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Understanding the Need for Change: 

Understanding the Need for Change Vision Forum for the Future of Education: Human Resource Development and the Knowledge Economy Eduardo A. Doryan The World Bank September 15 – 16, 2002 Amman, Jordan


1 In search of anticipactive actors

Vision Forum: 

Vision Forum 'the faster the car, the stronger the headlights must be' 'the longer a tree takes to grow, the earlier you have to plant it' Need to be …ANTICIPACTIVE


2 Seize the window of opportunity

Absorbing knowledge: 

Absorbing knowledge High and medium technology 33% Resource based and other primary products 45% Miscellaneous 1% Low technology 21% 1970s High and medium technology 54% Resource based and other primary products 24% Miscellaneous 4% Low technology 18% 1990s Education is more important than ever: high and medium technology goods are more than half of global trade


3 Nobody is waiting for Jordan

Core innovators as of 2000: 

Core innovators as of 2000 1st World League: Core Technology Economies United States Canada Finland Taiwan Australia Sweden Norway Korea United Kingdom New Zealand Denmark Belgium 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Países Bajos lower countries? Germany Austria France Singapore Iceland Japan Switzerland Israel Ireland Italy Hong Kong (SAR) 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Source: The Global Competitiveness Report 2001-2002. World Economic Forum and Center for International Development. New York. Oxford University Press. Country Technological Index Rating Technological Index Rating Country Countries with more than 15 US utility patents registered per million population in 2000

Technology index components: 

Technology index components Technological core economies core technology index = 1/2 innovation sub index + 1/2 ICT sub index. Technological non-core economies non-core technology index = 1/8 innovation sub index + 3/8 technology by transfer sub index + 1/2 ICT sub index.


2nd World League: Non-core Technology Economies (but in the EU or in the accession process) Estonia Czech Republic Hungry Portugal Spain Slovak Republic Slovenia Latvia Poland Greece Lithuania Romania Bulgaria Turkey 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Country Technological Index Ranking 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 10 11 14 17 23 26 27 Ranking including only EU countries or in accession process Ranking including only EU countries or in accession process

2½ World League: Non-core Technology economies but with possibilities(excluding transition economies and other developed countries): 

2½ World League: Non-core Technology economies but with possibilities (excluding transition economies and other developed countries) Technology Index Innovation Index ICT Index Technology Transfer Index Costa Rica Mexico Mauritius Thailand Philippines Chile Jamaica Dominican Republic Uruguay South Africa Argentina Brazil Turkey Trinidad and Tobago China Jordan 1. Argentina 2. Costa Rica 3. Chile 4. Panama 5. South Africa 6. Uruguay 7. Venezuela 8. Philippines 9. Dominican Republic 10. Thailand 11. Brazil 12. Malaysia 13. Peru 14. Mexico 15. Bolivia 16. Egypt 17. Turkey 18. Columbia 19. Jamaica 20. Ecuador 21. Jordan Chile Malaysia Uruguay Brazil Argentina South Africa Mauritius Costa Rica Trinidad and Tobago Turkey Mexico Jamaica Venezuela Panama Columbia Jordan Malaysia Costa Rica Philippines Thailand Mexico Mauritius Dominican Republic Vietnam Sri Lanka Jamaica Indonesia China Turkey Bangladesh El Salvador South Africa Jordan

The need for change: 

The need for change There is a major challenge to catch the 2nd League and prevent falling into the 3rd League of nations.


4 The foundations have weak spots

Human Development Index (excluding developed and transition economies) : 

Human Development Index (excluding developed and transition economies) 1. Barbados 2. Brunei Darussalam 3. Argentina 4. Chile 5. Bahrain 6. Uruguay 7. Bahamas 8. Costa Rica 9. Saint Kitts andamp; Nevis 10. Kuwait 11. United Arab Emirates 12. Seychelles 13. Trinidad and Tobago 14. Qatar 15. Antigua and Barbuda 16. Mexico 17. Cuba 18. Panama 19. Belize 20. Malaysia 21. Dominica 22. Libyan Arab Jamhiriya 23. Saint Lucia 24. Mauritius 25. Colombia 26. Venezuela 27. Thailand 28. Saudi Arabia 29. Fiji 30.Brazil 31. Suriname 32. Lebanon 33. Philippines 34. Oman 35. Peru 36. Grenada 37. Maldives 38. Turkey 39. Jamaica 40. Sri Lanka 41. Paraguay 42. St. Vincent andamp; Grenadines 43. Ecuador 44. Dominican Republic 45. China 46. Tunisia 47. Islamic Republic of Iran 48. Jordan High Human Development Medium Human Development Jordan has a medium human development ranking 99 among all countries, and 48 among the developing countries.


Human Poverty Index: deprivations in three basic human development dimensions HPI-1 ranks for 88 developing countries Uruguay Costa Rica Chile Cuba Singapore Trinidad and Tobago Jordan Panama Venezuela Colombia Mexico Lebanon 13. Paraguay 14. Belize 15. Mauritius 16. Guyana 17. Brazil 18. Turkey 19. Peru 20. Jamaica 21. Thailand 22. Dominican Republic 23. Philippines 24. China 25. Maldives


The need for change There is still homework to be done in the basics. The fight against poverty and for inclusion is part of the fight for competitiveness and development.


5 Using education to leap frog: the Costa Rican case


A concrete example of a decision taken in the mid 1980s: Computers in school

Critical Decision 1: Epistemological approaches: 

Critical Decision 1: Epistemological approaches Computer literacy: computer as a 'machine to work' short-term human capital development specific labor market needs Computer-aided instruction: computer as a 'machine for teaching' traditional instructionist view

Critical Decision 1: Epistemological approaches (cont.): 

Critical Decision 1: Epistemological approaches (cont.) Heuristic use of computers: a tool to learn, experiment, explore computer as a 'machine to create and learn.' computer as a musical instrument… creativity, expression, knowledge. Thus the program had a strong foundational element in how people learn. It had an impact on mathetics (the art of learning) as well as in pedagogy (the art of teaching).

Critical Decision 2:Age and Social Condition of Students: 

Critical Decision 2: Age and Social Condition of Students Decision: Primary School Student: 80% middle-lower income and lower income. Primary or Secondary Students? Socially: bottom-up or trickle down? Thus it had an impact on social mobility: how to accelerate the incorporation of the many to be part of a dynamic middle-income class.

Critical Condition 3: Humanware: 

Critical Condition 3: Humanware Thus, the thrust is the teacher, not the technology. This has been the central focus of concern: a teacher-dependent approach. Technology or Teachers? Instead of bypassing the teacher through the use of technology, the program chose to focus on teacher development by exploiting the potential of computers Main objective: rekindle the teachers’ interest in their own professional growth and to help them value their role as apprentices.

Critical Decision 4:Software: 

Critical Decision 4: Software Thus, logo was selected not only as a longstanding programming language, with a very slow rate of obsolescence, but particularly as embodying an epistemological view: a Piagetian perspective. Word processors, spreadsheets, etc. vs. Programming Language

Critical Decision 5:Hardware: 

Critical Decision 5: Hardware The decision was to have a full computer lab, LAN connected, with as many computers as half the size of the largest school classroom (40 students/ 20 computers). One computer per school, one per classroom or a computer lab?

Critical Decision 6: Institutional Framework: 

Critical Decision 6: Institutional Framework Public or private A Minister of Education project or a Societal Program? It was designed as a tripartite effort: The directive and executive responsibilities lay in a non-profit NGO (Omar Dengo Foundation) that raised resources from different sources. It is a joint effort with the Ministry of Education (teacher salaries are paid by the Ministry) and the community that have the responsibility to build or retrofit the school room for the computers and to be responsible for the security of hardware and software.

Implementation Put your money in sustainable training:: 

Implementation Put your money in sustainable training:


6 Education as a springboard for new engines for growth


A self-reinforcing triangle Computers in schools ('Mathetics') and English Benchmark Internally and Externally Revamping of Technical Schools and National System of Technical Education


Three new engines of growth (plus revamping the agriculture, manufacturing, and service sectors) Electronic Cluster Software New Services Cluster Ecological Tourism Cluster


Source:Mideplan and BCCR from L. Garnier (2002) 43.4 56.6 84.8 15.2 20.7 19.6 17.8 19.6 9.4 13 23 26.2 56.6 36.5 26.7 23.4 27.4 36.5 24.8 28.7 19.5 12 4.8 6.9 5.9 12.1 12.3 9 11.2 6.1 4.1 2.6 1 Costa Rica: Structure of Exports (1980-2000)

Competing in global markets: the 30 leading exports of high-tech products: 

Competing in global markets: the 30 leading exports of high-tech products


The Expansion of Foreign Direct Investment (before Intel’s ® effect)

Productivity and learning speed of the workforce: 

Productivity and learning speed of the workforce Source: AACCLA

Key determinants: demand for workers by technological firms: 

Key determinants: demand for workers by technological firms Source: CINDE PROCOMER


Costa Rica: perception of technological firms with respect to the quality of education and training, by institution Source: CINDE-PROCOMER


7 Some afterthoughts


Afterthoughts (1) Education as an investment, thus increasing its quality is essential Coordination with Ministers of Labor, Foreign Trade and Finance Coordination of government, academia and private sector A plan based on the weakness and strengths (time to ship a package and clear customs; attitude of people to FDI, etc.)


Afterthoughts (2) The attraction of FDI, the educational reform, the quality of energy, the speed of export permits, environmental standards, etc. as a full package … the positioning of the country Tourism and FDI The negotiations with the giants The clarity of purpose The engagement of the key players The personal commitment of the Head of State


29 'What is happening now is an empirical question. What can happen is a technological question. But, what will happen is a political question, depending on social choice.' Mindstorms, S. Papert (1980, p.29)


Condensed bibliography Godet, Michael. (2001). Creating Futures: Scenario Planning as a Strategic Management Tool. Economica Ltd., Paris. Garnier, Leonardo. 'Costa Rica within the ‘New Economy’: The Role of Education, Training and Innovation Systems.' Document prepared for the World Bank, LAC Region. April 15, 2002. UNDP. (2001). Human Development Report 2001. Oxford University Press, New York. UNDP. (2001). Human Development Report 2002. Oxford University Press, New York. World Economic Forum / Center for International Development. (2002). The Global Competitiveness Report 2001-2002. Oxford University Press, New York. World Economic Forum / Center for International Development. (2002). The Global Information Technology Report: Readiness for the Networked World. Oxford University Press, New York. The World Bank. (2002). World Development Indicators 2002. Washington, D.C.

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