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MS DOS A non-graphical command line operating system . Tasks are performed with the keyboard rather than the mouse. A “directory” in DOS is the same as a “folder” in Windows terms.




ELEMENTARY EXTERNAL DOS COMMANDS BATCH FILES Batch Files : Batch Files consists of collection of DOS commands, batched together in one file. Extension  of Batch files : .BAT Steps of creating batch files(Example) : Open an MS-DOS command window. At the MS-DOS prompt, type: edit test.bat and press enter. If typed properly, you should now be in a blue screen. Within the screen, type:pausedir c:\windowsdir c:\windows\system

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4. Once the above three lines have been typed in, save file and exit. 5. Once you are back at the MS-DOS prompt, type: test and press enter. This will execute the test.bat file and begin running the file. Because the first line is pause, you will first be prompted to press a key. Once you press a key the batch file will run line-by-line; in this case, listing the files in the windows and windows\system directories. Simply type "edit test.bat" to edit the file again.


INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS History : Basic development of the Windows operating system from 1990 to 2007 is as follows: Windows 3.1 : Year - 1990,1992,1993,1994 Windows 95 : Year - 1995,1996,1997 Windows 98 : Year - 1998,1999 Windows ME : Year - 2000 Windows XP : Year – 2001 to 2006 Windows Vista : Year – 2007 till now..

Desktop : Desktop is the main background which is seen on the monitor, as the windows starts on computer. : 

Desktop : Desktop is the main background which is seen on the monitor, as the windows starts on computer.

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Minimizing : Making a window shrink to an icon in task bar. Maximizing : Making the window fit, full size of the monitor screen. Restoring : Restores a minimized or maximized window to its normal size Close a window : To exit from the current application

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Using the Start Menu : Start menu is a button at lower left corner of desktop. On click of the start button, menu of all programs in the system open, any one of which can be opened by just a single click. Control Panel : It is the panel from which we can control the functioning of system such as windows appearance, performance, network connections, hardware settings and a lot more.. Managing Multiple Windows : Lot of programs open at once, can be easily managed by either maximizing or restoring the window which is to be used and minimizing all the other windows with the help of minimize, maximize, restore and close buttons at the top-right corner of the program opened.

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Arranging icons on the desktop : Right-click a blank area on the desktop>>Click Arrange Icons>>by Name/by Type/by date/by size/Auto Arrange Creating and Managing Folders : To create a new folder : Right-click a blank area on the desktop>> select New >>Folder from the menu. Rename the folder. These folders can be moved/ copied from one place to another by just right clicking that folder, selecting Cut/Copy and then click Paste at the location where this folder is needed.

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