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Chapter 14 Sourcing Decisions in a Supply Chain:

14- 1 Chapter 14 Sourcing Decisions in a Supply Chain


14- 2 Outline The Role of Sourcing in a Supply Chain In-House or Outsource Third- and Fourth-Party Logistics Providers Supplier Scoring and Assessment Supplier Selection – Auctions and Negotiations Contracts, risk Sharing, and Supply Chain Performance Design Collaboration The Procurement Process Sourcing Planning and Analysis The Role of IT in Sourcing Risk Management in sourcing Making Sourcing Decisions in Practice Summary of Learning Objectives

The Role of Sourcing in a Supply Chain:

14- 3 The Role of Sourcing in a Supply Chain Sourcing is the set of business processes required to purchase goods and services Sourcing processes include: Supplier scoring and assessment Supplier selection and contract negotiation Design collaboration Procurement Sourcing planning and analysis

Benefits of Effective Sourcing Decisions:

14- 4 Benefits of Effective Sourcing Decisions Better economies of scale can be achieved if orders are aggregated More efficient procurement transactions can significantly reduce the overall cost of purchasing Design collaboration can result in products that are easier to manufacture and distribute, resulting in lower overall costs Good procurement processes can facilitate coordination with suppliers Appropriate supplier contracts can allow for the sharing of risk Firms can achieve a lower purchase price by increasing competition through the use of auctions

Supplier Scoring and Assessment:

Supplier Scoring and Assessment Supplier performance should be compared on the basis of the supplier’s impact on total cost There are several other factors besides purchase price that influence total cost 14- 5

Supplier Assessment Factors:

14- 6 Supplier Assessment Factors Replenishment Lead Time On-Time Performance Supply Flexibility Delivery Frequency / Minimum Lot Size Supply Quality Inbound Transportation Cost Pricing Terms Information Coordination Capability Design Collaboration Capability Exchange Rates, Taxes, Duties Supplier Viability

Supplier Selection- Auctions and Negotiations:

14- 7 Supplier Selection- Auctions and Negotiations Supplier selection can be performed through competitive bids, reverse auctions, and direct negotiations Supplier evaluation is based on total cost of using a supplier Auctions: Sealed-bid first-price auctions English auctions Dutch auctions Second-price (Vickery) auctions

Contracts and Supply Chain Performance:

14- 8 Contracts and Supply Chain Performance Contracts for Product Availability and Supply Chain Profits Buyback Contracts Revenue-Sharing Contracts Quantity Flexibility Contracts Contracts to Coordinate Supply Chain Costs Contracts to Increase Agent Effort Contracts to Induce Performance Improvement

Contracts for Product Availability and Supply Chain Profits:

14- 9 Contracts for Product Availability and Supply Chain Profits Many shortcomings in supply chain performance occur because the buyer and supplier are separate organizations and each tries to optimize its own profit Total supply chain profits might therefore be lower than if the supply chain coordinated actions to have a common objective of maximizing total supply chain profits Recall Chapter 10: double marginalization results in suboptimal order quantity An approach to dealing with this problem is to design a contract that encourages a buyer to purchase more and increase the level of product availability The supplier must share in some of the buyer’s demand uncertainty, however

Contracts for Product Availability and Supply Chain Profits: Buyback Contracts:

14- 10 Contracts for Product Availability and Supply Chain Profits: Buyback Contracts Allows a retailer to return unsold inventory up to a specified amount at an agreed upon price Increases the optimal order quantity for the retailer, resulting in higher product availability and higher profits for both the retailer and the supplier Most effective for products with low variable cost, such as music, software, books, magazines, and newspapers Downside is that buyback contract results in surplus inventory that must be disposed of, which increases supply chain costs Can also increase information distortion through the supply chain because the supply chain reacts to retail orders, not actual customer demand

Contracts for Product Availability and Supply Chain Profits: Revenue Sharing Contracts:

14- 11 Contracts for Product Availability and Supply Chain Profits: Revenue Sharing Contracts The buyer pays a minimal amount for each unit purchased from the supplier but shares a fraction of the revenue for each unit sold Decreases the cost per unit charged to the retailer, which effectively decreases the cost of overstocking Can result in supply chain information distortion, however, just as in the case of buyback contracts

Contracts for Product Availability and Supply Chain Profits: Quantity Flexibility Contracts:

14- 12 Contracts for Product Availability and Supply Chain Profits: Quantity Flexibility Contracts Allows the buyer to modify the order (within limits) as demand visibility increases closer to the point of sale Better matching of supply and demand Increased overall supply chain profits if the supplier has flexible capacity Lower levels of information distortion than either buyback contracts or revenue sharing contracts

Contracts to Coordinate Supply Chain Costs:

14- 13 Contracts to Coordinate Supply Chain Costs Differences in costs at the buyer and supplier can lead to decisions that increase total supply chain costs Example: Replenishment order size placed by the buyer. The buyer’s EOQ does not take into account the supplier’s costs. A quantity discount contract may encourage the buyer to purchase a larger quantity (which would be lower costs for the supplier), which would result in lower total supply chain costs Quantity discounts lead to information distortion because of order batching

Contracts to Increase Agent Effort:

14- 14 Contracts to Increase Agent Effort There are many instances in a supply chain where an agent acts on the behalf of a principal and the agent’s actions affect the reward for the principal Example: A car dealer who sells the cars of a manufacturer, as well as those of other manufacturers Examples of contracts to increase agent effort include two-part tariffs and threshold contracts Threshold contracts increase information distortion, however

Contracts to Induce Performance Improvement:

14- 15 Contracts to Induce Performance Improvement A buyer may want performance improvement from a supplier who otherwise would have little incentive to do so A shared savings contract provides the supplier with a fraction of the savings that result from the performance improvement Particularly effective where the benefit from improvement accrues primarily to the buyer, but where the effort for the improvement comes primarily from the supplier

Design Collaboration:

14- 16 Design Collaboration 50-70 percent of spending at a manufacturer is through procurement 80 percent of the cost of a purchased part is fixed in the design phase Design collaboration with suppliers can result in reduced cost, improved quality, and decreased time to market Important to employ design for logistics, design for manufacturability Manufacturers must become effective design coordinators throughout the supply chain

The Procurement Process:

14- 17 The Procurement Process The process in which the supplier sends product in response to orders placed by the buyer Goal is to enable orders to be placed and delivered on schedule at the lowest possible overall cost Two main categories of purchased goods: Direct materials: components used to make finished goods Indirect materials: goods used to support the operations of a firm Differences between direct and indirect materials listed in Table 13.2 Focus for direct materials should be on improving coordination and visibility with supplier Focus for indirect materials should be on decreasing the transaction cost for each order Procurement for both should consolidate orders where possible to take advantage of economies of scale and quantity discounts

Product Categorization by Value and Criticality (Figure 14.2):

14- 18 Product Categorization by Value and Criticality (Figure 14.2) Critical Items Strategic Items General Items Bulk Purchase Items Low Low High High Value/Cost Criticality

Sourcing Planning and Analysis:

14- 19 Sourcing Planning and Analysis A firm should periodically analyze its procurement spending and supplier performance and use this analysis as an input for future sourcing decisions Procurement spending should be analyzed by part and supplier to ensure appropriate economies of scale Supplier performance analysis should be used to build a portfolio of suppliers with complementary strengths Cheaper but lower performing suppliers should be used to supply base demand Higher performing but more expensive suppliers should be used to buffer against variation in demand and supply from the other source

The Role of IT in Sourcing:

The Role of IT in Sourcing Design collaboration Negotiate Buy Supply collaboration 14- 20

Risk Management in Sourcing:

Risk Management in Sourcing Supply disruption Increased procurement costs Intellectual property 14- 21

Making Sourcing Decisions in Practice:

14- 22 Making Sourcing Decisions in Practice Use multifunction teams Ensure appropriate coordination across regions and business units Always evaluate the total cost of ownership Build long-term relationships with key suppliers

Summary of Learning Objectives:

14- 23 Summary of Learning Objectives What is the role of sourcing in a supply chain? What factors affect the decision to outsource a supply chain function? What dimensions of supplier performance affect total cost? How do you structure successful auctions and negotiations? What is the impact of risk sharing on supplier performance and information distortion? What are different categories of purchased products and services? What is the desired focus for procurement for each of these categories?

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