product knowledge is passed between development team members. Quality reviews : Quality reviews The objective is the discovery of system defects and inconsistencies.
Any documents produced in the process may be reviewed.
Review teams should be relatively small and reviews should be fairly short.
Records should always be maintained of quality reviews. Review results : Comments made during the review should be classified
No action. No change to the software or documentation is required;
Refer for repair. Designer or programmer should correct an identified fault;
Reconsider overall design. The problem identified in the review impacts other parts of the design. Some overall judgement must be made about the most cost-effective way of solving the problem;
Requirements and specification errors may have to be referred to the client. Review results Software measurement and metrics : Software measurement and metrics Software measurement is concerned with deriving a numeric value for an attribute of a software product or process.
This allows for objective comparisons between techniques and processes.
Although some companies have introduced measurement programmes, most organisations still don’t make systematic use of software measurement.
There are few established standards in this area. Software metric : Any type of measurement which relates to a software system, process or related documentation
Lines of code in a program, the Fog index, number of person-days required to develop a component.
Allow the software and the software process to be quantified.
May be used to predict product attributes or to control the software process.
Product metrics can be used for general predictions or to identify anomalous components. Software metric Predictor and control metrics : Predictor and control metrics Metrics assumptions : A software property can be measured.
The relationship exists between what we can measure and what we want to know. We can only measure internal attributes but are often more interested in external software attributes.
This relationship has been formalised and validated.
It may be difficult to relate what can be measured to desirable external quality attributes. Metrics assumptions Internal and external attributes : Internal and external attributes The measurement process : The measurement process A software measurement process may be part of a quality control process.
Data collected during this process should be maintained as an organisational resource.
Once a measurement database has been established, comparisons across projects become possible. Product measurement process : Product measurement process Data collection : Data collection A metrics programme should be based on a set of product and process data.
Data should be collected immediately (not in retrospect) and, if possible, automatically.
Three types of automatic data collection
Static product analysis;
Dynamic product analysis;
Process data collation. Data accuracy : Data accuracy Don’t collect unnecessary data
The questions to be answered should be decided in advance and the required data identified.
Tell people why the data is being collected.
It should not be part of personnel evaluation.
Don’t rely on memory
Collect data when it is generated not after a project has finished. Product metrics : A quality metric should be a predictor of product quality.
Classes of product metric
Dynamic metrics which are collected by measurements made of a program in execution;
Static metrics which are collected by measurements made of the system representations;
Dynamic metrics help assess efficiency and reliability; static metrics help assess complexity, understandability and maintainability. Product metrics Dynamic and static metrics : Dynamic and static metrics Dynamic metrics are closely related to software quality attributes
It is relatively easy to measure the response time of a system (performance attribute) or the number of failures (reliability attribute).
Static metrics have an indirect relationship with quality attributes
You need to try and derive a relationship between these metrics and properties such as complexity, understandability and maintainability. Software product metrics : Software product metrics Object-oriented metrics : Object-oriented metrics Measurement analysis : Measurement analysis It is not always obvious what data means
Analysing collected data is very difficult.
Professional statisticians should be consulted if available.
Data analysis must take local circumstances into account. Measurement surprises : Measurement surprises Reducing the number of faults in a program leads to an increased number of help desk calls
The program is now thought of as more reliable and so has a wider more diverse market. The percentage of users who call the help desk may have decreased but the total may increase;
A more reliable system is used in a different way from a system where users work around the faults. This leads to more help desk calls. Key points : Key points Software quality management is concerned with ensuring that software meets its required standards.
Quality assurance procedures should be documented in an organisational quality manual.
Software standards are an encapsulation of best practice.
Reviews are the most widely used approach for assessing software quality. Key points : Key points Software measurement gathers information about both the software process and the software product.
Product quality metrics should be used to identify potentially problematical components.
There are no standardised and universally applicable software metrics.