One world...One destiny

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Slide 1: 

By Dr. Yasser Adel Hanafy Osman 2009 One world...One destiny

Outline : 

Outline What are the environmental problems? Are it real? How do we know? Why should we care? What next—what can we do?

Slide 3: 

What is Biodiversity? What is Desertification? What is climatic changes?

Slide 4: 

Biodiversity “ The variety and variability among living organisms, and the ecological complexes in which they live ”

Biodiversity ImportanceOr Why should we care? : 

Biodiversity ImportanceOr Why should we care?

Slide 6: 

Desertification The degradation of land productivity specially in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas into desert

Slide 7: 

Climatic changes Up normal climatic changes such differ than common ones (cosmological and geological processes)

Climate Changes : 

Climate Changes Basic Issues Earth’s climate varies naturally – because of a variety of cosmological and geological processes. “Climate change” refers to an additional, and relatively rapid, change induced by human actions. The additional change – several degrees C within a century – will disrupt the foundations of life on Earth. Ecosystems and life in general have evolved within a narrow band of climatic-environmental conditions.

What do climate scientists really think? : 

What do climate scientists really think?

How do we know? : 

How do we know?

Global mean surface tempratures have increased : 

Global mean surface tempratures have increased

“Greenhouse effect” : 

“Greenhouse effect”

Slide 13: 

Increasing greenhouse gases trap more heat Nitrous oxide Sulfur hexafluoride Methane Carbon dioxide Water

Causes for the environmental problems : 

Causes for the environmental problems Human activity Climatic changes (non-human induced) Biological diversity (Animals – Diseases)

Human activities : 

Human activities Urbanization Mining Pollution Recreation Over population/land stress Overgrazing Over exploitation or using of natural resources Deforestation Precarious agriculture

Human activities : 

Human activities

Human activities have changed the composition of the atmosphere since the pre- industrial era : 

Human activities have changed the composition of the atmosphere since the pre- industrial era

Precipitation patterns have changed : 

Precipitation patterns have changed

Climatic changes : 

Climatic changes Uncertain rainfall River flooding Depletion of surface water Depletion of ground water Fires Soil erosion Sea water intrusion Sand encrogment

Why should we care? : 

Why should we care?

Slide 21: 

Sea-level rise projections: a few inches - a few feet 2 ft: U.S. would lose 10,000 square miles Affects erosion, loss of wetlands, freshwater supplies Half of the world’s population lives along coasts Big question: Ice sheets

Slide 22: 

Health effects Temperature - related illness and death Extreme weather - related health effects Air pollution - related health effects Water and food - borne diseases Vector borne and rodent borne diseases Health Effects Temperature-related illness and death Air pollution-related health effects Human exposures Regional weather changes • Heat waves • Extreme weather • Temperature • Precipitation • • • • Sea-level rise

More adverse than beneficial impacts on biological and socioeconomic systems are projected : 

More adverse than beneficial impacts on biological and socioeconomic systems are projected

Slide 24: 

Food production needs to double to meet the needs of an additional 3 billion people in the next 30 years Climate change is projected to decrease agricultural productivity in the tropics and sub-tropics for almost any amount of warming

Slide 25: 

Wood fuel is the only source of fuel for one third of the world’s population Wood demand will double in the next 50 years Forest management will become more difficult due to an increase in pests and fires

Slide 26: 

One third of the world’s population is now subject to water scarcity Population facing water scarcity will more than double over the next 30 years Climate change is projected to decrease water availability in many arid and semi-arid regions

Slide 27: 

Climate change will exacerbate the loss of biodiversity Estimated 10-15% of the world’s species could become extinct over the next 30 years

Slide 28: 

Food and Fiber Production Provision of Clean and Sufficient Water Maintenance of Biodiversity Maintenance of Human Health Storage and cycling of Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus Agricultural Lands Coastal Zones Forest Lands Freshwater Systems Arid Lands & Grasslands Climate change will affect the ability of ecological systems to provide a range of essential ecological goods and services

Developing countries are the most vulnerable to climate change : 

Developing countries are the most vulnerable to climate change Impacts are worse - already more flood and drought prone and a large share of the economy is in climate sensitive sectors Lower capacity to adapt because of a lack of financial, institutional and technological capacity and access to knowledge Climate change is likely to impact disproportionately upon the poorest countries and the poorest persons within countries, exacerbating inequities in health status and access to adequate food, clean water and other resources. Net market sector effects are expected to be negative in most developing countries

Slide 30: 

Biodiversity loss Soil erosion Desertification Loss of nutrients and soil moisture Reduced Structural diversity Of vegetation cover And diversity of microbial species in soil crust Reduced Soil conservation Reduced primary Production And Nutrient cycling Reduced Carbon reserves And increased CO2 emissions Climate change Increase in extreme events (floods, droughts, fires..) Decreased plant and soil Organisms species diversity Reduced Carbon sequestration into Above- and below- ground Carbon reserves Increases And reductions in Species abundances Change in Community structure And diversity 3 UN CONVENTIONS CBD, FCCC, UNCCD

Environmental problems Threats : 

Environmental problems Threats Extinction of some genetic resources or Habitat destruction Biodiversity loss Poverty Hunger Diseases Floods Land erosions Immigration Wars

Threats : 

Threats

One destiny for all of usGive us a hand to solve or mitigate those problems : 

One destiny for all of usGive us a hand to solve or mitigate those problems

Wedges for mitigation : 

Wedges for mitigation “For every complex problem there is an answer that is clear, simple, and wrong.” H. L. Mencken

References : 

References The realities and opportunities of climate change - S. Mulkey Climate Change - Dave Griggs www.cbd.int www.unccd.int www.unfccc.int

Thank you for giving us a hand : 

Thank you for giving us a hand yasser123ok@yahoo.com http://www.scouting4peace.org

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