Counter Terrorism

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COUNTER TERRORISM

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WELCOME to Counter Terrorism DE-BRIEF BY THOMAS GORI

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AGENDA UNDERSTANDING THE THREAT THE GLOBAL TREND OF TERRORISM REGIONAL TERRORISM ACTIVITY – EAST AFRICA THE SPECIFIC THREAT TO NAIROBI AND TERRORIST TTP’S INTRODUCTION TO IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES COUNTERING THE THREAT MILITARY AND POLICE COUNTER TERRORISM STRATEGY COUNTER TERRORISM MEASURES FOR BUSINESSES THE ROLE OF SECURITY MANAGERS PLANNING, TRAINING AND PREPARATION MEASURES

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3 UNDERSTANDING THE THREAT

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4 THE GLOBAL & REGIONAL TRENDS OF TERRORISM

Review of Recent Kenya Terrorist Incidents:

Review of R ecent Kenya T errorist Incidents Abduction of two administration police officers in wajir Abduction of a District Officer and a government registration clerk Two Spanish aid workers with Medicins Sans Frontieres abducted from Dadaad refugee camp A British woman and a French woman abducted separately in Lamu British tourist Judith abducted from a beach resort and her husband killed in the attack. An ailing French woman seized by the militants from her beach resort. She died in captivity. Grenade attack along Racecourse Road Grenade attacks in church and restaurant in Garissa 1998 Bombing of Nairobi and Daresalaam US Embassy – over 200 hundreds people die and many others maimed. Et al

Recent Related Crime Tactics:

Recent R elated C rime T actics Abducting children and demanding ransom from parents. Abducting bank employees and coercing them to release bank codes. Abducting individuals and forcibly withdrawing money through their ATMs.

Target Hardening?:

Target H ardening? Terrorism continues to be a major concern. Is the hype factor more significant than the actual probability of becoming a victim? What types of target hardening security strategies have you put in place in your organization?

Probability- What is the next Target?:

Probability- What is the next T arget? So who is the next probable victim and which is the next probable terrorist target? Your company? Your Govt office? Your favorite restaurant? Your shopping supermarket? Can we be able to predict and therefore prevent or are we going through routine motions of security checks just for the sake of it? Think like a………..

Definition:

Definition Some definition of terrorism is that ‘it is the use of aggressive strategies to produce fear, coercion, or violence for political, religious or criminal ends. Terrorists often are highly trained and mobile. They are characterized by conducting surprise, violent attacks, usually to see maximum press coverage for their cause.

WHY DOES TERRORISM EXIST?:

WHY DOES TERRORISM EXIST? Although political terrorism often appear irrational and unpredictable to victims and observers, it is very rational to terrorist point of view. Basic to most terrorist theory is that violence will bring the uncommitted masses into the conflict on the side of right – of course the terrorist point of view. Terrorist actions are violent and are intended to: Show the strength of the group They are provocative, causing the general public to pay attention to the group’s activities.

Trends:

Trends International officials and private sector experts view terrorism as increasing. This view goes parallel to public perception. In 1987 there were about 665 international terrorist attacks and about 440 in 1995. The numbers are down because of toughening policies and sanctions against state sponsored terrorism. The availability of weapons of mass destruction could increase risk factors. The business sector continues to be the leading target of terrorist attacks.

INCREASE IN TERRORISM:

INCREASE IN TERRORISM 1970 1975 1980 1985 Increase in terrorism – The Hall Crest Report II : Private Security Trends 1970 -2000

Is Kenya included on the Target List?:

Is Kenya included on the T arget L ist?

Global Fatalities and Injuries:

Global Fatalities and I njuries

Analysis:

Analysis Between 1969 and 2009, there were 38,345 terrorist incidents around the world. Of these attacks 7.8 percent (2,981) were against the United States 92.2 percent (35,364) were against the rest of the world.

Trend:

Trend In 1986, about 12 people were killed and 100 wounded in world wide terrorism. In 1987, the 7 people were killed and 4o wounded through terrorism. In 1989 16 were killed and 19 wounded. In 1995, 70 attacks were directed to international companies world wide. The loss even one person and the fear associated with becoming a victim cannot be overestimated. Terrorism has had an impact on almost all international firms. The largest firms have taken precautions

Trends in Kenya:

Trends in Kenya Trends in crime throughout East Africa, specifically Kenya, are frequently evolving, giving law enforcement and the private security sector the difficult task of remaining vigilant. With advancements in global technology comes the emergence of criminal activity. In terms of Kenya, the major threats include: Terrorism, maritime piracy, human/drugs/arms trafficking, and cyber crime.

Kenya Borders:

Kenya B orders For one, a vast majority of the responsibility for all crime in Kenya can be attributed to the porous borders that surround the country. Surrounding Kenya is the failed state of Somalia, Sudan, and crime-ridden Ethiopia and Uganda. Without proper border control, there is simply no realistic way to create a secure country.

Kenya Borders:

Kenya B orders There is no way to accurately assume the number of people crossing through the Somalia-Kenya border. However, observers estimate that 100,000 undocumented foreigners make entry into or exit Kenya every day. This figure is exceptionally upsetting when it is considered that Somalia houses al-Shabab, a terrorist group with self-declared ties to al-Qaeda. The presence of al-Qaeda in Kenya is directly responsible for the 1998 bombing of the U.S. embassy in Nairobi

Pirates.:

Pirates. A relatively new and threatening trend in East Africa is the attacks by pirates off the coast of Kenya. Young adults, who are generally in poverty and uneducated, are recruited by crime bosses in Somalia and Kenya in an attempt to extort money from commercial and private ships in the Indian Ocean. Observation by prosecutors for the United Nations Anti-Piracy Program, makes it very clear that there will always be young impressionable candidates who are willing to do illegal work for small sums of money

PIRATES.:

PIRATES. Nevertheless, it is up to the international community, including Kenya, to target the wealthy crime bosses who live on the eastern coast of Africa and create legitimate job and educational opportunities for the youth involved. Monetary assistance and international oversight can assist in curtailing maritime piracy off the coast of Kenya to a limited extent. The Government of Kenya still has a responsibility to its people to take control of its nation’s borders and coasts without significant intervention by foreign entities.

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Questions & Answers 22

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23 THE SPECIFIC THREAT TO NAIROBI & TERRORIST TTP’S

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

LEARNING OBJECTIVES Identify who is a Terrorist both local and Inter. Identify phases of a Terrorist Operations Identify effective 0ptions to prevent a Terrorist attack Define “choke point” and explain its significance in a terrorist attack 24

WHO IS A TERRORIST ?:

WHO IS A TERRORIST ? Any person or a group of people that threaten a democratic regime by using acts of violence to achieve any of the following goals: Political Ideological Religion or Any other reason 25

INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST GROUPS:

INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST GROUPS 26 Al Qaeda Taliban Mujahideen Hezbollah Al Shabab Etc

KENYAN LOCAL OUTFITS:

KENYAN LOCAL OUTFITS Mungiki Taliban Kamjesh Sungu Sungu Chinkororo Lords Resistance Army Kony in Uganda Saboat Land Defense Force Mombasa Republican Army 27

Phases of a Terrorist Operation:

28 Target Selection Target Intelligence Operational Planning Attack Or Dry Run Escape and Exploit Phases of a Terrorist Operation

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Selection is based on the objectives and capabilities of Terrorist groups, some groups have advanced ways of operating. A number of potential targets may be identified before the final selection. They select the victim who will produce the greatest results with the least amount of risk. Pick about Five Organizations /Hotels /Restaurants out of which the final one will be selected 29 Target Selection

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All terrorist have included target intelligence They gather information about the Target (Hotel): Lobby, Restaurants, Conference Facilities, Housekeeping arrangements, Rooms Security detail in the Hotel/Restaurants E.g the Paradise Hotel in Mombasa. 30 Target Selection

Operational Planning:

Operational Planning Having understood how your Organization/Hotel Operates, The next level is to determine what is needed to operate effectively. Areas they will focus on include: Hotel Location, Lobby, Staff Vigilance, Superiority of the Hotel Choose the best time/place/conditions Logistics (vehicles to be used) deployment (manpower, who will be where) escape 31

ATTACK OR DRY RUN:

ATTACK OR DRY RUN The group normally do a dry run. This phase is referred to as “target identification” Confirm the presence of the target Identify the kill zone Confirm if the staff may be aware of the attack 32

Escape and Exploit:

Escape and Exploit Escape is properly planned and part of the group has to escape. Attack site must allow them the ability to withdraw May use radio, mobile phone to communicate 33

Attack and Prevention:

Attack and Prevention Deny the terrorist one of the phases but in the initial stage. It will be a big blunder to allow them reach stage three. An organization must ensure they recognize the First phase at all costs. We should develop ways of reading all types customers in our establishments. The security team must move fast in knowing how the situation is (Threat levels) 34

TRAINING:

TRAINING Individual and Group training Self education – Videos, Internet Commercial Schools – Shooting, Self Defense Terrorists Camps Basic, Intermediate or Advanced Survival, Interrogation & Resistance tactics

ORGANIZATION:

ORGANIZATION Command Cell Intelligence Cell Logistics Cell Operations Cell

MOBILITY:

MOBILITY Aviation and Flight Support Maritime Transportation Motor Vehicles Motor Cycles Animals On foot

COMMUNICATION:

COMMUNICATION Telephones (fixed or mobile) Satellite Telephone UHF/VHF Radios Internet (e-mail, chat rooms, encryption) Couriers

COVER AND CONCEALMENT:

COVER AND CONCEALMENT Marriage Socio-economic engagements Charities Tourists Dressing Fazul came to Siyu as a religious teacher Introduced to local family and married Coordinated sports activities Ventured into fishing business

RECRUITMENT AND RADICALIZATION:

RECRUITMENT AND RADICALIZATION Target Youth Take advantage of existing socio-economic conditions NEP, Nairobi and parts of Coast province

FINANCING:

FINANCING Charitable Organizations (Front Offices) Kidnapping for Ransom Extortion or Blackmail Piracy Smuggling Illegal Banking activities Drug/Human Trafficking

USE OF FALSIFIED DOCUMENTS:

USE OF FALSIFIED DOCUMENTS Fraudulently acquisition of Primary Documents Forged Passports and Travelling documents Falsify Travelling Documents, Credit Cards, Receipts

TARGETS-TERRORIST OPERATIONS:

TARGETS-TERRORIST OPERATIONS Targets are chosen according to their importance and vulnerability A number of Targets may be chosen Targets are subjected to elimination process Zeroing in on the most important one and a fall-back option Embracing the idea of Multi – Targets The group will contact surveillance and get as much details of the target. Based on the details found, an operation plan is initiated, with duties being assigned. Dry runs follow and finally the attack

TARGETS (Cont…):

TARGETS (Cont…) Economic Targets Terrorists attack Economic targets in order to cause panic and paralysis. These may include; Airports Banks incl … cyber attacks Tourists centers……Hotels Soft Targets ……Churches, Entertainment spots Power stations Sea Ports Bridges and tunnels

TARGETS (Cont…):

TARGETS (Cont…) Ideological Targets Ideology plays a crucial role in terrorists target selection It includes religion, political and social ideologies which holds the beliefs, values, principles and objectives by which a group defines its distinctive political identity Ideological targets could include; Leaders Churches Mosques Patriarchs Imams Pastors Activists

OPERATIONAL METHODS:

OPERATIONAL METHODS Acquisition of Supplies Purchasing or stealing explosives, weapons or ammunitions Storing harmful chemicals or chemical equipment Possession of law enforcement equipment and identification cards including military uniforms ,flight passes, badges or even flight manuals

OPERATIONAL METHODS:

OPERATIONAL METHODS Modes of Attacks Traditional – when makeshift or ordinary weapons are used Technological – when Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs) are used such as Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear (CBRN) Cyber – when viruses, computer attacks or destruction of information infrastructure occurs ( computer software attacks, hacking, propaganda, extremists websites).

OPERATIONAL METHODS (Cont…):

OPERATIONAL METHODS (Cont …) Terrorists Tactics Bombing – most lethal and frequently used and generates instant media coverage Sabotage Assassination Arson Kidnapping and hostage taking Hijacking Environmental destruction Use of technology

OPERATIONAL METHODS (Cont…):

OPERATIONAL METHODS (Cont…) Methods of Attacks VBIEDs- Bomb laden vehicles - disguised as ones used Backpacks and bags Suicide bombers – belts, inserted Bombs Motorcycles Boats Animals Gases Liquids Weapons (Military)

POSSIBLE ATTACK SCENARIOS:

POSSIBLE ATTACK SCENARIOS IED ATTACK SUICIDE BOMBING KIDNAPPING ARMED ASSAULT – Small arms/knives SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILE ATTACKS COMBINATION- E.G. Rifle fire and IED COMPUTER VIRUSES Weapons of Mass Destruction e.g. Chemical Biological, radiological and nuclear

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51 Mechanism Detonator Explosive

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INTRODUCTION TO EXPLOSIVES AND WEAPONS

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OBJECTIVES Definition of explosives Categories Effects of an Explosion Action to take on finding a bomb Terrorist Weapons Q & A

What are Explosives:

What are Explosives Definition: Explosives are substances that, through chemical reaction, rapidly and violently change to gas, accompanied by high temperatures, extreme shock and a loud noise. An explosion is the process of the substance transforming into the gaseous state.

Categories of Explosives :

Categories of Explosives 1 . Low Explosives 2 . High Explosives

Low Explosives:

Low Explosives Low explosives deflagrate (burn) rather than detonate, they burn progressively, and the reaction is sub-sonic (speed less than that of sound). Examples: Black powder (gun powder) Smokeless powder

High Explosives:

High Explosives High explosives explode in supersonic reactions and without confinement, are compounds, are initiated by shock or heat and have high brisance (the shattering effect of an explosion). Speed of detonation -3000 to 9000 metres per second Depending on sensitivity, sub-divided into primary and secondary explosives Examples (high explosives): TNT Dynamite Semtex

CONVENTIONAL BOMBS:

CONVENTIONAL BOMBS Commercially produced Military purposes (Mortars, etc) Industrial use

MORTARS (BOMBS):

MORTARS (BOMBS) Characteristics include the following Fusing in the nose Normally tear drop shaped, however body can have parallel sides

GRENADES AND ARTILLARY AMMO:

GRENADES AND ARTILLARY AMMO

HAND GUNS/RIFLES:

HAND GUNS/RIFLES CZ 75 (Czechoslovakia ) AK Rifles Fazul’s weapons on the day of his death Ruger GP100 (US)

Examples -Dynamite-:

Examples -Dynamite-

Examples -TNT (Tri Nitro Toluene)-:

Examples -TNT (Tri Nitro Toluene)-

Examples:

Examples SEMTEX C-4

IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES (IEDs):

IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES (IEDs) Home-made bomb Limited only by imagination of bomb maker May incorporate commercial, military or homemade explosives Commonly used by terrorists

IEDs cont…:

IEDs cont… Is designed to cause death or injury by using explosives alone or in combination with toxic chemicals, biological toxins, or radiological material. IEDs can be produced in varying sizes, functioning methods, containers, and delivery methods

IED Components:

IED Components A switch/trigger An initiator (fuze) Main charge (explosive fill) A power source for the switch/trigger; and A container

Ammonium Nitrate and Fuel Oil:

Ammonium Nitrate and Fuel Oil Locally available explosive

Examples of Commercial Explosives Quarry Type:

Examples of Commercial Explosives Quarry Type

Examples of IEDs:

Examples of IEDs

Combination.:

Combination.

IEDs….:

IEDs…. 72

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PARTS OF IED

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PARTS OF IED

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DETONATOR Aluminum copper and plastic

IED’S RECOVERED IN SOMALI BY NATIONAL DEFENCE FORCES :

IED’S RECOVERED IN SOMALI BY NATIONAL DEFENCE FORCES

IEDs…:

IEDs…

A briefcase?:

A briefcase?

IEDs… :

IEDs… 80 Shoe bomber-Richard Reid

Explosive:

Explosive 81

Ink cartridges?:

Ink cartridges? PETN , or pentaerythritol The device containing explosives found at East Midlands Airport- Dec- 2010

IED cont..:

IED cont.. Abdulmutallab’s underwear with a PETN explosive packet Syringe detonator

Booby Traps:

Booby Traps A Booby Trap is an explosive that is designed to be triggered when an unsuspecting victim touches or disturbs a seemingly harmless object

Booby trap…:

Booby trap…

Liquid Explosives (L.E):

Liquid Explosives (L.E) Exist in a variety of colors and densities, as well as in configurations other than the liquid phase – in mixtures of solids, gels and emulsions. Performance level of most liquid explosives, when comparing detonation speed and brisance, is as high as those of solid explosives Use of liquid explosives in the liquid phase is limited -due to their relatively high volatility and high toxicity – limitations that demand uniquely cautious storage conditions and usage

Incidents involving L.E:

Incidents involving L.E On 10 August 2006, authorities in the United Kingdom uncovered an alleged plot to sabotage as many as 10 US airliners traveling from the United Kingdom to the United States, reportedly by using liquid and gel based explosives. In a terror attack perpetrated on December 11, 1994, a bomb made of nitroglycerin was planted on Philippine Airlines flight 434. It was concealed in a bottle purportedly containing contact lens cleaning solution, with a delay detonation mechanism. The blast caused a rupture in the fuselage, resulting in the death of one passenger and the injury of several others.

Incidents.. Cont.:

Incidents.. Cont. In 1987, an explosive device combining C4 and PLX was used to blow up Korean Airlines flight 858. The device was carried onboard by North Korean agents PLX ( Picatinny Liquid Explosive)

Other examples of L.E:

Other examples of L.E Emulsions Water Gel Type Explosives Nitromethane Mixtures PLX Ammonium Nitrate - Nitromethane Nitro-glycerine Mixtures of Hydrogen Peroxide and Organic Materials Water Gel Type Explosive

Action to take on bomb explosion scene:

Action to take on bomb explosion scene Evacuate, open doors and windows, keep area clear. Evacuation Distance – as far away as possible DO NOT TOUCH UNKNOWN ‘SUSPICIOUS’ ITEMS !! Call the nearest Police Station; Bomb squad Unit or Explosive Ordinance Disposal Team (EOD). REMEMBER: You may not see the bomb but it can see you!

Bomb evacuation distance:

Bomb evacuation distance

Conventional Weapons:

Conventional Weapons What Terrorists are likely to use: Small arms and light weapons Mines Shells Bombs Rockets Missiles

WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION:

WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION Capable of killing and causing destruction to a large number of people and property, including natural structures and environment Include chemical, radiological, biological and nuclear weapons (CBRN)

ACQUISITION OF WEAPONS:

ACQUISITION OF WEAPONS Open Market; Legally through gun-dealers Black-market; illegally through disreputable dealers Smuggling /Theft – illegal Home made or Improvised weapons

SUMMARY:

SUMMARY IEDs are terrorists explosive devices of choice Terrorists are becoming more and more creative and tactical in the art of bomb making Security agencies should think ahead of terrorists and come up with measures to detect and eliminate acquisition and transportation of explosives/weapons by terror individual(s)

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Questions & Answers 97

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98 COUNTERING THE THREAT

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99 TERRORISM STRATEGIES & DISASTER RISK REDUCTION

COMMON DISASTERS IN KENYA:

COMMON DISASTERS IN KENYA FLOODS FARMINE TERRORISM DROUGHT EARTHQUAKE EPIDEMICS ETHNIC VIOLENCE TSUNAMI FOREST FIRES 100

OBJECTIVES:

OBJECTIVES Identify key institutional stakeholders in disaster risk reduction and outline their major responsibilities

KEY INSTITUTIONAL ACTORS:

KEY INSTITUTIONAL ACTORS Communities /employees Local Government National Government Regional Organizations International Organizations

Communities :

Communities DRR strategies and national developmental initiatives will only be successful when communities participate and have ownership as part and parcel of decision-making, programming and implementation process. At the community level the primary goal must be to create a favourable political environment that supports and promotes participatory practices, and specific opportunities for women to be involved in decision-making.

Communities :

Communities Local leaders, both men and women, drawn from traditional, social, religious, political, economic sectors need to be involved and assume responsibility for protection of their communities. Community planning and risk reduction be integrated into the overall governance structures Resource capabilities at the district, regional/ provincial and national levels, with relevant levels of government.

Communities :

Communities Communities represent the greatest potential source of local knowledge regarding hazardous conditions and historical risks. Are the depositories of coping mechanisms suited to their Environment? Should thus have the opportunity to influence decisions and manage resources to help reduce their vulnerability and cope with risk.

Communities :

Communitie s A grassroots approach to promote change and engage fully all members of the community. Involving communities requires building self-reliance, sharing of resources and building partnership, consistent with principles of community development. Human orientation focussing on liberation of people from the deprivation trap, participation, empowerment, ownership, learning, adaptive- ness and simplicity, collective action, need orientation,

Communities :

Communities Community planning and risk reduction needs be integrated into the overall governance structures and resource capabilities at the district, regional/ provincial and work places. and national levels, with relevant levels of government assuming appropriate responsibility for elements of these programmes.

Leadership Roles at Community Level:

Leadership Roles at Community Level Securing commitment at individual and community level to accept values of change in behaviour towards a culture of prevention; Definition of objectives to be achieved by involving the community; Identification of areas in the planning process where and when community should participate; Identification of relevant elements of the community whose participation is essential and techniques to be used to obtain and facilitate community participation; Sourcing information that is to be provided to the community;

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Building awareness of the community of the importance of risk reduction, for their well-being; Identification and imparting of essential skills to translate risk awareness into ideas and practices of sustained risk management and developing activities that can strengthen community capabilities to identify and cope with hazards and to improve community livelihoods; Creating channels for the community for accessing technical and material resources; and Providing knowledge of practical low cost methods, which address likely local hazards, which is conveyed in understandable media through a wide variety of participatory forms.

Local Government:

Local Government Disaster risk management at local level is a key element in any viable national disaster risk reduction strategy, and must be built on community networks and effective municipal and local government institutions. Decentralised structures, which provide opportunities for participation, and involvement of all segments of society are thus critical. Local governance structures, which serve communities, provide an opportunity for effective disaster risk reduction measures

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More focussed environment for more direct allocation of resources to risk reduction for local benefit; More precise targeting of public awareness programmes to address local needs; Familiarity with local conditions and experiences of past events as resource for targeting activities Motivation for assessing local risks and allocation of and professional and material resources to manage them.

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Among the benefits for integrating disaster risk reduction into local government actions supported by adequate financial and human resources: Vulnerability and risk analysis; Building local knowledge and institutional capabilities; Increasing public awareness and participation; and Protecting critical infrastructure and cultural heritage assets.

National Level:

National Level Elevating disaster risk management as a policy priority; Generating political commitment which translates into promoting disaster risk management as a multi- sectoral responsibility; Assigning accountability for disaster losses and impacts; Allocating necessary resources for disaster risk reduction; Enforcing the implementation of disaster risk management and reduction; and Facilitating participation from civil society and the private sector.

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Management and coordinating framework; Legal and regulatory frameworks; Policy and planning; Organizational aspects; Formation of ops centres; Avail required intelligence, early warning; Resources and capacities, including mil & police; and Partnerships and international cooperation

Regional and Sub-regional Organizations:

Regional and Sub-regional Organizations Defining and shaping common regional risk level management policies, and advocacy of regional policy initiatives at global forums. Supporting the development of national capacities through training, programme support, technical assistance and resource mobilisation to maintain national level impetus in development and disaster risk reduction Sharing knowledge, information, documentation and comparative analysis of issues on regional and sub-regional basis between key agencies and individuals.

Regional and Sub-regional Organizations:

Regional and Sub-regional Organizations Addressing trans-boundary risk issues in areas where multiple countries are frequently affected by the same hazards in the sub-region. Provide a framework for the interaction of scientific, technical and professionals with governmental and non-governmental structures.

International Organizations:

International Organizations Defining Global Strategy ( eg HFA) Galvanising assistance from all concerned in the formulation, or review or strengthening of policy and to devise strategies for implementing the instruments for an accelerated development in the sectors Building of capacity at all levels for those involved in planning and implementing programmes and projects Facilitating technology development, technology acquisition and technology transfer to promote industrial development and manufacturing in order to enhance employment creation and poverty reduction.

International Organizations:

International Organizations Providing development and technical assistance and encouraging cooperating partners to cooperate and collaborate more effectively in providing assistance to African countries in order to avoid the costly duplication of activities and waste Promotion of regional cooperation and integration issues, including strengthening regional policy and institutional frameworks for disaster risk reduction. Provide finance for programmes dealing with poverty alleviation and employment creation where further financing to the existing programmes supported by development partners is required.

Conclusion:

Conclusion Disaster risk reduction is everyone’s responsibility, and each level playing its part will lead towards success in disaster risk reduction

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120 COUNTER MEASURES AGAINST TERRORISM FOR BUSINESSES .

ATTACKING BUSINESSES:

ATTACKING BUSINESSES One of the newer (though not new) trends in attacking businesses has been assault on executives – Primarily kidnapping for ransom. This practice has been common in many foreign countries and it is now increasing in East Africa as we are all aware. A senior Government official ( District officer) and a Government registration clerk are now in the hands of al shabab as we speak. To be able to develop adequate protection for executives, security managers must understand the terrorist problem and the strategies of various terrorist leaders.

EXECUTIVE PROTECTION:

EXECUTIVE PROTECTION Countermeasures against terrorism for businesses are not as costly as executives may believe. Of course no program can entirely guarantee protection against attack. But a business can take action to lessen its attractiveness as a target. In general executive protection program include target hardening, bodyguard operations and training sessions to teach executives how to avoid being identified as targets and what to do if they become targets. The key to success in executive protection is pre-planning for a possible attack. One successful approach has been the Crisis Management Team (CMT).

CMT:

CMT A company’s crisis management team is made up of a carefully selected group of experts in a variety of fields. They meet several times in a year to discuss how to prevent attacks and what to do if an executive is kidnapped or another type of threat is received by the firm (eg bomb threat). In general this team is composed of a senior executive, a team leader, a security executive, a police liaison, a medical consultant, a lawyer, a financial advisor, a communications expert and a terrorist liaison. Each team member brings specific knowledge that will be crucial should a threat be received.

CMT Individual role:

CMT Individual role The Senior executive is responsible for making the final decisions. The security executive must coordinate security operations for the facilities involved to protect other employees or company property. The police liaison is responsible for seeing that the authorities are fully appraised of the situation and that the company cooperates with the civil authorities to its fullest ability. The medical consultant must have access to medical files on each executive so that a medical profile can be developed to help the kidnappers keep the victim in good health. The lawyer interprets what actions the company can take without violating company policy or various laws

ANTI-TERROR SECURITY MEASURES:

ANTI-TERROR SECURITY MEASURES When considering counter measures against terrorism, first consider the methods used by terrorists which go beyond bombings. The raw materials for both chemical and biological weapons can be purchased on the open or black markets. Terrorists might obtain or build a nuclear device or simply decide to wrap radioactive material around a conventional bomb. Ventilation systems of buildings are vulnerable avenues to disperse deadly substances. Product tampering is a form of terrorism that has resulted in deaths, injuries, fear and serious economic harm to companies.

Measures with little or No Cost :

Measures with little or N o C ost Maintain situational awareness of world events/ controversies and ongoing threats. Ensure all levels of personnel are notified via briefings, email, voice mail of any changes in threat conditions and protective measures. Encourage personnel to be alert and immediately report any situation that may constitute a threat or suspicious activity. Post emergency telephone numbers for police, fire, and rescue. Encourage personnel to memorize important numbers. Know the location of the closest police stations, hospitals, schools, etc. Encourage personnel to avoid routines, vary times and routes, pre-plan, and keep a low profile, especially during periods of high threat.

Organizational Counter Measures:

Organizational C ounter M easures Take any threatening or malicious telephone call, facsimile, or bomb threat seriously. If such a call is received, obtain and record as much information as possible to assist in identification of the caller. Record the time of the call, the exact words, any distinguishing features of the caller, and any background noise. Develop bomb threat information forms to assist if not already in place. Encourage personnel to keep their family members and supervisors appraised of their whereabouts. Encourage personnel to know emergency exits and stairwells. Increase the number of visible security personnel wherever possible.

Counter Measures:

Counter M easures Rearrange exterior vehicle barriers, traffic cones, and road blocks to alter traffic patterns near facilities and cover by alert security forces. Institute/increase vehicle, foot and roving security patrols varying in size, timing and routes. Implement random security guard shift changes. Arrange for law enforcement vehicles / contract security backup vehicles to be parked randomly near entrances and exits.

Counter Measures:

Counter M easures Review current contingency plans and if not already in place, develop and implement procedures for receiving and acting on threat information, alert notification procedures, terrorist incident response procedures, evacuation procedures, bomb threat procedures, hostage and barricade procedures, consequence and crisis management procedures, accountability procedures, and media procedures. When the aforementioned plans and procedures have been implemented, conduct internal training exercises and invite local emergency responders (fire, rescue, medical and bomb squads) to participate in joint exercises.

Counter Measures:

Counter M easures Limit the number of access points and strictly enforce access control procedures. Implement stringent identification procedures to include conducting 100 percent "hands on" checks of security badges for all personnel, if badges are required. Remind personnel to properly display badges, if applicable, and enforce visibility. Escort all visitors entering and departing. X-ray all packages, if possible, prior to entry, and inspect all handbags, and briefcases

Counter Measures:

Counter M easures Validate vendor lists of all routine emergency deliveries and repair services. Approach all illegally parked vehicles in and around facilities, question drivers and direct them to move immediately, if owner can not be identified, have vehicle towed by law enforcement.

COUNTER MEASURES WITH SOME COST:

COUNTER MEASURES WITH SOME COST Consider installing telephone caller I.D., record phone calls, if necessary. Increase perimeter lighting. Deploy visible security cameras and motion sensors. Remove vegetation in and around some perimeters, maintain regularly. Institute a robust vehicle inspection program to include checking under the undercarriage of vehicles, under the hood, and in the trunk. Provide vehicle inspection training to security personnel.

COUNTER MEASURES WITH SOME COST:

COUNTER MEASURES WITH SOME COST Conduct vulnerability studies focusing on physical security, structural engineering, infrastructure engineering, power, water, and air infiltration, if feasible. Initiate a system to enhance mail and package screening procedures (both announced and unannounced). Install special locking devices on manhole covers in and around facilities.

Bomb Threat Prevention and Preparedness:

Bomb Threat Prevention and Preparedness Audit the physical security, incoming inspection, access and internal controls of the facility. If need be, develop an intelligence program and maintain a continuous contact with law enforcement. Place Bomb Threat questionnaires and instructions at all security and reception stations. Provide security training to all security officers, switchboard operators, and staff likely to receive bomb threats.

Bomb Threat Prevention and Preparedness:

Bomb Threat Prevention and Preparedness Establish who will evaluate threats. Train him to assess the credibility of the threat. Decide what procedures will be followed when a threat is received, if device is discovered and what method will be used to search. Decide what conditions should trigger an immediate evacuation of the building such as disclosure of the location of the bomb, time of detonation, a motive, an apparent familiarity of the facility.

Bomb Threat Response :

Bomb Threat Response Write down the exact time of the call. Find out whether the call originated from within or outside. Record the caller’s exact words. Permit the caller to say as much as possible without interruption. Ask the caller the following and record the answers: When will it explode? Where is it located? What does it look like? Why was it placed? Who is calling?

Bomb Threat Response:

Bomb Threat Response Attempt to transfer the call to the head of security. Assist the police to initiate a search for the bomb. If an object is found suspected to be a bomb? Evacuate people at least 300 meters away and out of the blast effect. Dial 999 Do not attempt to touch, move, dismantle or pour water on the suspicious object. Open doors and windows to reduce blast effect. Consider shutting down utilities Activate the Crisis Management Plan

Summary:

Summary The crime situation in Kenya is not unique within itself. Many of the problems that face Kenya on matters of crime are for the most part, identical to those facing the surrounding countries in East Africa. This session provides suggested random anti-terrorism security measures. Although we do not have specific targeting information, the recent statements by al shabab members to unleash terror on Kenya should be reason to assume the al shabab terrorists are planning for major attacks against Kenya.

Education and Training:

Education and T raining Depending on the extent of the executive protection programme , many people in the company / organisation / govt depts can be brought into anti-terrorist education and training programme . Executives, their families, and security personnel are top priorities. Drivers, servants, gardeners and office workers should be knowledgeable about terrorist techniques and counter measures that include prevention strategies, personal security, recognizing and reporting suspicious occurrences, the proper response to bomb threats or postal bombs and skills such as defensive driving. Most in-house security personnel are not experts in crisis management as far as it concerns executive protection. Therefore a consultant may have to be recruited.

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Questions & Answers 140

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141 THE ROLE OF SECURITY MANAGERS

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142 PLANNING, PREPARATION & TRAINING MEASURES

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143 Planning Conduct Comprehensive Threat Assessment Identify Business Exposure Coordinate Management Level Dialogue Determine the Appropriate Business Posture to each Threat Develop Contingency Plans

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144 Preparation Produce Comprehensive Briefing Documents Instruct Specialist Agency for Detailed Consultancy Coordinate Outside Agency Liaison Purchase and Service Specialist Equipment Disseminate Information at all Levels

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145 Training Regular Threat Briefings Continuous Rehearsals Self Development ‘You’re the Subject Matter Expert’

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Questions & Answers 146

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