A FOCUS ON COLOR AND IT’S ROLE IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING Slide2: Introductory Quiz A● Romance & Sex C● Strength & Purity B● Good Luck & Success What does the color red symbolize? D● All of the above China India U.S. Slide3: Introductory Quiz A● Immortality C● Protection B● Holiness In Columbia, what does blue symbolize? Judaism Middle East China Soap! E● None of the above D● All of the Above Soap and Symbolism: Soap and Symbolism Kao Corporation: Jergens
Ban Kao translates to “face” – something recognizable and distinguishable.
In Japanese society, like much of Asia, the concept of “saving face” is integral to the function of society.
The moon represents “truth” (among others, including a rabbit) and the color of the logo represents “high quality” and “trustworthiness.” Symbols in Marketing: Color Soap and Symbolism: Dove
Degree Soap and Symbolism Kao Corporation: Unilever Corporation: The logo is a capital U made up of 25 icons that symbolize Unilever's brands.
Those icons include a sun ("the ultimate symbol of vitality") a heart ("love, care and health"), a shirt ("fresh laundry") and a bird ("a symbol of freedom -- relief from daily chores") Symbols in Marketing: Color Soap and Symbolism: Soap and Symbolism Kao Corporation: Symbols in Marketing: Color Unilever Corporation: Lifebuoy (India) Also a product of Unilever, Lifebuoy is one of the top selling Indian soaps.
Red symbolizes strength as well as purity in Indian culture.
The “health soap” is meant to “fight dirt” and keep one clean. Fast Track to Foreign Failure: Fast Track to Foreign Failure Ignoring culture-specific color associations is a fast track to foreign failure. Color and Symbolism United Airlines with white carnations on their Pacific regional flights.
Samsonite with black luggage sold in parts of Mexico.
Pepsi with their icy blue imagery in ASEAN. Symbols of Death Color Preference: Color Preference Blue: the most preferred color
Black: the strongest negative connotation Color and Symbolism Most preferred colors of nations: China The Netherlands Italy France Lebanon America ? Slide9: Color and Symbolism The Netherlands France Monarchy is the “House of Orange” European thing: purple is strongly associated with royalty, and prestige. Color Preference: Color Preference General perceptions of color are probably nonexistent
There are some similarities
America and China / Japan
generally associate green with
canned vegetables and yellow
with laundry detergent
There are more dissimilarities
No agreement exists for soaps and cigarettes;
No agreement exists between America and Latin America for the same products). Color and Symbolism
Yellow = “Purity”
Green = “Tasteful” Slide11:
Cultural Source: MUBEEN M. ASLAM. Are You Selling the Right Colour? Symbols in Marketing: Color Color Slide12: Source: MUBEEN M. ASLAM. Are You Selling the Right Colour? International Differences: Masculine Feminine
USA, Sweden Netherlands Tasteful Tasteless
USA, Belgium Malaysia Authority Weakness
USA, UK, Japan, S. Korea India Lucky Unlucky
China, Denmark, Argentina Chad, Nigeria, Germany International Differences Color and Symbolism Source: MUBEEN M. ASLAM. Are You Selling the Right Colour? Profits from Color: Profits from Color Color increases brand recognition by up to 80 percent
University of Loyola, Maryland study
Heinz Blastin' Green ketchup
Over 10 million bottles sold in the first 7 months
$23M sales gains attributable to green ketchup.
the highest sales increase in brand's history]. Color and Symbolism Profits from Color: Apple: colorful iMacs
“It doesn't have to be beige“
Colorful iMacs revived Apple brand
$1.8 million of losses in two years before.
Now, along with iPod, etc., among best performing companies in American Stock Market. Color and Symbolism Can you think of any other examples? Profits from Color Conclusion: Conclusion Color and Symbolism Cultural Symbols: inherent, important, and incessant.
To sell a product or service in a society, one must be able to communicate the benefits of that product or service
Learning vocal and textual symbols in language is not enough for the International Marketer. One must also learn the “language of objects”
If misunderstood: confusion and profit loss.
Conclusion: Conclusion Color and Symbolism Understanding cultural symbols is inexpensive to learn.
“A picture is worth a thousand words”
Marketers don’t measure value in words.
Color is the most decisive measurable symbol in sales
* 92 percent of the decision making process is visual and of that percentage over 50 percent is related to color.
Color is the lead influence selling “unmanned merchandise.”
More sales online = more sales of “unmanned merchandise”
* (Seoul International Color Expo 2004) Conclusion: Conclusion Color and Symbolism Cultural symbols inherent in cultural beliefs, proxemics and thought processes.
Fashion Final Opinion: Appreciating aesthetics and symbolism should not only be an interest but should be an imperative for the International Marketer.
Color and Symbolism Final Opinion ! Slide20: THE END
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