classification of malocclusion

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Presentation Transcript

CLASSIFICATION OF MALOCCLUSION : 

CLASSIFICATION OF MALOCCLUSION BY: GAURAV MATHUR DEPT OF ORTHODONTICS BDS JAIPUR DENTAL COLLEGE

INTRODUCTION : 

INTRODUCTION OCCLUSION: The static relationship between occlusal surface of max and mand teeth or tooth analogues MALOCCLUSION:. Any deviation from a physiologically acceptable contact of opposing dentitions. CLASSIFICATION: the description of dentofacial deviations according to a common characteristic or norm.

NEED OF CLASSIFICATION : 

NEED OF CLASSIFICATION

ADAVNTAGES OF CLASSIFICATION : 

ADAVNTAGES OF CLASSIFICATION DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT PLANNING UNDERSTANDING ASSOCIATED PROBLEM COMMUNICATING PROBLEM COMPARISONS CAN BE MADE EASILY

TYPES OF MALOCCLUSION : 

TYPES OF MALOCCLUSION INTRA ARCH INTER ARCH SKELETAL

INTRA ARCH MALOCCLUSION : 

INTRA ARCH MALOCCLUSION Includes variation in individual tooth position or those affecting group of teeth within the same arch INCLUDES: Abnormal inclination( TIPPING) Abnormal displacement Spacing and crowding ‘WITHIN SAME ARCH’

Types : 

Types

TYPES : 

TYPES DISTAL INCLINATION LINGUAL INCLINATION BUCCAL INCLINATION MESIAL INCLINATION

Slide 9: 

Distal displacemment Mesial displacemment Lingual displacemment Buccal displacemment

Slide 10: 

TRANSPOSITION INFRAVERSION SUPRAVERSION ROTATION

Slide 11: 

DISTOLINGUAL OR MESIOBUCCAL ROTATION MESIOLINGUAL OR DISTOBUCCAL ROTATION

Orientation Planes : 

Orientation Planes First we need to establish planes of reference in order to communicate which dimension our Problem lies. Transverse Vertical Sagittal

INTER ARCH RELATIONSHIP : 

INTER ARCH RELATIONSHIP Malrelation of dental arches to one another upon skeletal bony basis that may themselves be normally related. TYPES: Sagittal plane malocclusions Vertical plane malocclusions Transverse plane malocclusions

Sagittal plane : 

Sagittal plane Pre-normal occlusionMandibular arch anteriorly placed in centric occlusion. Post-normal occlusionMandibular arch posteriorly placed in centric occlusion.

Vertical plane : 

Vertical plane Deep bite Excessive vertical overlap between maxillary and mandibular anteriors. Open biteNo vertical overlap.- Anterior region- Posterior region

Transverse plane : 

Transverse plane Includes various types of cross bites. Posterior crossbite Anterior crossbite

Slide 17: 

SKELETAL MALOCCLUSION Due to abnormalities in maxilla or mandible in size, position or relationship between jaws. Sagittal abnormalities Prognathism Retrognathism Combinations Transverse abnormalities Narrowing and widening of jaws causes crossbites Vertical abnormalities Variation affects lower facial height.

Sagittal plane : 

Sagittal plane

Transverse plane : 

Transverse plane

Systems of Classification of Malocclusion : 

Systems of Classification of Malocclusion Angle’s classification Dewey’s modification of Angle’s classification Lischer’s modification of Angle’s classification Bennet’s classification Simon’s classification Ackermann-Profitt classification Incisor classification

Slide 21: 

Angle’s classification It was introduced by Edward Angle in 1899. Based on mesiodistal relationship of teeth, dental arches and jaws. Maxillary 1st molar is taken as key to occlusion. Three classes : Class I Class II Class II division I Class II division II Class II subdivision Class II division I subdivision Class II division II subdivision Class III True Class III Pseudo Class III Class III subdivision

Slide 22: 

Class 1 relation Class 2 malocclusion Class 1 malocclusion Class 3 malocclusion

Class I : 

Class I A normal molar relationship exists but there is crowding, misalignment of the teeth, cross bites, etc

Class II : 

Class II Class II division I Anterior proclination Increased overjet Deep incisor overbite Abnormal muscle activity Hyptotonic lips “LIP TRAP” Tongue occupies lower posture – narrowing of arch

Slide 25: 

Class II division II Class II subdivision Class 2 molar relation Lingually tipped upper central incisor Labially tipped U lateral incisor Ant. Deep overbite Normal muscle activity Class 2 on one side only Class 2,division 1,subdivison Class 2,divison 2,subdivison

Class III : 

Class III True Class III Pseudo Class III (postural/Habitual) Class III subdivision Genetic in origin Lower incisor-lingually inclined Enough space for tongue-lower position-arch narrowing

Advantages of Angle’s Classification : 

Advantages of Angle’s Classification First comprehensive classification – most widely accepted. Simple Easy to use Conveys precisely what was conceived for ie, relationship of mandibular teeth with respect to maxillary 1st permanent molar Provided simple definition of normal occlusion

Slide 28: 

Drawbacks of Angle’s Classification Considers malocclusion only in the anteroposterior plane and not in transverse/ vertical planes. Considered 1st permanent molar as fixed points in the skull, not found to be so. Deciduous dentition - can’t be applied 1st molar extracted - can’t be applied Doesn’t distinguish between skeletal/dental malocclusion. Doesn’t highlight etiology. Individual tooth positions aren’t considered.

DEWEY’S MODIFICATION OF ANGLE’S CLASSIFICATION : 

DEWEY’S MODIFICATION OF ANGLE’S CLASSIFICATION Angle’s Class I Type I – Class I with crowded anteriors. Type II – Class I with protrusive maxillary incisors. .

Slide 30: 

Type III – Class I with anterior cross bite. Type IV – Class I with posterior cross bite. Type V – Mesially drifted permanent molars due to early extraction of deciduous predecessors

Slide 31: 

Angle’s Class III Type I – upper and lower arches are normally aligned separately but show edge-to-edge bite/ incisor arrangement on occlusion. Type II – mandibular incisors crowded and in lingual relation to maxillary incisors.

Slide 32: 

Type III – maxillary incisors are crowded and in cross bite with mandibular anteriors.

Lischer’s modification of Angle’s classification : 

Lischer’s modification of Angle’s classification Neutro-occlusion – Angle’s Class I Disto-occlusion – Angle’s Class II Mesio-occlusion – Angle’s Class III Mesioversion – mesial to normal position Distoversion – distal to normal position Linguoversion – lingual to normal position Labioversion – labial to normal position Infraversion – inferior or away from the line of occlusion Supraversion – superior or extended past the line of occlusion Axiversion – axial inclination is wrong, tipped Torsiversion – rotated on its long axis Transversion – transposed or changes in the sequence of position

Slide 35: 

Bennet’s classification Class I – abnormal position of one or more teeth due to local causes. Class II – abnormal formation of a part/ whole of either arch due to developmental defect of bone. Class III – abnormal relation between upper and lower arches and between either arch and facial contour and co-related abnormal formation of either arch.

Simon’s classification : 

Simon’s classification It is a craniometric classification relating dental arches in three planes i.e., FH plane [Frankforts Horizontal plane] Orbital plane Mid-sagittal plane

Slide 37: 

FH plane Attraction –closer than normal to FH plane. Abstraction –away from FH plane than Normal Orbital plane Protraction – Farther from orbital plane Retraction – Closer/more posterior to orbital plane. Mid-Sagittal plane Distraction – away from mid sagittal plane Contraction – closer to mid sagittal plane

Ackermann-Profitt classification : 

Ackermann-Profitt classification Based on five characteristics Alignment Profile Transverse relationships Class Overbite 1 2 3 4 5

Slide 40: 

Alignment Interarch alignment and symmetry assessed when seen in occlusal view. Dental arch is classified as ideal/crowded/spaced Profile can be convex/straight/concave Includes assessment of facial divergence ie. Anterior or posterior divergence. Transverse relationships Include transverse skeletal and dental relationships. Buccal and palatal cross bites are noted. Further classified as unilateral or bilateral. Distinction made between skeletal and dental cross bites.

Slide 41: 

Class Sagittal relationship of teeth is assessed using Angle’s classification as Class I / II / III. Distinction made between skeletal and dental malocclusions. Overbite Assessed in the vertical plane Described as anterior open bite / posterior open bite / anterior deep bite / posterior collapsed bite. Distinction made between skeletal and dental malocclusions.

Slide 42: 

THANK YOU