Music III - Music of the Romantic Period

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UNIT III

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MUSIC OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD

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Romantic Period A cultural movement that stressed emotion , imagination , individualism & freedom of expression Characterized by expanding the formal structure w/in a composition & making the pieces more passionate & expressive Nationalism is one of the main features of this era

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Romantic Period Orchestra grows in number & became limitless Composers explored instrumentation & many compositions were inspired by emotions in addition to a musical theme

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Piano music is in free form such as fantasy, rhapsody, ballad & nocturne Program music was expressed in tone poems Music was used to tell stories & express ideas Romantic Period

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Romantic Period Most of the composers were proud of their country’s music & often use folk songs in their works. Music during this period used forms borrowed from Classical music & made them bigger longer songs & more instruments

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Romantic Period The themes they wrote in their composition are mainly about nature , literature , history & feelings

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VIOLIN AND STRINGS MUSIC

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Niccolo Paganini Became the most famous Violin Virtuoso in the world Born in October 27, 1782 in Genoa, Italy His musical skills started w/ playing the mandolin at the age of 5 . He eventually transferred his training to the violin at the age of 7 w/ different renowned violin professors in Italy

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Together with his fame came the rumors that said that his amazing violin skills were a gift from the devil & that he sold his soul in exchange for those skills. His compositions inspired a lot of other composers such as Franz Liszt, Frederic Chopin & Robert Schumann Niccolo Paganini

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His violin teachers could not keep up with the progress of his violin skills that he kept on transferring from one violin teacher to another & was therefore filled w/ all their influences Some Works of Niccolo Paganini: “La Campanella ” 24 Caprices for Solo Violin, Op.1 Concerto No.1 in Eb , Op.6 15 Quartets for Guitar & Strings Trio The Carnival of Venice

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Piano Music One of the most important features in the development of music during the Romantic period Frederic Chopin and Franz Liszt reinvented & developed piano music of the Classical Period & this was shown in some of their compositions

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Piano Music This two great composers for piano signifies how a piano music can be more enjoyable at the same time challenging to the people who wants to learn their style

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Niccolo Paganini - La Campanella - The Carnival of Venice

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Frederic Chopin “ Poet of the Piano ” Born on March 01, 1810 in Zelazowa , Poland Considered as world renowned pianist and composer because of his originality in regards to piano Began to play the piano at the age of 4

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Frederic Chopin Age 7: composed polonaise He wrote almost exclusively for piano and made extensive use of piano pedal in most of his composition He also composed mostly for chamber music and avoided playing or performing inside the hall

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Frederic Chopin Chopin’s music is recognized worldwide for its beauty and complexity His works on the piano are staples in the piano repertoire His music is characterized through its beautiful tone , rhythmic flexibility , graceful and elegant

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Frederic Chopin Most of Some of his composition like mazurkas and polonaise express his love for Poland his compositions did not attach any literary titles or programs to his pieces

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Frederic Chopin Piano Works of Frederic Chopin a. BALLADE – a verse form or narrative that is set to music usually consisting of three stanzas of 8 or 10 lines each long b. ETUDE – a piece composed for the development of a specific point of technique c. MAZURKA – a Polish dance resembling the polka, frequently adopted as a ballet form usually in triple time signature

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d . Nocturne – an instrumental composition of a pensive, dreamy mood, especially one for the piano e. POLONAISE – a slow Polisg dance in triple time that consists of a march or procession f. PRELUDE – a short piece of music that can be used as a preface, & introduction to another work or may stand on its own Piano Works of Frederic Chopin Frederic Chopin

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Frederic Chopin g. WALTZ – a German dance in triple meter h. IMPROMTU – a short free-form composition usually for a solo instrument, like the piano, performed in an off-hand or extemporized style i . SCHERZO – a musical movement of playful character, typically in ABA form j. SONATA – composition for one or more solo instruments, one of w/c is usually a keyboard instrument, usually consisting of 3 or 4 independent movements varying in key, mood and tempo Piano Works of Frederic Chopin

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Frederic Chopin 1831: arrived in Paris to further his career Met and married famous French writer George Sand and later became a source of inspiration as well as maternal figure in Chopin’s life Died in October 17, 1849 in Paris due to pulmonary tuberculosis

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Frederic Chopin WELL KNOWN COMPOSITIONS : Fantasie in F minor, Op.49 Revolutionary Etude , Op.10 No. 12 and 24 Preludes, Op.28

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Frederic Chopin - Fantasie in F minor, Op.49 - Revolutionary Etude, Op.10

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Franz List Known as “ virtuoso pianist ” and composer Born in the village Doborjan , Hungary Busiest musician in the Romantic Era w/c include playing & studying at Vienna and Paris at the same time touring throughout Europe by giving concerts

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Franz List Displayed remarkable talent at young age & easily understands sight reading through the effort of his father as his first teacher at age 6 Early 20’s: Liszt heard the virtuoso violinist Niccolo Paganini performs so he decided to dedicate himself doing piano music as what Paganini had done for the violin

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Franz List Considered as the generous composer by sharing both time and money to the orphans, victims of disasters and the many students he taught music for free He was known as the musical architect through his symphonic poem by attempting to translate the greatest works of literature into musical terms as shown in some of his composition

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Franz List He also made an exuberant piano transcriptions of operas & famous symphonies Many of his piano compositions are among the most technically challenging pieces

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PIANO WORKS of FRANZ LISZT Grand Etudes after Paganini 12 Transcendental Etudes Sonata in B minor Years of Pilgrimage (3 volumes) Operatic Fantasies (after Bellini, Mozart, Verdi & Wagner, among others) Arrangements of the 9 Beethoven Symphonies Transcriptions of Lieder by Schubert Hungarian Rhapsodie

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Franz List WORKS FOR PIANO & ORCHESTRAS 2 Concertos ( Eb and A Major) Totentanz (Dance of Death) Malediction for Piano and Strings ORCHESTRAL COMPOSITION

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Franz List WORKS FOR PIANO & ORCHESTRAS 2 Concertos ( Eb and A Major) Totentanz (Dance of Death) Malediction for Piano and Strings ORCHESTRAL COMPOSITION Symphonic Poems (Hamlet, Les Preludes) Faust Symphony Dante Symphony

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- Totentanz (Dance of Death) Franz List

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Robert Alexander Schumann born in 1810 in Zwickau One of the famous Romantic composers that worked intensively and beautifully combined music and words A composer, music critic and considered himself as the heir to the original creative tradition of Beethoven & Schubert Robert Schumann

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Robert Schumann 1821: he wrote some of his first piano compositions He eventually convinced his family that he should put aside law in favor of a performing career 1830: went to live with Wieck in Leipzig but soon developed a problem with his hands, effectively ending his dreams as pianist.

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Robert Schumann 1834: founded the music journal “ Jornal Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik ” wherein he edited and wrote music criticism for his publication In this journal, Schumann often wrote under two pseudonyms – Eusebius (his sensitive, lyrical side) and Florestan (his fiery, stormy side)

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PIANO WORKS “ Abegg Variations” Opus (1830) “ Davidsbundlertanze ” (Dances of the Band of David) Opus (1837) “ Carnaval ”, Opus 9 (1835) “ Phantasiestucke ”, Opus 12 (1837) “ Kreisleriana ”, Opus (1838) “ Kinderszenen ”, Opus 15 (1838)

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Robert Schumann - Abegg Variations - Carnaval

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An instrumental music that conveys images or scenes , music that tells a short story without text or lyrics and imaginative ideas fully developed through the imaginative effort of a great and genius composer Hector Berloiz Berloiz showcase the important features in his composition in creating tone color w/c was never before heard. Program Music

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Program Music He treated the orchestra like a beautiful creation and assembled hundreds of musicians to produced powerful sound. He made tone color as the basic part of his musical language

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Composers of Program Music

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Hector Berlioz French romantic composer Born in December 11, 1803 Learned to play the guitar and flute at a young age but never became skilled in any musical instruments He was sent to a medical school to be like his father, a physician, but ends up in studying music

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Famous Musical Composition Symphonie Fantastique – a five movement symphony 1 st movement: Reveries/Passion (slow in tempo) 2 nd movement: A Ball (allegro) 3 rd movement: Scene in the Country (adagio waltz) 4 th movement: March to the Scaffold (allegretto non troppo ) 5 th movement: Dream of a Witches Sabbath (larghetto allegro) – most fantastic of the movement

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Hector Berlioz - A Ball (allegro) - Scene in the Country (adagio waltz)

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Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotor Ilyich Chaykowsky Born on May 7, 1840 in Votkinsk , Russia Known for his ballet music Studied law in his youth and became a law clerk in St. Petersburg but rebelled and began to study music at the conservatory also in St. Petersburg

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A big fan of Mozart, studied compositions w/ Anton Rubinstein, moved to Moscow & started teaching at the new conservatory His early works were not memorable because he felt a little frightened to this teacher Anton Rubinstein but later became famous after he composed the musical poem “ Fatum ” and “Romeo and Juliet” Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky

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Tchaikovsky’s music is characterized through the movement heard to some of his ballet compositions He composed hunting melodies & used great deal of folk music in his symphonic work His music is known for being both too beautiful and too depressing Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky

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FAMOUS COMPOSITIONS: Swan Lake Sleeping Beauty The Nutcracker Romeo and Juliet 1812 Overture Symphony No. 2 Symphony No. 6 “ Pathetique ” Piano Concerto No. 1

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3 Greatest Ballet Scores of all times: The “Swan Lake” - First ballet composition - Full length ballet with the extent of a symphony b. The “Sleeping Beauty” Second ballet composition Considered by many as probably the best for it’s finely structured main theme Music is light and perfectly matching the dreamy ambiance of the scene c. The “Nutcracker” His final ballet A charming light tale story Enchanted young and old for almost 100 years

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Camille Saint-Saens Born on October 9, 1835 in Paris, France Known as a talented musician from an early age Started his music through the help of his aunt by teaching him piano lesson when he was only 2 years old & afterward he began composing piano piece at age 3

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Considered as a composer who creates elegant music , neat , clean , polished and never excessive As an organist and one of the best pianists of his time, he sat very still at the piano and played gracefully and cool Camille Saint-Saens

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SAINT-SAEN’S BEST KOWN MUSIC Carnival of Animals Danse Macabre and his Symphony No. 3 The Swan Over 300 works, unusually in all genres 3 operas (Samson & Delilah) 5 Symphonies (Organ Symphony) 3 concertos for violin & orchestra 5 concertos for piano & orchestra 2 concertos for cello & orchestra Organ music Numerous pieces for the piano Approx. 100 songs Chamber music Sacred music including a Requiem

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