Quality Tools in Just 2 Hours

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Even non-quality trained execuitves can master the tools in just 2 hours ! Transform typical reports into quick-grab important info for management !

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QUALITY TOOLS in JUST 2 HOURS ! :

QUALITY TOOLS in JUST 2 HOURS ! By : Jamilah Haron Contact email : j amilah.haron@gmail.com Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt Member, American Society of Quality

PowerPoint Presentation:

Learning Objectives: Hands-on learning of Quality Tools and Continuous Improvement Tools ! Learn TRANSFORM monthly reports to deliver more important information instantly Agenda: 10:30-11:15 : Process Flow Chart, Cause and Effect Diagram, Check sheet, Pivot Table 11:15 – 12: 00 : Histogram, Pareto Chart, Scatter Plot, Stratification 12:00 – 12:30 : Control Chart, Quality Tools in Reporting, 12:30-1:00pm : Test

PowerPoint Presentation:

SEVEN BASIC QUALITY TOOLS

Seven Basic Quality Tools:

Seven Basic Quality Tools "The Basic Seven." Build your quality journey and Process Improvement skills by mastering these tools. 1. Cause-and-effect diagram (also called Ishikawa or fishbone chart): Identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem and sorts ideas into useful categories. 2. Check sheet : A structured, prepared form for collecting and analyzing data; a generic tool that can be adapted for a wide variety of purposes. 3. Histogram: The most commonly used graph for showing frequency distributions, or how often each different value in a set of data occurs.

Seven Basic Quality Tools:

4. Pareto chart : Shows on a bar graph which factors are more significant. 5. Scatter diagram : Graphs pairs of numerical data, one variable on each axis, to look for a relationship. 6. Stratification : A technique that separates data gathered from a variety of sources so that patterns can be seen (some lists replace "stratification" with "flowchart" or "run chart"). 7. Control charts : Graphs used to study how a process changes over time. Seven Basic Quality Tools Details of each Basic Quality Tools are provided in the Section “Quality Tool Box”

QUALITY TOOL BOX :

QUALITY TOOL BOX Flow Chart Cause and Effect Diagram Check Sheet Histogram Pareto Chart Scatter Diagram Stratification Control Chart

Quality Tool Box – Flow Chart:

Quality Tool Box – Flow Chart Flowchart Also called: process flowchart, process flow diagram. Description A flowchart is a picture of the separate steps of a process in sequential order. Elements that may be included are: sequence of actions, materials or services entering or leaving the process (inputs and outputs), decisions that must be made, people who become involved, time involved at each step and/or process measurements. The process described can be anything: a manufacturing process, an administrative or service process, a project plan. This is a generic tool that can be adapted for a wide variety of purposes. ) to see if they agree that the process is drawn accurately.

Quality Tool Box - Flow Chart:

Quality Tool Box - Flow Chart When to Use a Flowchart To develop understanding of how a process is done. To study a process for improvement. To communicate to others how a process is done. When better communication is needed between people involved with the same process. To document a process. When planning a project.

Steps in Making Flow Chart:

Steps in Making Flow Chart Flowchart Basic Procedure Materials needed: Sticky notes or cards, a large piece of flipchart paper , marking pens. Steps Define the process to be diagrammed. Write its title at the top of the work surface. Discuss and decide on the boundaries of your process: Where or when does the process start? Where or when does it end? Discuss and decide on the level of detail to be included in the diagram. Brainstorm the activities that take place. Write each on a card or sticky note. Sequence is not important at this point, although thinking in sequence may help people remember all the steps. Arrange the activities in proper sequence. When all activities are included and everyone agrees that the sequence is correct, draw arrows to show the flow of the process. Review the flowchart with others involved in the process (workers, supervisors, suppliers, customers

Detailed Flow Chart:

Detailed Flow Chart High Level Flow Chart Flow Chart example

Basic Quality Tool No 1 : Cause-and-Effect Diagram:

Basic Quality Tool No 1 : Cause-and-Effect Diagram Also called Fishbone Diagram, Ishikawa Diagram Description The fishbone diagram identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem. It can be used to structure a brainstorming session. It immediately sorts ideas into useful categories. When to Use a Fishbone Diagram When identifying possible causes for a problem. Especially when a team’s thinking tends to fall into ruts.

Basic Quality Tool No 1 : Cause-and-Effect Diagram:

Fishbone Diagram Procedure Materials needed: flipchart or whiteboard, marking pens. Agree on a problem statement (effect). Write it at the center right of the flipchart or whiteboard. Draw a box around it and draw a horizontal arrow running to it. 2. Brainstorm the major categories of causes of the problem. If this is difficult use generic headings: Methods Machines (equipment) People (manpower) Materials Measurement Environment Basic Quality Tool No 1 : Cause-and-Effect Diagram Double Click on file to construct the diagram

PowerPoint Presentation:

Copy Paste diagram into Power Point slide

Basic Quality Tool No 1 : Cause-and-Effect Diagram:

Write the categories of causes as branches from the main arrow. Brainstorm all the possible causes of the problem. Ask: “Why does this happen?” As each idea is given, the facilitator writes it as a branch from the appropriate category. Causes can be written in several places if they relate to several categories. Again ask “why does this happen?” about each cause. Write sub-causes branching off the causes. Continue to ask “Why?” and generate deeper levels of causes. Layers of branches indicate causal relationships. When the group runs out of ideas, focus attention to places on the chart where ideas are few. Fishbone Diagram Procedure - continuation Basic Quality Tool No 1 : Cause-and-Effect Diagram MANUAL METHOD OPTIONAL. USE EXCEL TEMPLATE

PowerPoint Presentation:

This fishbone diagram was drawn by a manufacturing team to try to understand the source of periodic iron contamination. The team used the six generic headings to prompt ideas. Layers of branches show thorough thinking about the causes of the problem. EFFECT (Problem) Major Categories Major Categories Possible causes Sub-causes Possible causes? Sub-causes Possible causes Sub-causes Basic Quality Tool No 1 : Example of Cause-and-Effect

Basic Quality Tool No 2 : Check sheet:

Basic Quality Tool No 2 : Check sheet Description A check sheet is a structured, prepared form for collecting and analyzing data. This is a generic tool that can be adapted for a wide variety of purposes. When to Use a Check Sheet When data can be observed and collected repeatedly by the same person or at the same location. When collecting data on the frequency or patterns of events, problems, defects, defect location, defect causes, etc.

Basic Quality Tool No 2 : Check sheet:

Check Sheet Procedure Decide what event or problem will be observed. Develop operational definitions. Decide when data will be collected and for how long. Design the form. Set it up so that data can be recorded simply by making check marks or Xs or similar symbols and so that data do not have to be recopied for analysis. Label all spaces on the form. Test the check sheet for a short trial period to be sure it collects the appropriate data and is easy to use. Each time the targeted event or problem occurs, record data on the check sheet. Basic Quality Tool No 2 : Check sheet MANUAL METHOD OPTIONAL. If using Excel, use Pivot Table

Basic Quality Tool No 2 : Check sheet Example:

Basic Quality Tool No 2 : Check sheet Example The figure below shows a check sheet used to collect data on telephone interruptions. The tick marks were added as data was collected over several weeks.

Instead of using manual check sheet, we will use Pivot Table to summarize large data.:

Instead of using manual check sheet, we will use Pivot Table to summarize large data. Make sure all Data Filter are not active STEP 1

Instead of using manual check sheet, we will use Pivot Table to summarize large data.:

Instead of using manual check sheet, we will use Pivot Table to summarize large data. STEP 2

Instead of using manual check sheet, we will use Pivot Table to summarize large data.:

Instead of using manual check sheet, we will use Pivot Table to summarize large data. The table format is ready ! Choose which ever information to be summarized STEP 3

Instead of using manual check sheet, we will use Pivot Table to summarize large data.:

Instead of using manual check sheet, we will use Pivot Table to summarize large data. Example ..Summary of Number of Cases by Branch Name STEP 4

Basic Quality Tool No 3 : Histogram:

Basic Quality Tool No 3 : Histogram Description A frequency distribution shows how often each different value in a set of data occurs. A histogram is the most commonly used graph to show frequency distributions. It looks very much like a bar chart, but there are important differences between them. When to Use a Histogram When the data are numerical. When you want to see the shape of the data’s distribution, especially when determining whether the output of a process is distributed approximately normally. When analyzing whether a process can meet the customer’s requirements. When seeing whether a process change has occurred from one time period to another.

Basic Quality Tool No 3 : Histogram:

Histogram Construction Collect at least 50 consecutive data points from a process. Use the histogram worksheet to set up the histogram. Histogram Analysis Before drawing any conclusions from your histogram, satisfy yourself that the process was operating normally during the time period being studied. If any unusual events affected the process during the time period of the histogram, your analysis of the histogram shape probably cannot be generalized to all time periods. Analyze the meaning of your histogram’s shape. Basic Quality Tool No 3 : Histogram Double Click on file to construct Histogram. Note : Use “Paste Values”

Basic Quality Tool No 3 : Histogram:

Basic Quality Tool No 3 : Histogram Typical Histogram Shapes and What They Mean Normal . A common pattern is the bell-shaped curve known as the “normal distribution.” In a normal distribution, points are as likely to occur on one side of the average as on the other. Example : Distribution of heights (in cm) of all employees.

Basic Quality Tool No 3 : Histogram:

Basic Quality Tool No 3 : Histogram Skewed. The skewed distribution is asymmetrical because a natural limit prevents outcomes on one side. The distribution’s peak is off center toward the limit and a tail stretches away from it. For example, a distribution of analyses of time difference between employees arriving at work (clock in time) and official company start time. Or , differences in actual turn around to resolve certain types of complaints compared to goal for that segment. These distributions are called right- or left-skewed according to the direction of the tail. Typical Histogram Shapes and What They Mean TAIL This is right-skewed since the tail is at our right

Basic Quality Tool No 3 : Histogram:

Basic Quality Tool No 3 : Histogram Double-peaked or bimodal. The bimodal distribution looks like the back of a two-humped camel. The outcomes of two processes with different distributions are combined in one set of data. For example, a distribution of production data from a two-shift operation might be bimodal, if each shift produces a different distribution of results. Stratification often reveals this problem. Typical Histogram Shapes and What They Mean

Basic Quality Tool No 4 : Pareto Chart or Pareto Analysis:

Description A Pareto chart is a bar graph. The lengths of the bars represent frequency or cost (time or money), and are arranged with longest bars on the left and the shortest to the right. In this way the chart visually depicts which situations are more significant. When to Use a Pareto Chart When analyzing data about the frequency of problems or causes in a process. When there are many problems or causes and you want to focus on the most significant. When analyzing broad causes by looking at their specific components. Basic Quality Tool No 4 : Pareto Chart or Pareto Analysis Based on 80-20 Rule : 80% of the problem is caused by 20% of the causes

First Example of Pareto Chart:

First Example of Pareto Chart Example 1 shows how many customer complaints were received in each of five categories of processes or departments.

Second Example of Pareto Chart:

Example 2 takes the largest category, “documents,” from Example #1, breaks it down into six categories of document-related complaints, and shows cumulative values. If all complaints cause equal distress to the customer, working on eliminating document-related complaints would have the most impact, and of those, working on quality certificates should be most fruitful. Second Example of Pareto Chart

Basic Quality Tool No 4 : Pareto Chart:

Pareto Chart Procedure Decide what categories you will use to group items. (Horizontal Axis or X Axis) Decide what measurement is appropriate. Common measurements are frequency, quantity, cost and time. (Vertical Axis or Y Axis) Decide what period of time the Pareto chart will cover: One work cycle? One full day? A week? Collect the data, recording the category each time. (Or assemble data that already exist.) Subtotal the measurements for each category. Basic Quality Tool No 4 : Pareto Chart Double Click on file to construct Pareto Chart Note : Use “paste Values”

Basic Quality Tool No 4 : Pareto Chart:

Construct and label bars for each category. Place the tallest at the far left, then the next tallest to its right and so on. If there are many categories with small measurements, they can be grouped as “other.” Steps 8 and 9 are optional but are useful for analysis and communication. Calculate the percentage for each category: the subtotal for that category divided by the total for all categories. Draw a right vertical axis and label it with percentages. Calculate and draw cumulative sums: Add the subtotals for the first and second categories, and place a dot above the second bar indicating that sum. To that sum add the subtotal for the third category, and place a dot above the third bar for that new sum. Continue the process for all the bars. Connect the dots, starting at the top of the first bar. The last dot should reach 100 percent on the right scale. Basic Quality Tool No 4 : Pareto Chart MANUAL METHOD OPTIONAL. USE EXCEL TEMPLATE

Construct Pareto of M&M colors:

Construct Pareto of M&M colors Produce a Pareto Chart of colors of M&M chocolate in a pack of M&M Compare differences between your colleagues 80% of your M&M content consists of what color?

Basic Quality Tool No 5 : Scatter Diagram:

Also called: scatter plot, X–Y graph Description The scatter diagram graphs pairs of numerical data, with one variable on each axis, to look for a relationship between them. If the variables are correlated, the points will fall along a line or curve. The better the correlation, the tighter the points will hug the line. When to Use a Scatter Diagram When you have paired numerical data. When trying to determine whether the two variables are related, such as… When trying to identify potential root causes of problems. After brainstorming causes and effects using a fishbone diagram, to determine objectively whether a particular cause and effect are related. When determining whether two effects that appear to be related both occur with the same cause. Basic Quality Tool No 5 : Scatter Diagram

Basic Quality Tool No 5 : Scatter Diagram:

Basic Quality Tool No 5 : Scatter Diagram Scatter Diagram Procedure Collect pairs of data where a relationship is suspected. Draw a graph with the independent variable on the horizontal axis and the dependent variable on the vertical axis. For each pair of data, put a dot or a symbol where the x-axis value intersects the y-axis value. (If two dots fall together, put them side by side, touching, so that you can see both.) Look at the pattern of points to see if a relationship is obvious. If the data clearly form a line or a curve, you may stop. The variables are correlated. Double Click on file to construct Scatter Diagram

Basic Quality Tool No 5 : Scatter Diagram:

Count the points in each quadrant. Do not count points on a line. Add the diagonally opposite quadrants. Find the smaller sum and the total of points in all quadrants. A = points in upper left + points in lower right B = points in upper right + points in lower left Q = the smaller of A and B N = A + B Look up the limit for N on the trend test table. (next page) If Q is less than the limit, the two variables are related. If Q is greater than or equal to the limit, the pattern could have occurred from random chance. Basic Quality Tool No 5 : Scatter Diagram Scatter Diagram Procedure Divide points on the graph into four quadrants. If there are X points on the graph, Count X/2 points from top to bottom and draw a horizontal line. Count X/2 points from left to right and draw a vertical line. If number of points is odd, draw the line through the middle point. MANUAL METHOD OPTIONAL. USE EXCEL TEMPLATE

Basic Quality Tool No 5 : Scatter Diagram:

Basic Quality Tool No 5 : Scatter Diagram A = points in upper left + points in lower right B = points in upper right + points in lower left A N = A + B Next, with the N, look up Trend Test table to find Limit for that N If Q is less than the limit, the two variables are related. If Q is greater than or equal to the limit, the pattern could have occurred from random chance. Q = the smaller of A and B Scatter plot B B A MANUAL METHOD OPTIONAL. USE EXCEL TEMPLATE

Basic Quality Tool No 5 : Example of Scatter Diagram:

Basic Quality Tool No 5 : Example of Scatter Diagram The ZZ-400 manufacturing team suspects a relationship between product purity (percent purity) and the amount of iron (measured in parts per million or ppm). Purity and iron are plotted against each other as a scatter diagram, as shown in the figure below. There are 24 data points. Median lines are drawn so that 12 points fall on each side for both percent purity and ppm iron. OPTIONAL.

Basic Quality Tool No 5 : Example of Scatter Diagram:

Basic Quality Tool No 5 : Example of Scatter Diagram A B A B To test for a relationship, we calculate: A = points in upper left + points in lower right = 9 + 9 = 18 B = points in upper right + points in lower left = 3 + 3 = 6 Q = the smaller of A and B = the smaller of 18 and 6 = 6 N = A + B = 18 + 6 = 24 Then we look up the limit for N on the trend test table. For N = 24, the limit is 6. (See red circle on the Trend Test table - 2 pages before) Q , which is 6, is equal to the limit, which is also 6. Therefore, the pattern could have occurred from random chance, and no relationship is demonstrated . MANUAL METHOD OPTIONAL. USE EXCEL TEMPLATE

Basic Quality Tool No 6 : Stratification (Categorization):

Basic Quality Tool No 6 : Stratification (Categorization) Description Stratification is a technique used in combination with other data analysis tools. When data from a variety of sources or categories have been lumped together, the meaning of the data can be impossible to see. This technique separates the data so that patterns can be seen. When to Use Stratification Before collecting data. When data come from several sources or conditions, such as shifts, days of the week, suppliers or population groups. When data analysis may require separating different sources or conditions.

Basic Quality Tool No 6 : Stratification (CATEGORIZATION OF DATA):

Stratification Procedure Before collecting data, consider which information about the sources of the data might have an effect on the results. Set up the data collection so that you collect that information as well. When plotting or graphing the collected data on a scatter diagram, control chart, histogram or other analysis tool, use different marks or colors to distinguish data from various sources. Data that are distinguished in this way are said to be “stratified.” Basic Quality Tool No 6 : Stratification (CATEGORIZATION OF DATA) Analyze the subsets of stratified data separately.

Example of Stratification – We want to reduce number of complaints but looking at the data by Region :

Example of Stratification – We want to reduce number of complaints but looking at the data by Region (Region) Number of Complaints Analyze the subsets of stratified data (category) separately. In this case, it’s recommended to look at the problem region by region.

Basic Quality Tool No 7 : Control Chart:

Basic Quality Tool No 7 : Control Chart Also called: statistical process control (SPC) Description The control chart is a graph used to study how a process changes over time. Data are plotted in time order. A control chart always has a central line for the average, an upper line for the upper control limit and a lower line for the lower control limit. These lines are determined from historical data. By comparing current data to these lines, you can draw conclusions about whether the process variation is consistent (in control) or is unpredictable (out of control, affected by special causes of variation).

Basic Quality Tool No 7 : Control Chart:

Basic Quality Tool No 7 : Control Chart When to Use a Control Chart When controlling ongoing processes by finding and correcting problems as they occur. When predicting the expected range of outcomes from a process. When determining whether a process is stable (in statistical control). When analyzing patterns of process variation from special causes (non-routine events) or common causes (built into the process). When determining whether your quality improvement project should aim to prevent specific problems or to make fundamental changes to the process.

Basic Quality Tool No 7 : Control Chart:

Control Chart Basic Procedure Choose the appropriate control chart for your data. Determine the appropriate time period for collecting and plotting data. Collect data, construct your chart and analyze the data. Look for “out-of-control signals” on the control chart. When one is identified, mark it on the chart and investigate the cause. Document how you investigated, what you learned, the cause and how it was corrected. Out-of-control signals A single point outside the control limits. In Figure 1, point sixteen is above the UCL (upper control limit). Two out of three successive points are on the same side of the centerline and farther than 2 σ from it. In Figure 1, point 4 sends that signal. Four out of five successive points are on the same side of the centerline and farther than 1 σ from it. In Figure 1, point 11 sends that signal. A run of eight in a row are on the same side of the centerline. Or 10 out of 11, 12 out of 14 or 16 out of 20. In Figure 1, point 21 is eighth in a row above the centerline. Obvious consistent or persistent patterns that suggest something unusual about your data and your process. Basic Quality Tool No 7 : Control Chart Double Click on file to construct Control Chart OPTIONAL TO MEMORIZE .. USE EXCEL TEMPLATE AND CHEECK INDICATORS

Basic Quality Tool No 7 : Control Chart:

Basic Quality Tool No 7 : Control Chart Continue to plot data as they are generated. As each new data point is plotted, check for new out-of-control signals. When you start a new control chart, the process may be out of control. If so, the control limits calculated from the first 20 points are conditional limits. When you have at least 20 sequential points from a period when the process is operating in control, recalculate control limits.

Applying Quality Tools to Reports:

Applying Quality Tools to Reports

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU

References:

References Principles of Quality Costs: Principles, Implementation, and Use, Third Edition , ed. Jack Campanella, ASQ Quality Press, 1999, pages 3-5. Duke Okes and Russell T. Westcott, Certified Quality Manager Handbook: Second Edition , ASQ Quality Press, 2001, pages 245-246. G. Dennis Beecroft, Grace L. Duffy, and John W. Moran, The Executive Guide to Improvement and Change , ASQ Quality Press, 2003, pages 17-19 Nancy R. Tague’s The Quality Toolbox , Second Edition, ASQ Quality Press, 2004

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