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Premium member Presentation Transcript PowerPoint Presentation: 1 THE FUTURE OF EARTH LIES IN OUR HANDSPowerPoint Presentation: 2 LET US HANDLE OUR EARTH WITH RESONSIBILITY AND LOVE.THE PRESENT CONDITION OF EARTH: THE PRESENT CONDITION OF EARTH 3 Water Pollution Global warming Deforestation Air Pollution Acid Rains Ozone DepletionGO GREEN : GO GREEN 4 Follow the three R’s : REDUCE REUSE RECYCLE Plant trees or plants. Use eco-friendly products. Use separate dustbins for degradable and non degradable waste .PowerPoint Presentation: 5 ALTERNATIVES OF PLASTIC BAGSWhy plastic bags are harmful?: Why plastic bags are harmful? 6 SOME FACTS *Thousands of marine animals and more than 1 million birds die each year due to plastic pollution. *It takes almost 1000 years for plastics to decay and mix with the soil. *Plastic bags are often mistakenly ingested by animals, clogging their intestines which results in death by starvation. Other animals or birds become entangled in plastic bags and drown or can’t fly as a consequence.PowerPoint Presentation: 7 OTHER FACTS The United Nations Environment Programme estimates that there are 46,000 pieces of plastic litter floating in every square mile of ocean. Food stored in plastic bags is not safe and is prone to contamination. Plastics with thickness less than 35 microns are the most harmful ones to the nature. Even when plastics photo-degrade in landfill, the plastic from single –use bags never goes away, and toxic particles can enter the food chain when they are ingested by unsuspecting animals. 5. Greenpeace says that at least 267 marine species are known to have suffered from getting entangled in or ingesting marine debris. Nearly 90% of that debris is plastic.PowerPoint Presentation: 8 SOLUTION Plastic is one of the key ingredients that causes contamination of environment. Its disposal and production has increased the mortality rate of living beings. Before it is too late, it is better to take some effective preventive measures to reduce plastic pollution. To bring a decline in the usage of plastic, shift to alternatives like paper, cloth, jute etc. However , plastics that have already been produced must NOT be burnt in order to get rid of it. The chemicals emitted through burning will contaminate the environment and cause respiratory problems. Disposed plastics can be recycled and used in many different ways such as tote bags, wallets, or a pouch. Also, there are bio-degradable plastic bags available that reduce the problem of plastic pollution.Here are some alternatives of plastic bags: Here are some alternatives of plastic bags 9 PAPER BAGS (using recycled paper or newspapers) JUTE BAGS CLOTH BAGS WICKER BASKETSPowerPoint Presentation: 10 PAPER BAGSPowerPoint Presentation: 11 ADVANTAGES Paper is a renewable resource since it comes from trees. Paper Bags are 100% reusable. The recovery rate for paper bags is four times greater than plastics. Paper bags are easy to make and are easily available.PowerPoint Presentation: 12 However, it is best to use paper bags made out of OLD NEWSPAPERS and RECYCLED PAPER .PowerPoint Presentation: 13 Make your own Paper bag. Stack two sheets of newspapers on top of each other. Fold a flap 1.25" down from the top. Fold a flap 2" up from the bottom. Then measure off and make vertical folds in the places shown in the diagram. The front and back panels are 4.5" wide, the side gussets are 3" wide, and you'll need a 0.5" flap for gluing the bag together. Put glue on the outside of the 0.5" tab and bring the left-most panel over to form the body of the bag, aligning the cut edge of the panel with the folded edge of the flap. Add a little more glue to make sure the outermost sheet of newsprint gets tacked down, too.PowerPoint Presentation: 14 Put glue on both flaps and fold them inward to form the bottom of the bag. Standing the bag upright and pressing down from the inside will help to secure them. Cut a piece of chipboard to 4" x 2.5" and glue it to the bottom of the bag to reinforce it and hide the flaps. Upend the bag so the 2" flap is now up. Fold the short sides inward as if you were wrapping a present. If it seems easier, you could also lay the bag on its side and crease those folds against the table.PowerPoint Presentation: 15 Punch holes in the rim of the bag and string some thread through the holes to form handles. Your own Paper Bag Is ready for Use.PowerPoint Presentation: 16 Disadvantages Causes pollution: Paper production causes air pollution as it emits green house gases. Moreover, a lot a trees have to be cut down for paper production. Consumes energy: Paper production consumes lot of energy. Consumes water: It uses 3 times the amount of water it takes to make plastic bags. Bio-degrading difficulties: Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) has stated that in landfills, paper doesn’t degrade all that much faster than plastics.PowerPoint Presentation: 17 JUTE BAGSHOW JUTE BAGS ARE MADE?: HOW JUTE BAGS ARE MADE? 18 Jute fibre comes from the stem and ribbon(outer skin of the jute plant. The fibres are first extracted by retting. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water. There are two types of Retting: stem and ribbon. At normal temperature of 34° C, it generally takes 8-10 days to complete retting.PowerPoint Presentation: 19 After the retting process, stripping process begins. In the stripping process, non-fibrous matter is scraped off. Pictures of jute Fibres left for drying under the sun. The jute fibre then extracted is left for drying under the sun. The raw jute obtained, is then manufactured to make several products.PowerPoint Presentation: 20 Jute bags are manufactured through the following processes in the jute mills or factories manufacturing jute products. 1. CARDING: It is the process of converting input material into sliver of desired density. It is done in two stages: Breaker Card: After piling, the hard barky root portions of jute reeds are cut and their soft and pliable portions are manually fed to a card, called the Breaker card. DRAWING: By the process of drawing, the card slivers are made more thin with improved parallelization and thereby more suitable for spinning. Thinning (attenuation) of sliver and improvement of fibre parallelization are progressively done with the help of 2 or 3 drawing passages. 2. Finisher Card: splits the fibres longitudinally into finer elements.PowerPoint Presentation: 21 3. 4. Spinning : In the spinning frame, the sliver delivered from the last (finisher) drawing frame is further elongated by drafting to the specified linear density of the final yarn and is finally twisted to form the yarn. Each of the jute spinning frame has 3 simultaneous and essential functions namely drafting, twisting and winding. Generally flyer spinning frames are used for spinning of jute yarn. Weaving: It is basically the process of interlacement of the warp and the weft and is carried out in the loom for fabric manufacturing. The looms used in the jute industry for producing conventional products are shuttle looms, though shuttle-less looms are also used for producing finer fabrics for value added products.PowerPoint Presentation: 22 5. FINISHING: It consists of a sequence of steps to convert the ex-loom Fabric into final sellable products. The sequence of processes are: Damping, Calendaring, Lapping, Cutting, Sewing, Safety stitching, Branding, Bundling and Bailing.ADVANTAGES OF JUTE: ADVANTAGES OF JUTE J ute bags are eco-friendly. Jute is 100% bio-degradable and decomposable. One hectare jute plants consume over 15 tons of carbon dioxide and release about 11 tons of oxygen. Jute is cheap and cost-effective Jute bags are recyclable and reusable. 23Some more advantages: Some more advantages Jute industry supports an estimated 5 million people in the poorest regions on earth. When discarded, jute totally decomposes putting valuable nutrients back into the soil. Jute is a rain fed crop which means it doesn't need harmful pesticides and fertilizers to grow. 24SOME DISADVANTAGES: SOME DISADVANTAGES Jute has decreased strength when wet. It becomes subject to microbial attack in humid climates. It becomes yellow in sunlight. It has poor crease resistance, brittleness and fibre shedding. 25PowerPoint Presentation: 26 CLOTH BAGSPowerPoint Presentation: 27 Cloth bags offer an Earth-Friendly alternative to plastic and paper bags. Many countries like Ireland have made a leap towards using cloth bags. Cloth bags reduce the amount of waste you generate, which can ultimately end up in landfills. In addition, manufacture of cloth bags uses less energy, produces fewer Greenhouse gases and uses less potable water.PowerPoint Presentation: 28 Why use cloth bags? Cloth bags are ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY . Cloth bags are STRONG and DURABLE . Cloth bags are EASILY AVAILABLE and are COST EFFECTIVE .PowerPoint Presentation: 29 Environment friendly Cotton or hemp carry bags are made from renewable natural fibers unlike propylene plastic bags that are made from fossil fuels. Cloth bags are woven from thread made of plant fibres and since cloth is a plant by-product, cloth bags are ultimately bio-degradable.PowerPoint Presentation: 30 Strength Cloth bags are thicker which makes them strong enough to be used again and again. Some cloth bags have a cardboard inserted in the base that adds additional stability. In general cloth bags are capable of holding larger items. Cloth bags are more durable than paper or plastic bags and they do not lose integrity even if they become wet.PowerPoint Presentation: 31 AVAILABILTY & COST EFFECTIVE Cloth bags are easily available in a variety of colors, designs and shapes. Cloth bags are affordable and since they can be reused, they are cost effective.PowerPoint Presentation: 32 WICKER BASKETSPowerPoint Presentation: 33 What is wicker? Wicker is hard woven fibre formed into rigid material, usually used for baskets or furniture. Wicker is often made of material of plant origin. Materials used can be any part of a plant, such as the cores of cane or whole thickness of plants as with willow switches. Other popular materials include reed and bamboo.PowerPoint Presentation: 34 Advantages: Low in cost Widely available: wicker baskets are available In a variety of colors and sizes. Durable and strong Bio-Degradable: since they are made of plant material.PowerPoint Presentation: 35 REFUSE A PLASTIC BAG NOW. OPT FOR ECO-FRIENDLY ALTERNATIVES.PowerPoint Presentation: 36 THANK YOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.