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Premium member Presentation Transcript Naval Science 113Lesson 12: Naval Science 113 Lesson 12 Cold War, Interventionism and the Maritime Strategy (1981-1991) Review Cold War - The Era of Retrenchment(1974-1980): Review Cold War - The Era of Retrenchment (1974-1980) Effects of the Vietnam War Post-Vietnam Navy Comparison - U.S. and Soviet Navy U.S. Navy under the Ford Administration Mayaguez Incident Decline of the U.S. Navy - Carter years The Iranian CrisisOutline Cold War, Interventionism and the Maritime Strategy (1981-1991): Outline Cold War, Interventionism and the Maritime Strategy (1981-1991)Learning Objectives Cold War, Interventionism and the Maritime Strategy (1981-1991): Learning Objectives Cold War, Interventionism and the Maritime Strategy (1981-1991) Comprehend the internal political situation and policy goals of the Reagan Administration, and the ensuing defense buildup Comprehend the trends of public support for defense budgets, force deployments and administration policies during the period from 1980 to 1991Overview Cold War, Interventionism and the Maritime Strategy (1981-1991): Overview Cold War, Interventionism and the Maritime Strategy (1981-1991) Reagan Foreign Policy Weinberger Doctrine Maritime Strategy U.S. Defense Build Up Goldwater-Nichols Act Iran-Contra Affair Fall of the Soviet Union End of the Cold War Interventionism Lebanon Grenada Libya Persian Gulf Panama PresidentRonald Reagan: President Ronald Reagan Elected President 1980 Two terms: 1981-1989 Aggressive anti-communist foreign policy Described Soviet Union as an “Evil Empire” Cold War Reagan Foreign Policy: Cold War Reagan Foreign Policy President Reagan believed: Soviet Union was malevolent Soviets had staged massive military buildup Policy of containment did not go far enough Détente was misguided “Peaceful co-existence” was tantamount to surrender “Must civilization perish in a hail of fiery atoms? Must freedom wither in a quiet, deadening accommodation with totalitarian evil?” President Reagan House of Commons Speech, 8 June 1982Cold War Reagan Foreign Policy: Cold War Reagan Foreign Policy Three-pronged strategy to win the Cold War – NSDD-32 Economic Decrease Soviet access to high technology Diminish their resources, including depressing the value of Soviet commodities on the world market Military Increase American defense expenditures Strengthen the US negotiating position Force the Soviets to spend more on defense Clandestine Support anti-Soviet factions around the world Afghanistan resistance fighters in his early years Solidarity later in his presidencyCold WarReagan Doctrine: Cold War Reagan Doctrine Followed strategy of NSDD-32 Called for American support of anti-communist resistance groups Contras in Nicaragua Mujahadeen in Afghanistan UNITA movement in Angola "We must not break faith with those who are risking their lives...on every continent, from Afghanistan to Nicaragua ... to defy Soviet aggression and secure rights which have been ours from birth. Support for freedom fighters is self-defense” President Ronald Reagan, State of the Union Address, February 1985 SECDEFCaspar Weinberger : SECDEF Caspar Weinberger Secretary of Defense 1982-1987 Cpt, USA in WW II Oversaw massive rebuilding of US military strength that contributed to the collapse of the former USSR Weinberger DoctrineCold War U.S. Defense Policy: Cold War U.S. Defense Policy SECDEF Weinberger shared the President's conviction: Soviet Union posed a serious threat to the United States U.S. Defense needed to be modernized and strengthened Readiness, sustainability and modernization Advocated: Dramatic increases in United States' nuclear weapons arsenal Conventional military Strategic Defense Initiative “Star Wars” Space-based missile defense shieldCold War Weinberger Doctrine: Cold War Weinberger Doctrine Result of U.S. failure to win the war in Vietnam Lessons learned from the Vietnam War by the U.S. military Resolution to avoid such quagmires in the future The United States should not commit forces to combat unless the vital national interests of the United States or its allies are involved. U.S. troops should only be committed wholeheartedly and with the clear intention of winning. Otherwise, troops should not be committed. U.S. combat troops should be committed only with clearly defined political and military objectives and with the capacity to accomplish those objectives. The relationship between the objectives and the size and composition of the forces committed should be continually reassessed and adjusted if necessary. U.S. troops should not be committed to battle without a "reasonable assurance" of the support of U.S. public opinion and Congress. The commitment of U.S. troops should be considered only as a last resort.SECNAV John Lehman : SECNAV John Lehman Secretary of the Navy 1981-1987 CDR, USNR 25 years Advocate of naval aviation and increased budgets Strategy of Maritime SupremacyMaritime Strategy U.S. Naval Strategy: Maritime Strategy U.S. Naval Strategy Re-establish U.S. Naval Supremacy Supported foreign policy of meeting the Soviet threat Meet the challenge of the Soviet “blue-water” fleet “Maritime Strategy” Offensive in nature “Gunboat Diplomacy” Press home attacks against Soviet naval forces and bases 600-ship Navy Carrier Battle Groups as centerpiece Forward-deployed forces Primarily CVBGs Maritime Strategy End of the Rickover Reign: Maritime Strategy End of the Rickover Reign SECNAV Lehman determined to end ADM Rickover domination of the Navy Felt the Navy was dominated by engineers Stifled fresh conceptual thought and strategic planning ADM Rickover finally pushed aside Jan 1982 Opposition to Lehman by many Admirals continued Maritime Strategy U.S. Navy Expansion: Maritime Strategy U.S. Navy Expansion Building to the 600 Ship Navy Navy’s budget doubled 15 CVs, 4 BBs, 100 SSNs Continued construction of Nimitz-class carriers Four WW II battleships refit - 16” guns and Tomahawks Ohio-class (Trident) SSBNs Los Angeles-class SSNs Aegis air defense system Ticonderoga-class CGs Maritime Strategy Goldwater-Nichols Act - 1986: Maritime Strategy Goldwater-Nichols Act - 1986 Department of Defense Reorganization Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) Principal military advisor to the President, National Security Council, and Secretary of Defense Vice-Chairman of JCS Created as an assistant Joint Staff directly responsible to Chairman No longer subject to influence of service chiefs Chain of command clarified Unified CinCs’ authority over component commanders is clarified “Joint” requirements for officer promotionsMaritime Strategy Unified Commands: Maritime Strategy Unified Commands 2001InterventionismCounter-Communism: Interventionism Counter-Communism CIA aided insurgents Afghanistan Nicaragua Angola Cambodia Ethiopia Cold War “containment”InterventionismLebanon: Interventionism Lebanon UN mandate for a Multinational Force 800 U.S. Marines sent to Beirut To evacuate PLO forces Administration diplomatic efforts Resulted in a peace agreement between Lebanon and Israel Bombing of a Marine barracks – October 23, 1983 Simultaneous suicide truck-bomb attacks on American and French compounds U.S. compound destroyed, 241 Marines were killed French base destroyed, 58 French troops were killed Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility President Reagan: saddest day of his life and of his presidencyInterventionism Lebanon: Interventionism Lebanon President Reagan – bombing a "despicable act" Pledged to stay in Lebanon, no change in the U.S. policy France launched retaliatory air strike in the Bekaa Valley Against Iranian Revolutionary Guard positions U.S. conducted naval bombardment USS New Jersey off Lebanon Marines later moved offshore International Peacekeeping Force Withdrew – Feb 1984InterventionismGrenada: Interventionism Grenada Grenada – small Caribbean island 1983 Marxist military coup 1,000 American medical students Operation URGENT FURY 1,900 US troops SEALs, Army Rangers, Marine amphibious assault Simultaneous strikes at both airfields Cut off the Cubans and Grenadese defense forces Assure undisturbed flow of supplies and enable reinforcements to be brought forward Quick victory, but “jointness” issues http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_159.shtml Historical Atlas p.220-221InterventionismLibya: Interventionism Libya Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi State-sponsored terrorism Historical Atlas p.222-223InterventionismLibya: Interventionism Libya 1973 Qaddafi claims Gulf of Sidra 1980 Libyan MIGs fire on US RC-135 1981 Sixth fleet ordered into Gulf 2 F-14 Tomcats shoot down 2 SU-22 Fitters 1986 Qaddafi’s Line of Death U.S. Freedom of Navigation (FON) Ops 3 U.S. carriers Hijacking of TWA Flight 847 Achille Lauro hijacking Rome and Vienna airports bombed Libyan-planned West Berlin disco bombing http://www.dy.pl/Handel/images/mc_020149D14.jpg http://home.t-online.de/home/birzi/tomcatthumb.html Historical Atlas p.222-223InterventionismOperation EL DORADO CANYON: Interventionism Operation EL DORADO CANYON Strike Plan – Joint USN/USAF A-6 from carriers Eastern Gulf - Benghazi / Benina Airport F-111 from England (flight path) Western Gulf - Tripoli bases and barracks Support Aircraft F-18/A-7 - SAM sites EA-6B - Jamming F-18/F-14 - CAP Historical Atlas p.222-223InterventionismOperation EL DORADO CANYON: Interventionism Operation EL DORADO CANYON Battle Damage Assessment (BDA) Air Force Strict ROE, limited success Navy Success, but little press French Embassy Oops! Effects No Libyan military reaction Reduction of terrorist activities U.S. night raids become the norm Historical Atlas p.222-223InterventionismPersian Gulf: Interventionism Persian Gulf Iran-Iraq War – 1980-1988 U.S. supporting Iraq Historical Atlas p.224-225InterventionismIran-Iraq War: Interventionism Iran-Iraq War Iran-Contra Affair Reagan Administration engaged in covert arms sales to Iran to facilitate release of American hostages in Lebanon Weapons funds used to support Contra rebels in Nicaragua Anti-communist Counterinsurgency Against the law! SECDEF Weinberger participated in sale of U.S. TOW missiles to Iran Later indicted on several felony charges of lying Resigned on November 23, 1987 Received a Presidential pardon from President George H.W. Bush on January 20th, 1993, just days before his trial was scheduled to begin Historical Atlas p.224-225InterventionismIran-Iraq War: Interventionism Iran-Iraq War Attacks on oil tankers in the Persian Gulf 1987 USS Stark attacked – 17 May Iraqi Mirage launches Exocet anti-ship missiles 37 Sailors killed Damage control saves the ship Operation EARNEST WILL U.S. escort of re-flagged Kuwaiti oil tankers 1988 USS Samuel B. Roberts Struck a mine in the Persian Gulf Operation PRAYING MANTIS USS Vincennes Iranian airliner shot down with Aegis system Historical Atlas p.224-225 USS Stark FFG-31 http://www.usswaddell.com/History/stark/uss_stark.htmPresidentGeorge H. W. Bush: President George H. W. Bush Elected President 1988 WW II Navy Pilot Youngest ever 58 combat missions Shot down Awarded DFC UN Ambassador Director, CIA InterventionismPanama: Interventionism Panama General Manuel Noriega Dictator of Panama Refused to yield to democratically-elected president InterventionismPanama: Interventionism Panama Operation JUST CAUSE Invasion of Panama Expel Manuel Noriega and install the democratically-elected president Night assault – 20 December 1989 Joint Special Operations Task Force Elements of U.S. Marines Corps XVIII Airborne Corps 82nd Airborne Division 75th Ranger Regiment 7th Infantry Division Airborne, helicopter and ground assaults on multiple objectivesInterventionismPanama: Interventionism Panama U.S. Quickly defeated Panamanian Defense Force Restored law and order in support of the Panamanian people and their duty-elected government Very successful operation Minimal casualties U.S. 23 KIA and 324 WIA Completed by January 12, 1990Cold War Afghanistan: Cold War Afghanistan Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 10-year war – “the Soviet’s Vietnam” Unprovoked invasion – December 1979 United Nations Resolution 37/37 Soviet Union forces should withdraw from Afghanistan Soviet Union justification: Rescue of an impoverished ally Pre-emptive war against Islamist terrorists CIA invested $2.1 billion Supported anti-Soviet resistance Soviet Union ultimately withdrew – Feb 1989 Defeat for Soviets Left a failed state Ripe for terrorists, extremists to take over http://www.afghana.com/images/War.GIFSoviet Union: Soviet Union Cold War Soviet Union – 1980s: Cold War Soviet Union – 1980s Two developments dominated 1980s Crumbling of the Soviet Union's economic and political structures Patchwork attempts at reforms to reverse that process Rapid succession of Soviet Leaders Yuri Andropov Nov 1982 until death in Feb 1984 Konstantin Chernenko 1984 until death in Mar 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev 1985 until resignation in 1991 SovietPresident Mikhail Gorbachev: Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev Elected General Secretary, CPSU – Mar 1985 Glasnost “openness” Perestroika “restructuring” Dissolution of USSR Cold War Soviet Union – 1980s: Cold War Soviet Union – 1980s Mikhail Gorbachev Made significant changes in the economy and the party leadership Glasnost Freed access to information after decades of government repression Perestroika Restructuring of the Soviet economy Failed to address the fundamental flaws of the Soviet system Soviet economy went from stagnation to deterioration Called for democratization – January 1987 Cold War Fall of the Soviet Union: Cold War Fall of the Soviet Union Soviet Union abandoned the Brezhnev Doctrine – 1988 Allowed Eastern bloc nations to determine their own internal affairs String of revolutions in Eastern Europe – 1989 Communist system collapsed Mostly peaceful democratic revolutions against the pro-Soviet communist regimes Exception of Romania Effectively ended the Cold War Gorbachev awarded Nobel Peace Prize October 15, 1990 Fall of the Berlin Wall 11 November 1989 http://www.andreas.com/pixs/berlinwall.jpgCold War Fall of the Soviet Union: Cold War Fall of the Soviet Union Plot by government insiders - 1991 Overthrow Gorbachev Revealed weakness of Gorbachev's political position Gorbachev resigned – December 25, 1991 Boris Yeltsin assumes power Soviet Union officially dissolved All official Soviet institutions ceased operations by end of the year Followed by Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) "Ronald Reagan won the cold war without firing a shot" Former UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Key Themes Cold War, Interventionism and the Maritime Strategy (1981-1991): Key Themes Cold War, Interventionism and the Maritime Strategy (1981-1991) Navy as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy Interaction between Congress and the Navy Interservice relations Technology Leadership Strategy and tactics Naval Doctrine You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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