Jeong Taik Lee

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Reflection from Asia and the Pacific Perspectives: Overall Status, Opportunities, and How-to Inform: 

Reflection from Asia and the Pacific Perspectives: Overall Status, Opportunities, and How-to Inform Lee, Jeong Taik, Ph. D Senior Research Fellow Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training Jtlee@krivet.re.kr OECD/Canada/Alberta Conference

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Table of Contents Introduction 2. Trends and Policy Issues in Asia and the Pacific 3. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration 4. How to make future government /institution actions better informed? 5. Conclusion Table of Contents

Ⅰ. INTRODUCTION: 

1) Post-secondary e-learning trisection in Asiaㆍthe Pacific. 2) Post –secondary e-learning as potential lever for work- transformation in Asiaㆍthe Pacific 3) Indispensability of collaborative joint work Ⅰ. INTRODUCTION saying that future development of e-learning in Asia ㆍthe Pacific depends on international consortia and partnership. (OECD ‘s commitment is a factor) Ⅰ-1. My presentation covers: Ⅰ- 2. My presentation will focus on:

Ⅰ. INTRODUCTION: 

1) My personal observation during 1981- 1982, of Lead Shepherd, Human Resources Development Working Group, APEC covering 21 Asia Pacific member economies. 2) my wide web navigation of www.unescobkk.org Ⅰ. INTRODUCTION Ⅰ- 3. My Presentation based on:

Ⅰ. INTRODUCTION : 

Central/South East and South Pacific Island South Asia West-Asia -East Asia Countries Afghanistan Cambodia Australia Bangladesh Uzbekistan Singapore Solomon Islands Sri Lanka Iran China / Mongolia Cook Islands Bhutan Kazakhstan DPR Korea Fiji India Kyrgystan Indonesia Kiribati Maldives Pakistan Japan Marshall Islands Nepal Tajikistan Lao PDR Micronesia Turkmenistan Malaysia Nauru Mongolia New Zealand Samoa Myanmar Niue Philippines Palau/ Vanuatu Republic of Korea Papua New Guinea Thailand Timor Leste Viet Nam Tonga/ Tuvalu, Ⅰ. INTRODUCTION Ⅰ- 5. List of Countries

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Ⅰ. INTRODUCTION Ⅰ-6. Patterns of Participation in Upper Secondary Education

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Observation 1: PEAP (Post-Secondary e-Learning in Asia and the Pacific)-involved policy makers and administrators, except for those in advanced countries, are still being induced to ensure that a program for promoting PEAP be used to extend or replicate the traditional classroom education model, not to transform the instructional system per se. Thus, PEAP is not able to serve as levers for country-wide and system-wide reform, either to bring in links with work transformation. Ⅱ. Trends and Policy Issues in Asia and the Pacific

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Observation 2:『Too often in the Asia-Pacific region, computers have been bought en masse for use in education, but are now lying on ministry desks and in school cupboards because the reasons for their procurement and plans for their ultimate use have not been clearly defined in advance. In many cases, people traditionally excluded from education - for reasons of poverty, gender, minority status, or geography - continue to be excluded from the use of ICT.』 www.unescobkk.org/index.php?id=496. Ⅱ. Trends and Policy Issues in Asia and the Pacific Ⅱ-1. Two Observation Points

Ⅱ. Trends and Policy Issues in Asia and the Pacific: 

Ⅱ. Trends and Policy Issues in Asia and the Pacific Ⅱ-2. Asia and the Pacific are grouped into three:

Ⅱ. Trends and Policy Issues in Asia and the Pacific: 

1. GⅠis now facing challenges such as: 1) Further progress in synergy effects among technology, human capacity, and self-realization. e.g., In systemic linkage among jobs, action learning, and communities of practices (CoP). 2) Crossing the digital divide (Australia and New Zealand: indigenous and isolated-area people; S. Korea and Japan: old and rural people) 3) High ROI (return on investment). e.g., Philanthropic notion of aid by firms is no more valid. Aid becomes now investment! Ⅱ. Trends and Policy Issues in Asia and the Pacific Ⅱ-3. Overall Status of GⅠ: High profile in terms of connectivity and upgrading among PEAP, ICTs and work transformation.

Ⅱ. Trends and Policy Issues in Asia and the Pacific: 

1. SchoolNets (groupings of schools using ICTs in education, http://www.schoolnetindia.com//, www.worldlinks.org/english/html/philippines.html, www.nectec.or.th/it-projects/, www.unesco.org/bangkok/ education/ict/unesco_projects/JFIT/ICT_Brochure) are becoming popular in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and to the lesser extent, the Philippines. Indicators –and performance -oriented benchmarking is under poor undertaking yet. 2. Strategic approach toward policy alliance-ship is still focused on quantitative, rather than qualitative aspects. Ⅱ. Trends and Policy Issues in Asia and the Pacific Ⅱ-4. Overall Status of GⅡ: PEAP still at early stage. In Malaysia and China, efforts to integrate the use of ICT in e-learning. Efforts , though progressive, have not yet reached the systemic and nationwide level.

Ⅱ. Trends and Policy Issues in Asia and the Pacific: 

GⅢ requires intensive external help in policy and master plan development. Lack of motivation and techno-phobia among teachers are still the phenomenon, however. Shortage of trained teachers is now an serious national issue, too. Language difficulties (most software and contents are in English. Thus, lack of local script causing e-learning illiteracy, prevalent in Afghanistan, Cambodia, Laos, Bhutan, Mongolia, etc.) Hence, substantially progressive ways toward ICT infra investment + policy consulting by advanced countries need to be sought, and then procurement of long-term return is to be made. Ⅱ. Trends and Policy Issues in Asia and the Pacific Ⅱ-5. Overall Status of GⅢ: ICT infra development is the top priority.

Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration: 

-My elaboration today is undertaken in terms of further study/action areas and joint collaboration. -Areas will be classified into specific fields and subjects. -Collaboration here is meant by joint works among OECD, UNESCO, and Governments/Industry /Academia/R+D (Idea here is not on the consortium itself, but on how) Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration 1. Introduction

Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration: 

-The most overlooked aspect is the question of scope: realistically what can and what can not be achieved is unclear (Australia and Singapore, in particular in GⅠexcepted) -There is little alignment b/n ICTs and PEAP (Either simply remains an add on) (GⅠexcepted) -PEAPs (especially in G Ⅱ,Ⅲ), if any, developed by outside consultants or individuals/units in the Ministry of Education, and thus with no stake-holder’s participation. In consequence, urgency of broad consultation and IP ownership become the key for sustaining momentum. Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration 2. Further Study/Action Areas

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Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration -Development level varies extremely among GⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ. This point is not always bad. What I mean is that existence of the variety of approaches leading to pluralism in best practices can minimize adoption cost of the unitary global standard. My point here today is that study/action on best practices are on demand. Let me give you few examples: · Sri Lanka’s strategy is to position the country as a'hub' for ICT development in South Asia. Here we face huge areas for further ‘go’. · Mongolia’s vision is 'knowledge-based society' where people upgrade all qualities of their lives. Again, huge gap between slogan and reality. · North Korea’s priority is on the training of the gifted students in science. Problem is not with existence of those national slogans per se, but with lack of comprehensive policy framework. International joint efforts to create momentum by which the recipient countries seek offshore consultation, are a must now. We can help them sense ‘now it’s the time.’ 2. Further Study/Action Areas

Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration: 

- Examples of Policy Goals mentioned by G Ⅱ,Ⅲ: · Increasing the benefits from IT.  · Helping people and organizations to adapt to new circumstances and providing tools and models to respond rationally to challenges posed by IT.  · Improving the quality of services and products. · Providing information and communication facilities, services and products. · Supporting the concept of lifelong learning. · Encouraging innovations in technology development, use of technology and general work flow. Policy goals as such need to be redrafted into tangible ones, and thus, require external consultation again. Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration 2. Further Study/Action Areas

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Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration - Regarding Policy Prioritization in PEAP, problem is: GⅢ (especially Central Asia, the Pacific Islands, Myanmar, Cambodia, and Lao PDR) and GⅡ(to some extent) face difficulties with regards to the use of ICTs, in general, and PEAP in particular: no supereminence exists who have capacity to run comprehensive prioritizing strategies because job of prioritization requires two qualification at the same time: power + expertise. -Nature of teaching qualification in PEAP is different; They need hands on capacity at high-tech solutions, learning options, systemic linkage b/n national visions and on-/off-site teaching solutions. Problem is: they take place simultaneously. Again our option: Initiatives to be taken by leading intn’l organs including OECD as facilitator and mentor. 2. Further Study/Action Areas

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Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration -Regarding PEAP Infrastructure Building, problem is: Degree of access to e-learning, level of both internet connectivity and electricity installment, and cost of service vary so keenly among GⅠⅡⅢ. The phenomenon of PEAP trisection and/or digital divide, both at inter- and intra-national levels, is making PEAP development further and further top-priority issue. Requirement is Asia and the Pacific locate right way multi-faceted and balanced policy capacity for infrastructure building. We can develop Asia and the pacific way to securing ROI, development of which awaits now initiatives by OECD. 2. Further Study/Action Areas

Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration: 

-PEAP-related Cases today especially in GⅡ,Ⅲ are centered in two areas: ·SchoolNets (groupings of schools using ICTs in education, www.schoolnetindia.com, www.world- links.org/english/html/ philippines.html, www.nectec.or.th/it-projects/, www.unesco.org/bangkok/education/ict/unesco_projects/JFIT/ICT_Brochure.pdf); ·Only donor-sponsored demonstration projects by donor countries. Further development in terms of inter-operability and inter- connectivity required. Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration 2. Further Study/Action Areas

Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration: 

Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration - Thus, improvement of teaching practice is crucial: teachers as key asset need a supportive environment where guidance, incentives, clear policies, and instructional materials are provided timely and appropriately; various types of training , i.e., pre- and/or in-service off-site and/or on-site need to be blended with traditional (e.g., telephone) or new media. (e.g., webinar) Challenge is how? - The lack of funding and the dearth of trained staff are the key constraints to substantial progress of PEAP in Asia and the Pacific. Lack of or poor e-learning phenomenon inherent in the work setting, and thus losing opportunities for expecting ROI is the main obstacle against further funding as well as training. We must and can tackle this. 2. Further Study/Action Areas

Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration: 

Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration -Phenomenon of 'Internet addiction' such as visiting porn-sites, chatting, breaking copyright laws, taking place vehemently even in digitally poor region, is teaching us that even a perfect infrastructure and e-learning literate is not a panacea. Question is how to have ICTs assist in social development. One option might be indigenous culture-driven CoP, for which PEAP software is to be rebuilt with thanks to joint efforts by global ICT standard and local specificity. Challenge is, again, how? 2. Further Study/Action Areas

Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration: 

Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration -Urgency of cultivating instructors, administrators and support staff as mentors and facilitators is an obvious need. Mentoring and facilitating links between PEAP and worlds of work be designed and programmed under the initiatives of OECD. Excellence in benchmarking is to be insured. For example, New Zealand has developed the idea of 'cluster schools' with a 'lead' school in each cluster that has the resources to provide training for staff at other schools in the cluster. Thailand uses the strategy of 'peer-to-peer' training, and others are accessing online courses. Strategies as such also contribute to settlement of 'just-in-time' delivery. Creating favorable conditions for ROI, for which ROI guideline to be formulated by OECD teams. 2. Further Study/Action Areas

Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration: 

Ⅲ. Opportunities for Research and Collaboration -There has been a great deal of discrepancies between policies drafted above and actual implementation. Tendency as such becomes more manifest as we move from GⅠinto G Ⅲ. E-Learning Policies in Asia·Pacific are the areas where OECD teams be set up and provide mentoring with policy makers. Study/Action on PEAP requires formation and implementation of workplace-reform and –driven ones, especially with reference to the policy goals said above. Furthermore: Options are diverse. Prior thing to do before going further is how to make sure that both G Ⅱand G Ⅲ countries create more favorable milieu where people are encouraged to locate effective open and distance learning options. Policy designers require adoption of architectural tactics toward procurement of such options. 2. Further Study/Action Areas

Ⅳ. How to make future Government/Institution actions better informed?: 

Ⅳ. How to make future Government/Institution actions better informed? -Firstly, OECD takes initiatives in holding workshops with UNESCO attended by Governments, Industry, and R andamp; D in host countries in Asia and the Pacific. -Secondly, Website or Home Page to be set up for coverage of the following: ·PEAP best practices ·A Guide for working together on; mixing/matching radio/TV with e-learning ways to insure long term ROI development; e- learning solution for performing e-biz of globally branded indigenous cultural products. -Thirdly, we shall facilitate Governments in Asia and the Pacific for volunteer-ship to host the Workshop. 1.How?

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Ⅳ. How to make future Government/Institution actions better informed? -Because world is changing quickly. Rapidly changing stream of air in international arenas is one example: Take one example. World Economic Forum, DAVOS. In 1998, one issue was to address basic necessities before connecting poorest citizens to the Internet, while in 2005, it was, with emergence of US$25-priced lop-top, to insure a smooth transfer from currently 12% of the world connected to the Internet into that of 50% which will be by 2015. In Cambodia, the first English word out of kids is ‘Google.’ In China, 220 million students are awaiting a variety of new digital device. My proposal today here will accommodate the interests inherent in the trend. Policy makers in Asia and the Pacific are and should be able to pick up bench marking capacity throughout the courses of conference as this. 2. Why I think such clearing house way works?

Ⅳ. How to make future Government/Institution actions better informed?: 

Ⅳ. How to make future Government/Institution actions better informed? -Let me introduce one more example for Bench Marking: Korean phenomenon of so called, ‘Digital Kids.’ This information should be informed of comprehensively: Def; 10~19 aged kids (6.53million, 96% getting access to Internet more than once per month, 12% running Internet café by themselves) are digital tech-savvy; Also called, ‘cyber new human’; Korean firms rushing to set Team on Digital Kids; One tentative conclusion; only comprehensive knowledge of their unique e-learning culture leads to good business in IT products. Bench marking point here is; In Korea, super high way broad band and five work-week day system, and universal nature of ‘Digital Kids’ go together whereas GⅡand Ⅲ don’t; We’ve got to locate GⅡ’s and Ⅲ ‘s versions, rather than simply duplicating the ‘Made in Korea’. 2. Why I think such clearing house way works?

Ⅳ. How to make future Government/Institution actions better informed?: 

Ⅳ. How to make future Government/Institution actions better informed? - The job of excellence in bench marking in Asia and the Pacific requires substantial progress in coordination as well as cooperation between host government and OECD. Only a systematic approach can ensure that educational goals are met nicely. A strategy to insure inter-operability, delivery to every corner society, and raising high-ranked government officials’ face is needed in order to reach those who have been hard to reach so far and educate them in an effective way. The team should design quantifiable, measurable, and realistic objectives which are set to meet the overall goals; with formulated platform, the outcome should become measurable and thus people involved can get a clearer picture of which steps to take for what reasons. The bench marking job as such in Asia and the Pacific is highly possible because the overall milieu there wants it. 2. Why I think such clearing house way works?

Ⅳ. How to make future Government/Institution actions better informed?: 

Ⅳ. How to make future Government/Institution actions better informed? - Other promising areas for the bench marking jobs: Transforming existing instructors into Mentors in the fields such as; e-learning contents development with specific reference to how to teach subject area-related world of work; development of manual; development of work-shop and incentive system; How to transplant existing successful National Qualification System into host countries by fitting the model into own specificity; Developing Prototype of PEAP-Work Link on which e- learning teaching manual in the specific field is based. 2. Why I think such clearing house way works?

Ⅳ. How to make future Government/Institution actions better informed?: 

Ⅳ. How to make future Government/Institution actions better informed? -One last point before moving to concluding part: Very recently, Sun Microsystems, Intel, and others multinational corporations rushing to volunteer to donate millions dollar equipment and tools for e-learning in countries like S. Korea. Question is Why? The answer is clear: Since they are confident in ROI there. Such confidence only comes from successful development of PEAP infrastructure. Infra building up requires joint work among Government, Industry, and Randamp;D, success of which again depends on internationally leading organization’s initiatives. 2. Why I think such clearing house way works?

To have my suggestions elaborated on here adopted by policy makers in Asia and the Pacific, following three conditions be met:: 

To have my suggestions elaborated on here adopted by policy makers in Asia and the Pacific, following three conditions be met: 1st Condition: existence of many PEAP activities. 2nd : Undertaking of performance funding mechanisms. -Rewarding local institutions for actual performance. -Linking funding to the quality of outputs than inputs. -Using performance indicators that reflect public policy objectives rather than institutional needs. -Designing incentives for institutional improvement. 3rd: The joint work should highlight; - mixing/matching radio/TV with e-learning; -ways to insure long term ROI; -developing e-learning solution for performing e-biz of globally branded indigenous cultural products. Ⅴ. Conclusion

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Thank You

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