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Morey, PhD Texas Aandamp;M University PAI: PAI Self-administered, objective inventory of adult personality Provides information on critical clinical variables PAR Copyright 2001 PAI Scales: PAI Scales 344 items Comprising 22 nonoverlapping full scales 4 Validity scales 11 Clinical scales 5 Treatment Consideration scales 2 Interpersonal scales PAR Copyright 2001 Applications of the PAI: Applications of the PAI PAI developed and standardized on a sample of 18-year-old and older adults Reading level is 4th grade 344 items take approximately 50 minutes to complete PAR Copyright 2001 Overview of PAI Administration and Scoring: Overview of PAI Administration and Scoring PAI is easy to administer and score Can be administered by technicians who have been trained in the administration of self-report tools PAR Copyright 2001 PAI Critical Items: PAI Critical Items 27 Critical Items on the PAI Critical Items are identified as indicators of potential crisis situations and have very low endorsement in normal sample Critical Items facilitate follow-up questioning PAR Copyright 2001 General Interpretation : General Interpretation Interpretation should only be done by professionals trained in the interpretation of psychological tests Interpretive guidelines are provided in the test manual Interpretive Software is also available that provides a comprehensive individualized report PAR Copyright 2001 Test Materials for the PAI: Test Materials for the PAI Item booklet contains the test items Response sheets: (HS) Hand-Scorable and (SS) Scannable Score Sheets Profile Forms available for adults and college students PAR Copyright 2001 Development of the PAI: Development of the PAI Based upon a construct validation framework emphasizing rational as well as quantitative framework Strong emphasis on the development and selection of items Nonoverlapping nature of scales is critical PAR Copyright 2001 Development of the PAI (cont’d) : Development of the PAI (cont’d) 10 steps in the development of the PAI: 1) Test users surveyed, literature review and current diagnostic schemas used to develop item content 2) Scale content areas defined 3) Scale and subscales selected PAR Copyright 2001 Development of the PAI (cont’d) : Development of the PAI (cont’d) 4) Development of initial 2,200 items 5) Reduction of item pool to 1,086 items based on research team ratings 6) Review by external bias panel and expert judges reduced item pool to 776 items 7) Alpha version (776 items) analyzed PAR Copyright 2001 Development of the PAI (cont’d): Development of the PAI (cont’d) 8) Item deletions and revisions to produce 597 item beta version 9) Beta version tested and analyses conducted 10) Standardization version (344 items) is produced after further reliability and validity analyses PAR Copyright 2001 Reliability: Reliability Variety of internal consistency alphas across three samples (1,000 normative; 1,051 college student; 1,246 clinical) Median alphas for full scales are .81, .82, and .86, respectively for the normative, college, and clinical samples PAR Copyright 2001 Reliability (cont’d): Reliability (cont’d) Median test-retest reliability across all three samples was .83 Mean absolute T-score change tended to be 2 to 3 T-score points for most Full Scales PAR Copyright 2001 Validity : Validity 4 Validity scales built into PAI Inconsistency and Infrequency assess deviation from conscientious responding Negative Impression and Positive Impression assess impression management PAR Copyright 2001 Validity (cont’d): Validity (cont’d) 1,000 computer generated random response protocols were compared against profiles from the three subsamples and there was marked separation Fake-good and fake-bad studies also conducted on a sample of 90 adults PAR Copyright 2001 Validity (cont’d): Validity (cont’d) Comparison of fake-good and fake-bad profiles to those from the normal and clinical samples revealed clear separation Response set studies also conducted using 1,000 computer generated profiles for each response set type PAR Copyright 2001 Validity (cont’d): Validity (cont’d) These simulations suggest that the Validity scales would capture the large majority of invalid protocols PAR Copyright 2001 Validity Correlations for the PAI Validity Scales: Validity Correlations for the PAI Validity Scales PAI-SP Clinical Reports: PAI-SP Clinical Reports PAI-SP software generates PAI Clinical Reports from on-screen PAI administration or hand-entry of item responses or raw scores from a PAI paper-and-pencil administration Clinical Report includes PAI full-scale and subscale profiles PAR Copyright 2001 PAI Clinical Report Full Scale Profile: PAI Clinical Report Full Scale Profile Includes all 22 nonoverlapping scales 4 Validity Scales: ICN, INF, NIM, and PIM 11 Clinical Scales: SOM, ANX, ARD, DEP, MAN, PAR, SCZ, BOR, ANT, ALC, and DRG 5 Treatment Scales: AGG, SUI, STR, NON, and RXR 2 Interpersonal Scales: DOM and WRM PAI-SP Clinical Report Full Scale Profile - Antisocial Personality Disorder Example: PAI-SP Clinical Report Full Scale Profile - Antisocial Personality Disorder Example PAI Clinical Report Subscale Profile: PAI Clinical Report Subscale Profile Includes 9 Clinical Scales and 1 Treatment Scale with their respective subscales Somatic Complaints: SOM-C, SOM-S, and SOM-H Anxiety: ANX-C, ANX-A, ANX-P Anxiety-Related Disorders: ARD-O, ARD-P, and ARD-T PAI Clinical Report Subscale Profile (cont’d): PAI Clinical Report Subscale Profile (cont’d) Depression: DEP-C, DEP-A, DEP-P Mania: MAN-A, MAN-G, MAN-I Paranoia: PAR-H, PAR-P, PAR-R Schizophrenia: SCZ-P, SCZ-S, SCZ-T Borderline Features: BOR-A, BOR-I, BOR-N, BOR-S PAI Clinical Report Subscale Profile (cont’d): PAI Clinical Report Subscale Profile (cont’d) Antisocial Features: ANT-A, ANT-E, ANT-S Aggression: AGG-A, AGG-V, AGG-P PAI-SP Clinical Report Subscale Profile - Antisocial Personality Disorder Example: PAI-SP Clinical Report Subscale Profile - Antisocial Personality Disorder Example Selected PAI References: Selected PAI References Morey, L. C. (1991). Personality Assessment Inventory professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Morey, L. C. (1996). An interpretive guide to the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Rogers, R., Sewell, K. W., Morey, L. C., andamp; Ustad, K. L. (1997). Detection of feigned mental disorders on the Personality Assessment Inventory: A discriminant analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 67, 629-640. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.