GREEN TECHNOLOGY USEFUL FOR RURAL SECTOR: GREEN TECHNOLOGY USEFUL FOR RURAL SECTOR Defining the Term “Green Technology”: The "green technology" is a broad term for more environmentally friendly solutions. GT for that matter can be used as environmental healing technology that reduces environmental damages created by the products and technologies for peoples' conveniences. It is believed that GT promises to augment farm profitability while reducing environmental degradation and conserving natural resources The Green Technology is the knowledge for conserving natural environment and resources and reducing human involvement. GT can operate in diversified areas such as bio-fuel, ecoforestry , renewable energy, and solid waste management. Defining the Term “Green Technology” Objectives: The specific objectives are: 1) Identifying appropriate technology suitable for income generation through sustainable agriculture i.e., ecological agriculture, rural renewable energy, etc; 2) Examining the impact and implications of national policies for making recommendations for the extension of appropriate technology; 3) Diagnosing policy-level impact of GT on rural income generation under the sustainable agriculture development framework; 4) Reviewing the challenges and available policy options for the adoption of GT Objectives WHY GREEN TECHNOLOGY?: We need green technology because at the end of the day we are going to run out of fossil fuels and we are going to need to find an alternative. This alternative is green technology. If we fail to adopt green technology then we will be left with no alternative. Almost 70 per cent of Indian population depends on agriculture, which is one of the energy intensive sectors. Agriculture consumes about 35 per cent of the total power generated through electrically operated pump sets. It is expected that about 30 per cent of savings is possible through appropriate technology. WHY GREEN TECHNOLOGY? Feasible Green Technologies: Feasible Green Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Wind Energy Biofuel Biogas Solar Thermal, Improved Water Mill, Geothermal Energy Organic Farming Solar Photovoltaic: Solar Photovoltaic Solar photovoltaic technology converts sunlight into electricity using semi conductor modules. Used generally for meeting lighting requirements, they can also be used for pumping water, refrigeration, communication, and charging batteries. Solar photovoltaic has application as green agricultural energy source for pumping water street lighting in villages,lighting in rural houses and pest management Since the technology efficiently produces low-cost, high-power photovoltaic cells, this new generation of solar energy can be one of the most affordable and efficient energy sources in the future. Professor W.S. Sampath from Materials Engineering Laboratory at the Colorado State observes, "Without moving parts or external fuel, photovoltaic devices directly convertabsorbed sunlight into electrical current". The high –powered devices produce no waste or pollution. Wind Energy: Wind Energy Wind energy is in a boom cycle. Overall, wind energy contributes only 1% of global electricity generation. Its importance is increasing in the sense that comparatively with other sources; the wind energy produces less air pollutants or greenhouse gases. Biofuel: Biofuel Biofuel as bio-ethanol and bio diesel have the potential to assume an important portfolio in future energy platter. Caution is mandatory in evaluating biofuel as green agricultural technology. Food security concerns and risks to environment and biodiversity are parameters that necessarily need to be accessed while analyzing sustainability linkage of agriculture and biofuel . Also, conversion of wasteland to farmland with some crop Options can be viewed as positive impacts. BIO GAS: Biogas is the product of anaerobic digestion of organic matters by methanogenic bacteria. Biogas qualifies on the merits that this technology utilizes organic agricultural waste and converts it to fuel and fertilizer. Direct impacts of biogas are fuel-wood, agriculture residue,livestock manure, and kerosene savings. Increases in soil fertility and crop production havealso been observed. Biogas also solves the problem of indoor air pollution and improves household or communal sanitation. BIO GAS Biogas and income generation to farmers : Biogas has income generating potential through Increased agriculture productivity: Besides increasing agriculture output, as biogas requires to keeping animal husbandry, it also diversifies income sources of the farmers. b) As a substitute for fuel wood and commercial fuel: Biogas saves the time for collecting fuel wood. The time saved can be used in income generating activities. Similarly people will not have to spend money for purchasing commercial fuel such as kerosene. This will save expenditures. c) Reduced health cost: Use of biogas reduces indoor air pollution which results in reduced health cost and increased working days. This will have impact on income generation of the farmers Biogas and income generation to farmers SUSTEINABILITY & BIOGAS: SUSTEINABILITY & BIOGAS Organic Farming: Organic Farming Organic farming is the form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure compost and biological pest control to maintain soil productivity and control pests on a farm. Organic farming excludes or strictly limits the use of manufactured fertilizers, pesticides (which include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides), plant growth regulators such as hormones, livestock antibiotics, food additives, and genetically modified organisms. THREE BOTTOM LINE CONCEPT: According to Borch et.al. (2004) "The future environmentally friendly farming technologies are assessed and chosen in accordance with their contribution on three areas, where operating economical plans, green accounts and nature plans are treated equally." THREE BOTTOM LINE CONCEPT Evaluation of Green technology for adoption: Characteristics Impression Reason System Independence Yes Less capital is required, available through subsidy Image of Modernity Yes People feel proud after installing it Individual v/s Collective Collective Individual during installation, collective for maintenance and operation Cost of Technology Low Relatively less than other source of energy Risk Factor Very low Increased restriction of using forest product and scarcity and expensive hydroelectricity Single and Multi Purpose Multipurpose Cooking, lighting, manure and even to run small rice mill. Evolutionary Capacity Very high Increased restriction of using forest product and scarcity and expensive hydroelectricity Evaluation of Green technology for adoption ADVANTAGES OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY: It is clean so it does not emit anything harmful into the air which has an impact on the environment. It is renewable which means we will never run out of it unlike oil which is expected to dry up in a decade or so. Requires less maintenance so you don’t have to shell out a lot of money to operate it. ADVANTAGES OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY Conclusions : The review shows when used correctly agro-environment-friendly technology has promoted sustainable agriculture growth and reduced widening rural-urban income disparities. The application of green technology is the answer for sustainable development but poor countries have not been able to use applicable technology largely because of their inability to afford to the available alternatives. Green technologies assure potency for sustainable agricultural growth but significant effort will berequired to substitute conventional practices. Alternative energy can be promoted to help low income, marginal and disadvantaged and contribute to rehabilitation of the households displaced by conflict by providing them electricity and cooking fuel. • Alternative energy is environment friendly energy source and the possibilities of reducing green house gas emission levels with the promotion of alternative energy, and the savings in the carbon emission levels; thereof has created possibilities of carbon trading in the global market. Conclusions THANL YOU…..: THANL YOU …..