Wildlife conservation

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Wildlife Conservation:

Wildlife Conservation Dr. G. Ponraj Department of Zoology

Introduction :

Introduction Uncultivated species of plants and animals living in their natural habitat India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries in the world Biodiversity Hotspots-4 Himalayas Western Ghats and Sri Lanka Madagascar and Indian Ocean islands Indo-Burma Himalayas Flocks of elephants in Western Ghats Indian Rahino at Assam Diversity of Corals at Gulf of Mannar

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To protect and preserve the rare species of plants and animals from extinction To preserve the breeding stock To prevent deforestation To maintain the balance of nature To study the ecological relations of the plants and animals in natural habitat Aims of Wild Life Conservation Deforestation Food Chain

Necessity for Conservation:

Necessity for Conservation Balance of Nature The Killing of snakes for their skin allows the rat population to increase enormously. Genetic Resource Wild flora and fauna are a rich resource of genes which can be used in breeding new forms of plants and animals . Economic Value Wealth of the country and it is a good source of income. Recreation A source of enjoyment and recreation to human beings. Education Visits to sanctuaries give education to the students of schools and colleges.

Causes For Wildlife Depletion:

Causes F or Wildlife Depletion Deforestation,Hunting, Poaching, pollution. Conversion of wild life habitats into house sites,industrial sites,agricultural land and transport routes,etc. for our increasing population. Establishment of hydroelectric projects. Poor breeding potential in wild animals. Natural calamities such as flood, droughts, fires, epidemics,etc. Breeding of wild animals near human dwellings.

Endangered Species:

Endangered Species 106 species of animals and 139 species of birds have become extinct. A bout 600 species of birds and animals are going to become extinct. Most of the endangered species are mammals. Eg . Red fox, Sloth bear, Leopard, Cheetah, Rhino, Wild ass, Scaly ant-eater , etc. Birds E g . Sea eagle, Hornbill, Mountain quail, Whooping crane , etc. Reptiles Eg . Green turtle, Box tortoise, crocodile, Python, etc. Amphibia Eg . Toad, Himalayan newt , etc. Sloth bear Scaly ant-eater Hornbill

Methods of Conservation:

Methods of C onservation Knowledge of W ild Life Appointment of Officials Protective Laws The Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act of 1887. Indian Board for Wild Life, 1952. The Wild Life Protection Act of 1972. Restriction of Hunting, Poaching and Habitat Improvement. Restoration of Habitats, Clonal Bank. Provision for Shelter and Cover Artificial Stocking Game Farming Epidemic Control Census Educating the public Establishment of Sanctuaries and National Parks

Organizations Involved in Wildlife Conservation:

Organizations Involved in Wildlife Conservation International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resoureces (IUCN) Established in 1948. International agency. To promote and support action that will ensure the perpetuation of wild nature and natural resources in as many parts of the World as Possible. World Wild Life Fund (WWF) Established in 1961 in Switzerland. Membership of 23 countries including India WWF- India Founded in 1969. Headquarter is Bombay.

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Andaman Pig Study, Crane Conservation Project, Crocodile Breeding Project, Ecological Survey of Western Ghats, Sloth Bear Project, Survey of Sea Turtle. Wildlife Preservation Society of India Voluntary organization in Dehradun in 1958. promotes wild life tourism, knowledge in the protection of wild life, maintenance and protection of National Parks and Sanctuaries. Bombay Natural History Society Non – Government body founded in 1883. Engaged in collecting information and specimens of fauna and flora throughout India, Burma and Sri Lanka.

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Indian Board For Wildlife Established in 1952. It has a Bird Wing and a Zoo Wing with the study and preservation of birds and animals and the development of zoological gardens and Parks in the country. State Boards for Wildlife (SBWL) Constituted in all States in India. It enforces legislation effectively against poaching and illegal killing of game birds and other animals. It celebrates Wild Life Week in the first week of October every year with the aim to educate people on wild life. National Wildlife Action Plan Constituted in 1983. Protected area is proposed to be increased to cover 4% of the geographical area as against 3% at present. Red Data Books Introduced in the 7 th plan. About 253 species of animals and about 2000 species of plants are reported to be endangered.

Sanctuaries and National Parks:

Sanctuaries and National Parks Sanctuaries are forest areas where the killing and capturing of animals are prohibited. National Parks are set up for preserving the flora, fauna, landscapes and the historic objects of an area. Vadanthangal Bird Sancturary It covers an area of 0.30 sq.km over a lake, about 85 km South of Chennai. Many migratory birds regularly visit this area during October and March. When summer starts, the lake becomes empty. Eg . Ibis, spoon bills, cormorant, pelican, etc. Mudumalai Sanctuary Situated in Nilgiri District. Established in 1940 It covers an area of 321 sq.kms . It is characterized by dense forests and diversity of fauna. Wild elephants, bison, chital, deer, tiger, monkey, etc.

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Mundanthurai Sanctuary Situated in Tirunelveli district at Papanasam Hills. Established in 1962. It encloses an area of about 520 sq.km. It is formed of thick forests. The Wild animals are tiger, panther,sambhar and chital. Anamalai Sanctuary Located in Coimbatore district. Established in 1972. It covers an area of 968 sq.km. The wild animals are elephants, spotted deer, lion-tailed monkey, bear, etc. Point Calimere Situated in Tanjore district. It covers an area 17sq.km. The nearby Vedaranyam forests are inhabited by large number of black bucks, chital, flamingos etc.

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Muntradaippu Sanctuary Situated at the National Highway between Nagercoil and Tirunelveli . It is inhabited by migratory birds. Periyar Sanctuary Situated in Kerala state. It covers an area of 777 sq.km. It was established in 1940. The fauna is elephants, bison, leopards, wild dogs, boars, etc. Bandipur Wildlife Sanctuary Situated in M ysore. It was established in 1941. It covers an area of 147 sq.km. The fauna includes elephants, leopards, sloth bear, etc. Guindy Deer Park It is situated in Chennai. The animal here include chitals and black bucks. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary Situated at Bharatpur in Rajasthan. It covers an area of 29 sq.km. The fauna is cormorants, spoon-bills, ducks, geese, cranes, python,etc

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Thank you

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