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Guthrie University of MarylandAdolescent literacy: Issues: Adolescent literacy: Issues What is the state of knowledge about how well high school students achieve in reading, are motivated and strategic in reading, and are instructed in reading?Reading Achievement: Reading Achievement See NAEP Achievement levels Basic = global idea, literal info., relate to personal experience Proficient = complex inferencing, integrate knowledge and text, describe literary devices, characters Advanced = perceive abstract themes, analyze, synthesize, evaluate viewpoints, transfer and apply text-based knowledgeHow good are G 4 students at reading?: How good are G 4 students at reading? NAEP data Grade 4: 2003 total Below basic = 37% Below proficient = 59% NCLB expectation in 2014Reading Achievement: Conclusions: G 12 reading comprehension: Reading Achievement: Conclusions: G 12 reading comprehension Substantial, recent (1992-2002) declines in comprehension W-B (and W-H) achievement gap is 4 years at secondary level, with no change in 10 years Typical students have basic understanding, low inference, connections Below Basic students rarely gain simple facts, infer, or connect text to knowledge Literacy engagement: Literacy engagement Engagement refers to: Behaviors, (school, reading) Motivations, (goals, reasons for behavior) Strategies, (tools for reading, studying)School Behaviors: G4-12: School Behaviors: G4-12 Every school day, 3,000 students drop out of high school. Only 70% of high school students graduate on time with a regular diploma. High school students in the lowest 25% of their class are 20 times more likely to drop out than the highest performing students. Reading Next: Advancement for Excellent Education, October 2004Literacy engagement: Literacy engagement How do USA students compare to OECD students (age 15) in reading engagement? Engagement = reading time, breadth of materials (books, magazines, content), self-rating of interest, self-efficacySlide10: Reading Engagement: International comparisons with USA in PISA, 2000 International comparisons: PISA 2000; 26 countries; 15 yr.Ranks of the USA: International comparisons: PISA 2000; 26 countries; 15 yr. Ranks of the USA Interpret text 15 Retrieve from text 15 Reflect on text 11 Interest in reading 14 Self-efficacy in reading 11 Use strategies to read 10 Preference for social reading 1 (tie) (nces.ed.gov)Is reading engagement important? International comparisons: PISA 2000: Is reading engagement important? International comparisons: PISA 2000 Reading achievement (NAEP-like tasks) predicted by: Interest in reading (.27) Self-efficacy for reading (.16) Control strategies in reading (.12): predicted by: Self-efficacy (.52) Instrumental motivation (.35) Interest in reading (.15) Engagement construct from NAEP Questionnaire: Engagement construct from NAEP Questionnaire How often: do you read for fun on your own time? does your teacher give you time to read books you have chosen yourself? does your teacher ask you to read silently? do you take books out of the school library or public library ? Guthrie, et al. J.Ed.Res., 2001: Similar to PISA, 2000Conclusions about association of engagement and achievement: Conclusions about association of engagement and achievement G 4: Amount of reading engagement is more highly associated with NAEP reading achievement than demographic variables that represent traditional barriers to achievement. G 8: High reading engagement produces more reading achievement than 3 years of secondary education. Curriculum and instruction should aim toward twin goals of engagement and achievement.Reading Engagement conclusions: Reading Engagement conclusions Highly engaged students: Read widely, high amount of time, for intrinsic (interest), and extrinsic (succeed in school/career) reasons Use control strategies (deep processing) in reading Reading Engagement conclusions: Reading Engagement conclusions Less engaged students: Read magazines for brief time, few books, low interest, low success goals Use surface reading strategies (memorization; test relevant only)Reading Instruction: Reading Instruction What is the nature of reading instruction in high school? National survey of students’ reports of instruction. NAEP Question: “when you get reading assignments in school, how often…” Slide20: Reading Instruction Grade 12, from NAEP 1998 + 2002, Student Reports on “when you have reading assignments, how often…” Slide21: Reading Instruction Grade 12, from NAEP 1998 + 2002, Student Reports Literacy instruction: grade 12 conclusion: Literacy instruction: grade 12 conclusion Students report that they frequently: Read silently, Have class discussion, Write about what they read.Literacy instruction: grade 12 conclusion: Literacy instruction: grade 12 conclusion Students report that they usually do not: Read anything other than textbooks Choose what they read Discuss in teams Do projects about reading Get help from teacher in reading Use the libraryLiteracy instruction: grade 12 conclusion: Literacy instruction: grade 12 conclusion Instruction is: Textbook-driven; teacher-controlled; content-centered; Rarely addresses learning from text (e.g., reading) Not supporting students’ needs for autonomy, competence, relatedness Adolescent Literacy: Design principles: Adolescent Literacy: Design principles 1. Use knowledge goals in a conceptual theme for reading instruction. Reading Next, #2. Example---Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) Conceptual theme: Conceptual theme Grade 5: 12 weeks; Concept map Communities of plants and animals Interaction concepts of: mutualism, commensalism, predation, herbivory, parasitism Survival concepts of: locomotion, feeding, competition, reproduction, defense, communication, adaptation to habitat, niche, others Examples of plants and animals showing each.Adolescent Literacy: Design principles: Adolescent Literacy: Design principles 1. Use knowledge goals in a conceptual theme for reading instruction. Mastery goals prevail in classroom Teachers statements about school: The emphasis is on understanding schoolwork, not just memorizing it. Students are frequently told that learning should be fun. A lot of the work students do is boring and repetitious (reversed).Adolescent Literacy: Design principles: Adolescent Literacy: Design principles 1. Use knowledge goals in a conceptual theme for reading instruction. Mastery goals prevail in classroom Teachers statements about school: Students are told that mistakes are OK, as long as they are learning and improving. The importance of trying hard is really stressed to students. (high positive correlation with achievement)Adolescent Literacy: Design principles: Adolescent Literacy: Design principles 1. Use knowledge goals in a conceptual theme for reading instruction. Performance goals prevail in classroom Teachers compete with each other. Students scores are frequently compared. Students with good grades are shown as examples to others. You hear a lot about high test scores. (negative correlation with achievement)Adolescent Literacy: Design principles: Adolescent Literacy: Design principles 2. Provide fluency -- every subject. Fluency correlates with reading comprehension; grades 4-8 reading level Fluency enables comprehension by freeing cognitive resources (inference) Fluency brings language to text (reciprocal with comprehension) Repeated reading; assisted reading. NAEP, 2003; Rasinski, 2005; Mastropieri.Adolescent Literacy: Design principles: Adolescent Literacy: Design principles 2. Provide fluency -- every subject. Fluency development depends on decodable text. Text criterion: 5 unknown words/page or fewer; high easy word recognition Within 1 year of comprehension level Grade 10 below average Ss (at 7-8 grade level) require texts at 7-8 grade, not 9-10. Consequence of mismatch? No learning.Using text-student mismatch: A disengaging practice: Using text-student mismatch: A disengaging practice Avoid undermining self-efficacy for reading Don’t (negative association with engagement) (student perspective) T makes us read the textbook that we can’t read. When she gives questions, I always get low scores. T likes the students that get everything right.Adolescent Literacy: Design principles: Adolescent Literacy: Design principles 3. Give direct instruction for reading comprehension processes and strategies Reading Next--#1. Strategies—National Reading Panel questioning, summarizing, graphic organizing, comprehension monitoring, activating background knowledge, others.Summarizing Instruction: Summarizing Instruction Identify text—Estuary Paragraph, section, book, (illust?) Work with a partner. Circle key concepts (2-4 key words) Underline important supporting information (3-4 key phrases) Ignore less important information Write a summary SCAFFOLD THIS PROCESS Questioning Instruction: Questioning Instruction Rubric: 4. Question asks about patterns of relationships, using knowledge 3. Question asks about a concept and evidence for it, using knowledge 2. Question asks about a global concept 1. Question requests a fact—yes/no Taboada & Guthrie— Motivating Reading Comprehension, 2004; Journal of Literacy Research, Spring, 2005 Questioning Instruction: Questioning Instruction Rubric: 4. How is predation in the sea the same and different from predation on land? 3. How does a shark’s protection of its young differ from that of a squid? 2. What is the diet of a shark? 1. How long is a shark? Criteria for strategy instruction success: competence, awareness, self-initiation SCAFFOLD QUESTIONING, BY LEVELS Reading strategy instruction video: Reading strategy instruction video Grade 4; Reading integrated into science Survival in wetlands Previous field trip to wetland Reading to explain life in wetlandsComprehension Instruction Programs: Evidence-Based: Comprehension Instruction Programs: Evidence-Based Questioning the Author—Isabel Beck PALS—Peer-assisted learning strategies—Doug Fuchs Reciprocal Teaching—AnneMarie Palinscar CORI—Guthrie and others Theme scheme: J. Williams Summary Street—E. KintschAdolescent Literacy: Design principles: Adolescent Literacy: Design principles 4. Support extensive, elaborate writing (expression of knowledge) based on text Evidence of knowledge from reading is shown in writing that reflects: Explaining, arguing, debating, demonstrating, enacting, re-composing, applying, criticizing, questioning, summarizing, mapping conceptually, extending, connecting Not repeating, listing, completing sentences, true-false, literal multiple choice Learning knowledge from text: Learning knowledge from text Example of high knowledge Import page from high G5 book Example of lower knowledge Import page from low G5 book Show knowledge rubric 6 levels Scaffold writing to levels Little experimental research; some observational studies; CORI; Pressley outstanding elementary teachers.Mutualisms in the Rainforest: higher: Mutualisms in the Rainforest: higher Many animals and plants cannot survive by their self in the rainforest. They need other animals to help them and in return they help them. This is called a Mutualism. Many insects help plants to survive. Ants guard a passionflower from animals that eat it. They stand at the entrance of the flower and if any insects try to crawl on it they attack them and inject poison in them from their glands. In return the flower lets the ants drink the nectar from the flower.Slide42: Many frogs like laying their eggs in plants but the plants don’t like it. The bromeliads collect water in their plants. This is a perfect place for frogs to lay their eggs. The poison dart frog eats the insects, which try to hurt the plant. The poison dart frog is able to lay its eggs in the plant. The tadpoles get food because the insects those fly around the plant they eat. Also the plant makes it hard to find the frog so its enemies can’t eat it.Slide43: The leopard loves lying in a tree and waits for birds to come by. Then the leopard pounces and catches the bird. When it is finishing eating the bird, it drops the bird from the tree. The bird lands on the ground. After a while the bird decomposes in to the ground, which is like a fertilizer to the tree. The fertilizer helps grow more trees and taller trees. The jaguar gets a place to lye and catch food and the tree gets fertilizer to make it grow taller. Other Interactions : higher: Other Interactions : higher Commensalisms are when one animal gets a benefit from an interaction, but other animal does not get a benefit at all. It does not affect the other organism. When the windowpane butterfly is hungry it uses proboscis to take the nectar out of the flower. This is food to the butterfly but the butterfly does not help the flower. Slide45: The ant bird helps army ants. You would expect them to eat ants but they do not eat army ants. Instead, while the army ants are marching many little bugs are roaming around. The bugs think that there are no birds around so they come out. The birds eat all the bugs around the army ants. This benefits the bird because it gets food but the army ants are not helped or harmed while the bird is doing this. Slide46: In the food chain, there is something called predation. This is when animal eats another animal. This animal is also called a carnivore. For example the jaguar eats a bird. This is a benefit to the jaguar because it gets a snack, but the bird is dead. Another predation is shown by the alligator and the fish. Alligators love the fish in the water. While the fish are sleeping, they make their move. They attack the fish for a small snack. Now the alligator isn’t as hungry but the fish is gone. Mutualism: lower: Mutualism: lower The jaguar and a tapir are a good example of predation in the rainforest. A jaguar spies on the tapir and when it is not looking, it will kill the tapir. The jaguar gets the + because it is getting food. So that means the tapir has the – because it is getting killed.Performance Assessment Reading Comprehension Levels: Performance Assessment Reading Comprehension Levels Level 1 Facts and Associations: Simple Students’ writing consists of very few characteristics of either biome or organisms. Level 2 Facts and Associations: Extended At this level, students correctly classified several Organisms with accurate descriptions of them. Level 3 Concepts and Evidence: Partial and Limited Students will often present one or more ecological concepts with minimal supporting information in a disorganized statement. Level 4 Concepts and Evidence: Complete and Well-Formed Students display conceptual understanding of specific organisms and their survival mechanisms In one or more biomes. Level 5 Pattern of Relationships: Moderate and Supported At this level, students show command of ecological concepts. They present highly detailed descriptions of relationships among and between different organisms and the biomes they inhabit. Level 6 Pattern of Relationships: Complex and Elaborate Students describe complex relationships among multiple organisms and their habitats. The concepts and principles presented are supported by statements directly relating them to the organisms’ behaviors or physical adaptations. Elaborate food webs and detailed discussions of principles are the fundamental components.Adolescent Literacy: Design principles: Adolescent Literacy: Design principles 5. Systematically support motivation and engagement in reading. Reading Next #3 What is motivation?What do successful comprehenders in 3-8 look like?: What do successful comprehenders in 3-8 look like? THEY ARE MOTIVATED TO READ Interest—topics, authors, series Involvement—immersion, time spent Knowledge goals—read to learn Choice—self-selection, control Efficacy—can read Social—share, talk, cooperateInterest: Interest “I think I read about all the books on my bookshelf about four times. I like reading about animals…Really I usually won’t put no animal book down unless it’s really, really boring…I love animal books a lot.”Involvement: Involvement “I take bottles of water to my room, because when I start to read I don’t come out of my room for about three hours…Sometimes I even take books to the dinner table and read.”Knowledge & Information: Knowledge & Information “I just like to learn a lot. It’s really fun for me and it’s just really cool that you can learn something that your parents don’t even know…I like to teach teachers things that they don’t know yet.”Choice &Self-determination: Choice & Self-determination “When I pick out a book, usually it’s about something I like…I like picking them out myself because I always pick out a book that inspires me and that I like.”Efficacy: Efficacy “Usually the books in the library are a little too easy and I don’t like easy books. I like challenging books.”Social: Social “Sometimes I’ll walk up to the teacher at the end of the day and when everyone’s left, I’ll sit there and talk to her about it, and I’ll ask her questions about the book.”Comprehension Level and Reading Interest: Grade 4: Comprehension Level and Reading Interest: Grade 4 Interest: December 1 4 3 2 Comprehension Growth and Reading Interest: Grade 4: Comprehension Growth and Reading Interest: Grade 4 1 4 3 2 Interest: SeptemberMotivational practices: Motivational practices Foster relevance of content. Do (positive association with engagement) T. Talks about connection between what students study in school and real life. Encourage students to learn things that interest them. Explain importance of studying certain subjects in school. Reading Next # 3 Assor. Brit. J. Ed. Psych.,2002: Guthrie, in McCardle, P (Ed) 2004. Motivational practices: Motivational practices Avoid forced, meaningless work. Don’t (negative association with engagement) (student perspective) T. forces me to prepare uninteresting homework. T makes me read boring things T forces me to complete worksheets that do not help me understand the material.Motivational practices: Motivational practices Increase intrinsic motivation Do (positive association with engagement) Allow students to choose some texts Ask students which topics they want to study Enable students to choose which questions to answer in an assignment Encourage students to work in their own waysMotivational practices: Motivational practices Avoid undermining intrinsic motivation Don’t (negative association with engagement) (students’ perspective) T tells me what to do all the time. T interrupts me in the middle of activities that interest me. T only listens to opinions that fit her opinion T stops me in the middle when I am reading or writing interesting things.Motivational practices: Motivational practices Increase self-efficacy for reading Do (positive association with engagement) Give students materials they can read. Help students set realistic goals for reading. Help students learn from homework. Tell individuals when they have done well.Motivational practices: Motivational practices Avoid undermining self-efficacy for reading Don’t (negative association with engagement) (student perspective) T makes us read the textbook that we can’t read. When she gives questions, I always get low scores. T likes the students that get everything right.Using Motivational practices: Using Motivational practices Do practices daily Use during instruction; not aside Scaffold motivational processes of: interest, choice, collaboration, efficacy, involvement Classroom practices for motivation and engagement: Classroom practices for motivation and engagement Daily; During instruction; Multiple motivational targets; Scaffolding; Adolescent Literacy: Design principles: Adolescent Literacy: Design principles 6. Provide struggling readers differentiated instruction Differentiated according to: content, texts, tasks, writing complexity, engagement support.Adolescent Literacy: Design principles: Adolescent Literacy: Design principles 6. Provide struggling readers differentiated instruction Differentiated according to: Content Subject matter relevance Big ideas, core concepts, structured relations Carnine, et al., Read. Write Quart., 2004.Adolescent Literacy: Design principles: Adolescent Literacy: Design principles 6. Provide struggling readers differentiated instruction Differentiated according to: 2. Texts Text matched to students word recognition—imperative Criterion—More than 90% word recognition Alternative texts; new books; revisions. Fluency with text through repeated reading; peer tutoring; assisted reading Fuchs, et. al, Rem. & Sp. Ed., 1999; Mostropieri, LD Res. & Prac., 2003.Adolescent Literacy: Design principles: Adolescent Literacy: Design principles 6. Provide struggling readers differentiated instruction Differentiated according to: 3. Tasks Simplify same task by 50%; e.g., inferencing, summarizing, graphic organizing Sequence tasks Model task performance; scaffold longer Swanson, JLD, 1999 Adolescent Literacy: Design principles: Adolescent Literacy: Design principles 6. Provide struggling readers differentiated instruction Differentiated according to: 4. Writing complexity Reduce amount, complexity, time limits by 50% Provide goal setting; feedback; scaffolding Adolescent Literacy: Design principles: Adolescent Literacy: Design principles 6. Provide struggling readers differentiated instruction Differentiated according to: 5. Engagement support Same principles; reduced scope Choice---page instead of chapter Collaboration---partner for 10 min., not 2 days Content goal setting---easier goal; more feedbk. Fostering relevance---frequent connections of text to experience, knowledge, curriculum Adolescent literacy design principles: Limitations: Adolescent literacy design principles: Limitations Based on extremely few experimental, controlled studies (less than 1% of K-2). Based on few controlled correlational studies (SEM) of achievement, not growth. Based on extrapolations from confined studies, with limited samples. Not based on controlled field trials in high-risk schools. Based on impoverished theories of secondary literacy learning. Challenges to implementation: Challenges to implementation What are the barriers to implementing these six (6) design principles? One barrier for each How can these challenges to implementation be addressed? Discuss with a partner. Challenges to implementation: Challenges to implementation Scripted curriculum Breadth over depth Teacher expertise Teacher responsibility Accountability conflicts Quick fix: 5 day rather than 5 year plan Leadership expertise You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.