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See all Premium member Presentation Transcript MT203: Personality and Self Concept: MT203: Personality and Self Concept Learning outcomes -define the concept of personality and self concept -understand different theories and approaches to studying personality -explain the importance of personality issues to consumer behaviour -understand the marketing implications of personality and self concepts Definition of Personality: Definition of Personality The inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment The nature of personality -Personality reflects individual differences -Personality is consistent and enduring -Personality can change Theories of Personality: Theories of Personality Freudian theory -Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation Neo-Freudian personality theory -Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality Trait theory -Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits Slide4: The id – oriented towards immediate gratification .The id is selfish .the id acts without regard to consequence The superego – the counterweight to the id .it internalise society’s rules .it works to prevent the id from seeking selfish gratification The ego – the system that mediates between the id and superego. The ego tries to balance these two opposing forces according to reality principles Gratification Freudian Theory A representation of the interrelationship among the Id, Ego, and Superego System 1 System 3 System 2 Freudian Theory and Marketing: Freudian Theory and Marketing Product Personality -Consumer researchers using Freud’s personality theory see consumer purchases as a reflection and extension of the consumer’s own personality Neo-Freudian Theory: Neo-Freudian Theory Karen Horney’s CAD Theory - Using the context of child-parent relationships, individuals can be classified into: -Compliant Personality - one who desires to be loved, wanted, and appreciated by others -Aggressive Personality - one who moves against or competes with others, desires to excel and win admiration -Detached Personality - one who seeks emotional andamp; behavioural freedom from others, desires independence, self-sufficiency and freedom from obligations Trait Theory: Trait Theory Suggests that personality is composed of characteristics that describe and differentiate individuals (related to lifestyle theories) Trait theory is an individual’s characteristic ways of responding to the social and physical environment: Eg -Extroversion -Innovativeness -Materialism -Self-consciousness -Need for recognition Aggression, honesty, anxiety, independence and sociability Personality and Consumer Diversity: Personality and Consumer Diversity Some specific consumer traits are of particular interest to marketers eg -Consumer Innovativeness -Cognitive Personality Factors -Consumer Materialism -Compulsory Consumption -Consumer Ethnocentrism -Consumer innovators Distinguishing Innovators from Non-Innovators: Distinguishing Innovators from Non-Innovators Dogmatism Social Character Optimum Variety-novelty seeking Inner-Directed Consumers Others-Directed Consumers Visualisers Verbalisers Marketing Implications: Marketing Implications Personality traits may be related to consumption behaviour Marketers can develop products, services, and communications that appeal to various personality types Brand Personality: Brand Personality Brand personification are specific 'personality-type' traits or characteristics ascribed by consumers to different brands Issues in Brand Personification includes: -product personality andamp; gender -personality and colour Slide12: Sincerity Brand Personality Excitement Competence Sophistication Ruggedness .Down-to-earth .Honest .Wholesome .Cheerful .Daring .Spirited .Imaginative .Up-to-date .Reliable .Intelligent .Successful .Upper class .Charming .Outdoors .Tough Examples of Brand Personality, Product & Gender: Examples of Brand Personality, Product andamp; Gender Brand Personality Volvo Safety andamp; reliability Nike The Athlete in all of us Levi’s 501 Dependable, rugged, real andamp; authentic Barcadi Breezer Outwardly innocent andamp; inwardly (Cat symbol) naughty Product and Gender - Coffee andamp; Toothpaste Masculine persona -Soap andamp; Shampoo Feminine persona How consumers use brand personality : How consumers use brand personality For self-expression – act as a bridge Reassurance Communicates the brand’s functional characteristics Trustworthiness Personality and colour: Personality and colour Consumers also tend to associate personality factors with specific colours In some cases, various products, even brands, associate a specific colour with personality-like connotations Personality-like associations of selected colours: Personality-like associations of selected colours Colour Blue Yellow Green Red Orange Brown White Black Silver, Gold, platinum Personality Link Commands respect, authority Caution, novelty, warmth Natural, secure, relaxed, living things Exciting, hot, passionate, strong Affordable, informal, powerful Informal andamp; relaxed, masculine Goodness, purity, chastity, cleanliness, formality Sophistication, power, authority, mystery Regal, wealthy, stately Self concept: Self concept Self-concept is the overall image that a person holds of him or herself. Self-concept emerges out of our impressions about ourselves as well as from others’ impressions of us Variety of Self-Concepts - Actual self-image - Ideal self-image - Social self-image - Ideal social self-image - Expected self-image - Virtual personality or self Consumers often wish to change themselves to become a different or improved self by grooming, clothing, cosmetics, jewellery etc Expression of self is more popular in Western cultures Marketing applications of the Self-Concept: Marketing applications of the Self-Concept Consumers tend to protect and defend their self-images and buy products and services to enhance them Consumers frequently attempt to preserve, enhance, alter, or extend their self-images by purchasing products or services and shopping at stores believed to be consistent with their relevant self-image and by avoiding products and stores that are not In some cases markets can be segmented in terms of groups within the population that exhibit similar self-images and seek products and services to express that image You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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