8 Post war institutions

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Post-War International Institutions: 

Post-War International Institutions

Foundation of the U.N.: 

Foundation of the U.N. June 26, 1945 replace the League of Nations based in New York

Main Organs or Divisions: 

Main Organs or Divisions Secretariat and Secretary General 5 year terms, 2x, rotating regions selected by GA on recommendation from SC Kofi Annan at present General Assembly includes all member nations, most poor, little real power passes non-binding resolutions Security Council 5 permanent members--with vetoes US, France, Britain, China (since ‘71 PRC), USSR (since ‘91, Russia) 10 elected from regional groupings in GA to 2 year terms Chapter 7 UN Charter grants SC right to authorize use of force “to maintain or restore international peace”

Main organs, contd: 

Main organs, contd Economic and Social Council 18 positions elected by GA each year, 3 year terms oversees specialized agencies concerned with development, health, trade, etc. International Court of Justice 15 judges from 15 countries, selected by General Assembly and Security Council resolve disputes between states--territorial, or conduct

Security Council track record on using force: 

Security Council track record on using force 1950 SC authorizes use of force against N. Korea Russia not present subsequently, SC a captive of the Cold War post cold war--a “new World Order?” SC authorizes force to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait 1990 but not to invade Iraq in 2003

UN is not a “world government”: 

UN is not a “world government” no direct elections--members are states, not citizens no standing army

Security Council Reform: 

Security Council Reform add new permanent members? Japan, India, Germany, Brazil, maybe Nigeria resentments and problems

U.S. and the UN: 

U.S. and the UN U.S. pays about 20% of UN budget since the 1980s, derelict--paid in 2001 Kofi Annan’s reforms U.S. calls for greater say on spending Oil for food scandal Bolton nomination

World Bank: 

World Bank with IMF, part of “Bretton Woods” system originally for reconstruction of Europe, but now development everywhere weighted voting, American boss projects often problematic--dams, airports, highways, power plants, etc. recently some changes in outlook Conflicted interests

International Monetary Fund: 

International Monetary Fund short-term loans to governments to stabilize currencies also weighted voting loans come with strings recipient must live within means—”austerity programs” some changes here too--can consider environment, democratization, education

European Union: 

European Union step by step--beginning in 50’s, cooperation in coal and steel, atomic energy, trade countering destructive nationalism now 25 countries--worlds biggest and richest block common currency, free trade and movement



Institutions of the EU: 

Institutions of the EU Council of Ministers contains ministers of member states--sets guidelines European Commission the bureaucracy which executes the guidelines European Parliament now directly elected, and with Council of Ministers, oversee European Commission

United States of Europe?: 

United States of Europe? a small rapid reaction force by 2007 failure of Constitutional ratifications

Future of Nation States: 

Future of Nation States erosion from above --UN, EU, NAFTA, WTO, erosion from below --”subnational” ethnicites

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