14 Feb 06 Byzantine

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

By: drsomasekhar (112 month(s) ago)

i liike ur presentation i want to download it

Presentation Transcript

Byzantine Empire (330 a.d.- 1453 a.d.) : 

Byzantine Empire (330 a.d.- 1453 a.d.)

Learning Objectives: 

Learning Objectives Identify some of the key leaders of the Byzantine Empire Understand Byzantinian Military Philosophy and the Treatises Identify the Byzantinian Military Organization Identify the Military Innovations of the Byzantine Military

The Dawn of a New Empire: 

The Dawn of a New Empire 306 a.d.- Constantine I takes power of the Roman Empire 312 a.d.- Christianity is adopted as religion of the State Constantine I lets the Church become involved in State affairs 330 a.d. -After the invasion of Rome, Constantine I moves the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantines. He re-names it Constantinople (modern day Istanbul, Turkey) and the Byzantine Empire begins The new Empire is very prosperous and is concerned with defense rather than expansion Knew that their survival depended on military strength

BYZANTIUM: SURVIVAL OF THE EAST: 

BYZANTIUM: SURVIVAL OF THE EAST THE CHURCH HAD CLOSE TIES WITH THE STATE BYZANTIUM WAS ECONOMICALLY PROSPEROUS A CENTRALIZED, AUTOCRATIC RULE WAS MAINTAINED THERE WAS WISE LEADERSHIP OVER THE LONG TERM A SENSIBLE MILITARY ORGANIZATION AND PHILOSPHY PREVAILED

JUSTINIAN: 

JUSTINIAN RULED FROM 527-565 A.D. EGO-HEIR TO THE CEASERS AND CHURCH HEAD SUPPRESSED THE ARIAN HERESY Denies that Christ is one substance with the Father His wars took on the character of crusades, lead the heathen peoples into the Christian fold. UNDERTOOK THE RECONQUEST OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE Successful in Africa and Italy Excellent weaponry, mobility and shock of his horse archers Brilliant leadership of Belisarius and Narses

Belisarius: 

Belisarius 529-549 Age 27, he was Justinian’s bodyguard Chosen to lead the main Army Dara 530 A.D. Ad Decimum 533 A.D. Tricameron 533 A.D.

Byzantine Empire in 330 a.d.: 

Byzantine Empire in 330 a.d.

Daras 530 A.D.: 

Daras 530 A.D. Persian Frontier Persians had 40,000 Belisarius had 25,000 Counted on Persian aggressiveness and built trenches around the fortress of Daras Persians entered the trenches and were trapped! Belisarius’s infantry and cavalry destroyed the Persians

Ad Decimum: 

Ad Decimum Carthage Daras

Ad Decimum: 

Ad Decimum Africa 533 A.D. Justinian wants Carthage for Political and Religious reasons Belisarius lands 15000 troops in Africa Vandal King Gelimer attempts to ambush Belisarius at Ad Decimum -Plan calls for 3 simultaneous ambushes

Ad Decimum Cont..: 

Ad Decimum Cont.. The attacks did not go on time Gelimer had success on one of the fronts, but did not exploit it Belisarius rallied his troops and dispersed the Vandals

Tricameron 533 A.D.: 

Tricameron 533 A.D. Carthage Ad Decimum

Tricameron 533 A.D.: 

Tricameron 533 A.D. After taking Carthage, Belisarius is harassed by Gelimer’s remaining forces Gelimer retreats 18 miles west of Carthage at Tricameron Belisarius marches on Tricameron Gelimer retreats Gelimer finally surrenders to Belisarius in 534 A.D.

Retaking Rome: 

Retaking Rome 551 A.D.-the Empire had marginal success in Italy for 5 years Goths had control of Italy Justinian decided to send Narses into Italy

Taginae: 

Taginae Taginae

Taginae: 

Taginae Narses lands in Italy with about 20000 Gothic forces are about 50000 Narses let the Goths attack Narses formed a solid phalanx and reinforced the flanks with archers Goths attempted to push through the phalanx with cavalry Archers picked off the Goths on the flanks

Taginae Cont..: 

Taginae Cont.. Goths take heavy losses Italy is retaken under Justinian Last major battle under Justinian’s rule

MAURICE (582-602 A.D.): 

MAURICE (582-602 A.D.) SELECTED AS HEIR TO THE THRONE STRATEGIKON AUTHOR Handbook for Field Commanders Weapons Armor Daily life on the march or in camp Clothing Food Military law Tactics

MILITARY REFORMS UNDER MAURICE: 

MILITARY REFORMS UNDER MAURICE SIX TO EIGHT NUMERI WERE GROUPED INTO THE EQUIVALENT OF A BRIGADE THREE SUCH BRIGADES FORMED A SMALL DIVISION OF 6,000-8,000 USE OF UNEQUAL NUMBERS SO ENEMY COULD NOT CALCULATE THE NUMBERS OF THE WHOLE ARMY PLEDGED OBEDIENCE TO THE REALM HE APPOINTED ALL OFFICERS ABOVE THE RANK OF CENTURIAN (NUMERUS) THIS TOOK AWAY THE POWER OF PARTRONAGE FROM THE GENERALS

Maurice Reforms: 

Maurice Reforms Cut the size of the standing army Deployed it as a central reserve and units for the frontier provinces Added to the frontier fortresses Divided the empire for purposes of recruiting and defenses into military provinces known as themes.

Maurice Reforms: 

Maurice Reforms Themes Subdivided into districts called Turmae Turmae divided into defense stations called Clissurae Clissurae had outposts (key terrain) During an attack the theme would use Fabian tactics until other themes would arrive to reinforce them

Maurice Reforms: 

Maurice Reforms Navy Strong, control the Byzantine trading centers and sea routes 5 permanent fleets Ships were small, fast galleys with two banks of oars, two masts and two sails Oarsman were trained to fight Each vessel has a small group of Marines Larger ships had revolving turrets and mounted war engines Bow tubes with greek fire (mixture of naptha, sulphur and quicklime) Cibyrrhaeots theme provided half the forces

Maurice Reforms: 

Maurice Reforms Army Cavalry was the main arm Carried a bow, long lance, boradsword, dagger and sometimes as ax. Armor; conical helmet, chain mail gloves, gauntlets, small round shield on left arm, steel shoes and some horses had armor on their heads. Training: charging cavalry shooting arrows and follow it up with the lance.

Maurice Reforms: 

Maurice Reforms Army Numeri of the cavalry formed lines of 8-10 horsemen in depth. Infantry was a secondary arm and divided into heavy and light Heavy – much like the cavalry Light – mostly archers, some javelin. Carried little armor for better mobility Highly disciplined. Records of night attacks

Maurice Reforms: 

Maurice Reforms Army Engineers Medical – Doctor, surgeon and stretcher bearers Signal service Messengers Signal flares Chaplains – priests or monks Officer were trained early in life

Fall of the Empire: 

Fall of the Empire After constant attacks from the Persians and Slavs during the 6th century, the military is weakened Islamic attacks in the 7th and 8th century also hurt the military Basil I (867-886) and Basil II(985-1025) neglect military 1063 Turks attack

Fall of the Empire Cont.: 

Fall of the Empire Cont. 1068- Romanus Diogenes takes control Former General Drove Turks back in the Battle of Manzikert Was betrayed by one of his officers and the Turks enveloped him and killed the Romanus’s Byzantine force 1453-Mohammed II takes Constantinople to end 1100 years of the Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire over the Years: 

Byzantine Empire over the Years

MILITARY ORGANIZATION AND PHILOSPHY: 

MILITARY ORGANIZATION AND PHILOSPHY SURVIVAL ORIENTED AS OPPOSED TO EXPANSIONIST POLICY NATIVE-BORN SOLDIERS STILL HAD TO USE SOME MERCENARIES MUCH MORE SO THAN THE WEST RUSES USED, NOT WORRIED ABOUT THE MORALITY OF WAR

MILITARY ORGANIZATION AND PHILOSPHY (CONT): 

MILITARY ORGANIZATION AND PHILOSPHY (CONT) WARFARE WAS CAREFULLY STUDIED AND ANALYZED THE CATAPHRACT (DISCIPLINED HEAVY CALVARY) SYMBOLIZED THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE THE SAME WAY THE LEGION REPRESTED ROME WELL TRAINED AND DRILLED GREAT EMPHASIS ON ARCHERY MARKSMANSHIP AND CONSTANT PRACTICE IN THE USE OF WEAPONS SCARCE RESOURCES FOR WAR CREATED AN EMPHASIS ON GOOD GENERALSHIP

Military Tactics: 

Military Tactics Employed a Standard Tactical Doctrine Doctrines Emphasized: 1. Coordinated Action: -Between Weapons Systems (ie-missiles and shock) -Between Armies (ie-infantry and cavalry) 2. Envelopment-Preferred the Left Flank 3. Retaining Fresh Reserves

Military Tactics Cont.: 

Military Tactics Cont. Had no Code of Honor -Guile and Fraud used whenever possible -Bribery and Trickery were used to Coerce the Enemy -Used Psychological Warfare on Enemies -Used False Propaganda to Raise the Moral of own Troops Relied Heavily on Native Troops vice using Mercenaries

Military Inovations: 

Military Inovations Cavalry Stirrups Greek Fire Military Study Good Generalship Baggage Train

Battle of Manzikert, 1071 Background: 

Battle of Manzikert, 1071 Background 7th and 9th Century Byzantium Outlying territories lost but main bastions were intact Basil I (867 - 886) and Basil II (985 - 1025) Ragained some of the lost territories Immunity from danger Neglect of the army and navy Rise of the Slejuk Turks in 1063 caused a need to rearm. 1068 Romanus Diogenes made emperor Set out prematurely against the Turks 1069 Successes

Battle of Manzikert, 1071: 

Battle of Manzikert, 1071 Alp Arslan; Twice beaten but learned Offered negotiations but was refused Romanus advanced in single cavalry line Turks retreated and attacked the flanks Killed many horses Riders still have bows but little skill Romans pursued and were ambushed Romanus went to far, ran out of water and it became dark

Battle of Manzikert, 1071: 

Battle of Manzikert, 1071 Romanus orders his forces to halt. Commander of his reserve refused to halt which separated his forces Turks enclosed the separated army Turks routed the Byzatines, killed or captured every man Heavy Cavlary can not cope with light cavalry

Battle of Manzikert, 1071: 

Battle of Manzikert, 1071 Cost the empire Asia Minor, recruiting area for the army and much wealth. Turks, steppe light cavalry, archers. One spare horse Move all over the battle field and avoid close combat To counter: Foot bowman near the cavalry Never let the army disperse

authorStream Live Help