BLOOM'S TAXONOMY (1)

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تصنيف بلوم المحدث لمستويات التفكير Bloom's Revised Taxonomy HAITHAM HUNEAFAT . ACADEMICS VP\ NASSER ALATTYA IND. SEC. SCHOOL \ DOHA - QATAR

Original Terms:المصطلحات الأصلية New Terms:المصطلحات الحديثة : 

Original Terms: المصطلحات الأصلية New Terms: المصطلحات الحديثة Evaluation: التقييم Synthesis: التركيب Analysis: التحليل Application: التطبيق Comprehension الفهم Knowledge المعرفة Creating Evaluating Analysing Applying Understanding Remembering (Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 8 )

Change in Terms: 

Change in Terms The names of six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms. تم تغيير أسماء التصنيفات الستة من صيغة الاسم إلى صيغة الفعل As the taxonomy reflects different forms of thinking and thinking is an active process verbs were more accurate. بما أن التصنيف يعكس أشكال مختلفة للتفكير وان التفكير عملية نشطة , فان الأفعال أكثر دقة The subcategories of the six major categories were also replaced by verbs أيضا تم استبدال التصنيفات الفرعية للتصنيفات الرئيسية بأفعال

BLOOM’S REVISED TAXONOMY Creating Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing.  Evaluating Justifying a decision or course of action Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging   Analysing Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships Comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, finding  Applying Using information in another familiar situation Implementing, carrying out, using, executing  Understanding Explaining ideas or concepts Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining  Remembering Recalling information Recognising, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding  : 

BLOOM’S REVISED TAXONOMY Creating Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing. Evaluating Justifying a decision or course of action Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging Analysing Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships Comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, finding Applying Using information in another familiar situation Implementing, carrying out, using, executing Understanding Explaining ideas or concepts Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining Remembering Recalling information Recognising, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding Higher-order thinking المهارات العليا Lower-order thinking المهارات ا لدنيا

PROGRESS: 

PROGRESS A turtle makes progress when it sticks its neck out. تحرز السلحفاة تقدما عندما تخرج رقبتها ( Anon )

Knowledge \ Remembering : 

Knowledge \ Remembering The knowledge category of Bloom's Taxonomy is the simplest level for students. Here, students are required to show that they've gained some form of knowledge from the lesson that was taught. At this level, students focus on direct recall of information. Knowledge is the lowest level of Bloom's Taxonomy. It forms the base of a pyramid of reasoning skills that students exhibit as they learn. It is an important foundation for future learning. However, many teachers do not move their students too far beyond this level

Examples: أمثلة : 

Examples: أمثلة - عرف مفهوم الربا في الإسلام. – أكمل الحديث التالي من حفظك أكمل بيت الشعر التالي -- عدد خصائص الأدب الحديث عرف الأعداد الأولية. -- حدد خصائص اللوغاريتمات عدد خصائص الأنزيمات _ أذكر عيوب الباروميتر الزئبقي أذكر عوامل سقوط الدولة العثمانية. _ من هو القائد المسلم بطل معركة ................ List advantages and disadvantages of internet Define …………………. Name two stories you have read.

Remembering : 

Remembering List Memories Relate Show Locate Distinguish Give example Reproduce Quote Repeat Label Recall Know Group Read Write Outline Listen Group Choose Recite Review Quote Record Match Select Underline Cite Sort Recall or recognition of specific information Products include : Quiz Definition Fact Worksheet Test Label List Workbook Reproduction Vocabulary

Classroom Roles for Remembering: 

Classroom Roles for Remembering Teacher roles: أدوار المعلم Directs: يوجه Tells: يخبر Shows: يبين Examines: يختبر Questions: يسأل Evaluates : يقيم Student roles: أدوار الطالب Responds: يستجيب Absorbs: يستوعب Remembers: يتذكر Recognises: يدرك Memorises: يستظهر Defines: يٌعرّف Describes: يصف Retells: يروي / يسرد Passive recipient : متلقي سلبي

( 10 minutes) Activity : نشاط : 

( 10 minutes) Activity : نشاط In your group, write down 5 questions in knowledge level in Bloom’s Taxonomy في مجموعتك اكتب خمسة أسئلة في مستوى المعرفة حسب تصنيف بلوم

Comprehension \Understanding الفهم / الاستيعاب : 

Comprehension \ Understanding الفهم / الاستيعاب In Bloom’s Taxonomy, the comprehension\ understanding level is where students begin to show that they understand the meaning of what they have learned. Comprehension moves beyond the basic parroting( الترديد كالببغاء ) of facts found at the knowledge level. However, students have not begun applying what they’ve learned at this point. As such, it is a key foundation to learning .

Examples: أمثلة : 

Examples: أمثلة - علل مشروعية قصر الصلاة للمسافر – فسر لجوء النبي (ص) إلى الحرب الاقتصادية ضد قريش قبل معركة بدر. لخص أنواع النصوص التي قرأتها _ استخلص الأفكار الرئيسية في النص الذي قرأته. استخلص قانون الحد العام للمتتالية إذا ما عرف بعض حدودها استنتج الأساس الذي بنيت عليه السلسلة الدافعة الكهربائية اشتق خصائص الحضارة الفرعونية في مصر. Give an example of each of the states of matter. Summarize the passage in one paragraph. Extract the main idea of paragraph ……..

Comprehension \Understanding الفهم / الاستيعاب : 

Comprehension \ Understanding الفهم / الاستيعاب The learner grasps the meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned. يفهم المتعلم معنى المعلومة بتفسير وترجمة ما تعلمه Interpreting يفسر : Exemplifying يعطي مثالا : Summarising يلخص : Inferring يستنتج : Paraphrasing يعيد صياغة : Classifying يصنف : Comparing يقارن : Explaining يشرح :

Understanding cont’: 

Understanding cont’ Restate Identify Discuss Retell Research Annotate Translate Give examples of Paraphrase Reorganise Associate Describe Report Recognise Review Observe Outline Account for Interpret Give main idea Estimate Define Understanding of given information Products include : Recitation Summary Collection Explanation Show and tell Example Quiz List Label Outline

Classroom Roles for Understanding: 

Classroom Roles for Understanding Teacher roles: أدوار المعلم Demonstrates: يعرض Listens: يستمع Questions: يسأل Compares: يقارن Contrasts: يقابل Examines : يختبر Student roles: أدوار الطالب Explains: يشرح Describes يصف: Outlines: يحدد Restates: يبين ثانية Translates: يترجم Demonstrates: يعرض Interprets: يفسر Active participant مشارك نشط:

( 10 minutes) Activity : نشاط : 

( 10 minutes) Activity : نشاط In your group, write down 5 questions in understanding level in Bloom’s Taxonomy في مجموعتك اكتب خمسة أسئلة في مستوى الفهم حسب تصنيف بلوم

Application \ Applyingالتطبيق : 

Application \ Applying التطبيق In Bloom’s Taxonomy, the application level is where students move beyond basic comprehension and actually begin to apply what they’ve learned. Students are expected to use concepts they’ve learned in new situations. Application is the third level of the Bloom’s taxonomy pyramid. Even though it is just above the comprehension level, many teachers rarely move their students into this level.

Examples: أمثلة : 

Examples: أمثلة - دلل على الآية الكريمة التي تؤكد قوامة الرجال على النساء. استخدم المعجم لاستخراج معاني الكلمات التالية.............. برهن على أن العمود النازل من مركز الدائرة على أي وتر فيها ينصف ذلك الوتر. أثبت أن محاليل المركبات الأيونية ومصاهيرها موصلة جيدة للتيار الكهربائي. احسب الساعة في مدينة طوكيو اليابانية الواقعة على خط طول 140 شرقا إذا كانت الساعة في مدينة طرابلس الليبية الواقعة على خط طول 20 شرقا هي العاشرة صباحا. Use a protractor to determine angles. Change the following statements \ questions from direct into indirect speech. Predict what will happen to a candle if you put a bowl on top of it.

Applying : 

Applying Translate Manipulate Exhibit Illustrate Calculate Interpret Make Practice Apply Operate Interview Paint Change Compute Sequence Show Solve Collect Demonstrate Dramatise Construct Use Adapt Draw Using strategies, concepts, principles and theories in new situations Products include : Photograph Illustration Simulation Sculpture Demonstration Presentation Interview Performance Diary Journal

Classroom Roles for Applying : 

Teacher roles: أدوار المعلم Shows: يعرض Facilitates: يسهل / ييسر Observes: يلاحظ Evaluates: يقيم Organises: ينظم Questions : يطرح أسئلة Student roles: أدوار الطالب Solves problems: يحل المسائل Demonstrates use of knowledge: يعرض استخدام المعرفة Calculates: يحسب Compiles: يؤلف/ يجمع / يصنف Completes: يكمل Illustrates : يفسر Constructs : يبني Active recipient: متلقي فاعل Classroom Roles for Applying

( 10 minutes) Activity : نشاط : 

( 10 minutes) Activity : نشاط In your group, write down 5 questions in applying level in Bloom’s Taxonomy في مجموعتك اكتب خمسة أسئلة في مستوى التطبيق حسب تصنيف بلوم

Analysingالتحليل : 

Analysing التحليل In Bloom’s Taxonomy, the analysis level is where students use their own judgment to begin analyzing the knowledge they have learned. At this point, they begin understanding the underlying structure to knowledge and also are able to distinguish between fact and opinion. Analysis is the fourth level of the Bloom’s taxonomy pyramid.

Examples: أمثلة : 

Examples: أمثلة - قارن بين حالة المسلمين في مكة قبل الهجرة النبوية الشريفة وحالتهم في المدينة المنورة بعد الهجرة إليها. _ فرق بين القرآن الكريم والحديث القدسي. حلل درس ....... في كتاب المطالعة إلى أفكاره الثانوية. فرق بين الدالة العكسية والدالة المركبة. فرق بين الخلية النباتية والخلية الحيوانية من حيث التركيب والوظيفة. قارن بين أنهار بلاد الشام وأنهار المغرب العربي من حيث الاتجاه والأهمية. Analyze each statement to decide whether it is fact or opinion . Illustrate the differences between the American alligator and the Nile crocodile. Apply the rule of 70 to determine how quickly your money will double at 6% interest.

Analysing cont’: 

Analysing cont’ Distinguish: Question Appraise Experiment Inspect Examine Probe Separate Inquire Arrange Investigate Sift Research Calculate Criticize Compare Contrast Survey Detect Group Order Sequence Test Debate Analyse Diagram Relate Dissect Categorise Discriminate Breaking information down into its component elements Products include : Graph Spreadsheet Checklist Chart Outline Survey Database Mobile Abstract Report

Classroom Roles for Analysing: 

Classroom Roles for Analysing Teacher roles: أدوار المعلم Probes: يجس / يمتحن بدقة Guides: يوجه Observes: يلاحظ Evaluates: يقيم Acts as a resource: يتصرف كمصدر Questions: يسأل Organises: ينظم Dissects : يحلل / يٌشرّح Student roles: أدوار الطالب Discusses: يناقش Uncovers: يكشف Argues: يناقش / يجادل Debates: يناقش / يجادل Thinks deeply: يفكر بعمق Tests: يتفحص / يختبر Examines: يفحص Questions: يسأل Calculates: يحسب Investigates: يبحث Inquires: يستقصي Active participant: مشارك فعال

( 10 minutes) Activity : نشاط : 

( 10 minutes) Activity : نشاط In your group, write down 5 questions in analysing level in Bloom’s Taxonomy في مجموعتك اكتب خمسة أسئلة في مستوى التحليل حسب تصنيف بلوم

Evaluating: التقويم : 

Evaluating: التقويم The learner makes decisions based on in-depth reflection, criticism and assessment. يتخذ المتعلم قراراً مبنيا على تأمل عميق , نقد وتقييم Checking يتفحص / يدقق: Hypothesising يفترض : Critiquing ينتقد : Experimenting يجرب : Judging يصدر حكم: Testing يفحص : Detecting يكتشف : Monitoring يراقب :

Evaluatingالتقويم : : 

Evaluating التقويم : Evaluation is the top level of Bloom's original Taxonomy, but the 5 th level in the modified one. Here students are expected to assess information and come to a conclusion such as its value or the bias behind it. For example, if a student is completing a DBQ (Document Based Question) for an AP US History course, they are expected to evaluate the bias behind any primary or secondary sources in order to see how that effects the points that the speaker is making. You are probably writing evaluation questions when you use words like select, judge, debate, recommend, etc………..

Examples: أمثلة : 

Examples: أمثلة - فند ادعاءات الملحين والمشككين بالإسلام بأن الفتوحات الإسلامية جاءت نتيجة دوافع مادية أو اقتصادية. - دافع عن دور اللغة العربية في توحيد المشاعر والأحاسيس بين أبناء الأمة العربية - احكم على التجربة الكيميائية / الفيزيائية التي قام بها زميلك - حاور زميلك في أهمية الحاسبات في حل المسائل الرياضية. - ابدي وجهة نظرك في رفض بعض الدول في رفض الخليفة عمر بن الخطاب الصلاة في كنيسة القيامة عند زيارته للقدس. Comment on the style of the writer. - Attend a local play and write a critique of the actor’s performance. - Visit an art museum and offer suggestions on ways to improve a specific exhibit.

Evaluating cont’: 

Evaluating cont’ Judge Rate Validate Predict Assess Score Revise Infer Determine Prioritise Tell why Compare Evaluate Defend Select Measure Choose Conclude Deduce Debate Justify Recommend Discriminate Appraise Value Probe Argue Decide Criticise Rank Reject Judging the value of ideas, materials and methods by developing and applying standards and criteria. Products include : Debate Panel Report Evaluation Investigation Verdict Conclusion Persuasive speech

Classroom Roles for Evaluating: 

Classroom Roles for Evaluating Teacher roles: أدوار المعلم Clarifies: يوضح Accepts: يقبل Guides : يوجه Student roles: أدوار الطالب Judges: يصدر حكم Disputes: يفند Compares: يقارن Critiques: ينتقد Questions: يسأل Argues: يجادل Assesses: يقيّم Decides: يقرر Selects : يختار Justifies: يبرر Active participant: مشارك فاعل

( 10 minutes) Activity : نشاط : 

( 10 minutes) Activity : نشاط In your group, write down 5 questions in evaluating level in Bloom’s Taxonomy في مجموعتك اكتب خمسة أسئلة في مستوى التقويم حسب تصنيف بلوم

Creating الخلق / الإبداع : : 

Creating الخلق / الإبداع : Creation in revised bloom’s taxonomy means putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing

Creating : 

Creating The learner creates new ideas and information using what has been previously learned. Designing Constructing Planning Producing Inventing Devising Making

Examples: أمثلة : 

Examples: أمثلة - أربط بين الإيمان والفتوحات الإسلامية الكبيرة خلال العصر الأموي. -اكتب موضوعا تعبيريا حول ايجابيات وسلبيات استخدام الانترنت - اقترح حلولا لمشكلة تسرب الغازات من مصنع......... - اكتب تقريرا حول / بحثا عن الفقاريات واللافقاريات - ضع خطة تساهم في زيادة وعي الناس بمرض السكري Write a formal letter \ an essay …….. Suggest two ideas to be discussed about ……character in ……….. Play \ novel.

Creating cont’: 

Creating cont’ Compose Assemble Organise Invent Compile Forecast Devise Propose Construct Plan Prepare Develop Originate Imagine Generate Formulate Improve Act Predict Produce Blend Set up Concoct Putting together ideas or elements to develop a original idea or engage in creative thinking. Products include : Film Story Project Plan New game Song Newspaper Media product Advertisement Painting

Classroom Roles for Creating: 

Classroom Roles for Creating Teacher roles: أدوار المعلم Facilitates: يسهّل Extends : يوسّع / يبسط Reflects: : يعكس Analyses: يحلل Evaluates : يُقوّم Student roles: أدوار الطالب Designs: يصمم Formulates: يستنبط \ يصيغ Plans: يخطط Takes risks: يخاطر Modifies: يُعدل Creates: يخلق Proposes: يقترح Active participant: مشارك فعال

( 10 minutes) Activity : نشاط : 

( 10 minutes) Activity : نشاط In your group, write down 5 questions in creating level in Bloom’s Taxonomy في مجموعتك اكتب خمسة أسئلة في مستوى الابداع حسب تصنيف بلوم

Lower Order Questions: 

Lower Order Questions Lower level questions are those at the remembering, understanding and lower level application levels of the taxonomy. Usually questions at the lower levels are appropriate for: Evaluating students’ preparation and comprehension Diagnosing students’ strengths and weaknesses Reviewing and/or summarising content

Higher Order Questions: 

Higher Order Questions Higher level questions are those requiring complex application, analysis, evaluation or creation skills. Questions at higher levels of the taxonomy are usually most appropriate for: Encouraging students to think more deeply and critically Problem solving Encouraging discussions Stimulating students to seek information on their own

Questions for Remembering: 

Questions for Remembering What happened after...? How many...? What is...? Who was it that...? Can you name ...? Find the definition of… Describe what happened after… Who spoke to...? Which is true or false...?

Questions for Understanding: 

Questions for Understanding Can you explain why…? Can you write in your own words? How would you explain…? Can you write a brief outline...? What do you think could have happened next...? Who do you think...? What was the main idea...? Can you clarify…? Can you illustrate…? Does everyone act in the way that …….. does?

Questions for Applying: 

Questions for Applying Do you know another instance where…? Can you group by characteristics such as…? Which factors would you change if…? What questions would you ask of…? From the information given, can you develop a set of instructions about…?

Question for Analysing: 

Question for Analysing Which events could not have happened? If. ..happened, what might the ending have been? How is...similar to...? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did...changes occur? Can you explain what must have happened when...? What are some or the problems of...? Can you distinguish between...? What were some of the motives behind..? What was the turning point? What was the problem with...?

Questions for Evaluating: 

Questions for Evaluating Is there a better solution to...? Judge the value of... What do you think about...? Can you defend your position about...? Do you think...is a good or bad thing? How would you have handled...? What changes to.. would you recommend? Do you believe...? How would you feel if. ..? How effective are. ..? What are the consequences..? What influence will....have on our lives? What are the pros and cons of....? Why is ....of value? What are the alternatives? Who will gain & who will loose?

Questions for Creating: 

Questions for Creating Can you design a...to...? Can you see a possible solution to...? If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...? Why don't you devise your own way to...? What would happen if ...? How many ways can you...? Can you create new and unusual uses for...? Can you develop a proposal which would...?

Slide 47: 

Creating Green Hat, Construction Key, SCAMPER, Ridiculous Key, Combination Key, Invention Key Evaluating Brick Wall Key, Decision Making Matrix, PMI, Prioritising. Analysing Yellow Hat, Black Hat, Venn Diagram, Commonality Key, Picture Key, Y Chart, Combination Key. Applying Blue Hat, Brainstorming, Different uses Key, Reverse Listing Key, Flow Chart. Understanding Graphic Organisers, Variations Key, Reverse Listing, PMI, Webs (Inspiration). Remembering White Hat, Alphabet Key, Graphic Organisers, Acrostic, Listing, Brainstorming, Question Key.

(Chinese Proverb) : 

(Chinese Proverb) He who learns but does not think is lost R eference: http://712educators.about.com/od/testconstruction/p/bloomstaxonomy.htm سعادة, جودت احمد ( 2008 ) . تدريس مهارات التفكير. عمان / الأردن : دار الشروق للنشر والتوزيع HAITHAM AL-HUNEAFAT ACADEMIC VICE PRINCIPAL NASSER ALATTYA INDEPENDENT SECONDARY SCHOOL FOR BOYS