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Premium member Presentation Transcript Wisconsin’s least wanted:Invasive and poisonous plants in the landscape: Wisconsin’s least wanted: Invasive and poisonous plants in the landscape Jed Colquhoun University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of HorticultureWisconsin’s least wanted: Wisconsin’s least wanted What makes a weed invasive? Common invasive plants General control strategies for woody invasives Common poisonous plantsProper identification is critical!: Proper identification is critical! Daddy, look at the kittens!!Invasive vs. noxious weeds: Invasive vs. noxious weeds Invasive weeds are competitive species that displace native, desirable, or crop species Noxious weeds are legally designated species Injurious to public health, agriculture, recreation, wildlife, or any public or private propertyInvasives are good travelers: Invasives are good travelersInvasives are good travelers: Invasives are good travelersSeed dormancy: Seed dormancy A “resting state” for weed seed Dormancy broken when conditions favor survival and reproduction Dormancy can last many years Millions of weed seeds per acre stored in seedbankExpansive root system: Expansive root system Below-ground competition as or more important than above-ground competition Large root system assimilates water and nutrients, confers drought resistance Canada thistle: Several miles of root under a 30 foot diameter colony Reproductive potentialEfficient nutrient and water uptake: Efficient nutrient and water uptake Cheatgrass: survives and reproduces in minimal rainfall (less than 3 inches) Puncturevine: thrives in gravel roadsides, very droughty and no nutrient sourceExcessive resource consumers: Excessive resource consumers Resources consumed are not accessible to neighboring plants Saltcedar (tamarisk): Consumes up to 200 gallons of water per day Increases soil salinity to the point where no neighbors grow photo courtesy John RandallReproduce early in life cycle: Reproduce early in life cycle Particularly when conditions turn poor Common lambsquarters: produce 300 seeds when 3 inches tall Wild carrot: classified as biennial, but often produces seed as annual in cropsProlific seed production: Prolific seed production Genetically diverse seed added to soil seedbank – promote future success in a diversity of conditions Small broomrape: produces 1 million seeds per stalk, 1,500 stalks per square meterGenetic and environmental adaptability - plasticity: Genetic and environmental adaptability - plasticitySeed dispersal through crop seed: Seed dispersal through crop seed Spotted knapweed Leafy spurge Yellow starthistle Russian thistle Perennial pepperweed Puncturevine? Mediterranean sage Downy brome White top Diffuse knapweed Russian knapweed Escaped ornamentals: Escaped ornamentals Japanese knotweed Toadflax Purple loosestrife Butterfly bush Kudzu Giant hogweed Exotic honeysuckles Saltcedar English ivy Gorse Poison hemlock Selected invasive weeds: Selected invasive weeds Japanese knotweed(Polygonum cuspidatum): Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) History: Introduced as an ornamental in the late 1800s from Asia Impact: Spreads rapidly, forming dense growths Eliminates wildlife food and habitat Eliminates native plants Re-routes water, causing floodingJapanese knotweed(Polygonum cuspidatum): Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) Source: UW Botany HerbariumJapanese knotweed(Polygonum cuspidatum): Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) Habitat: Moist or wet areas: water edges, riparian areas, roadside ditches High-nutrient soils Full to partial sun T. Huette, www.forestryimages.orgJapanese knotweed(Polygonum cuspidatum): Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) Identification: Simple, alternate leaves, darker green on top Hollow, bamboo-like stems Expansive root system White or green flowers in clusters of upper leaf axils Blooms in AugustMultiflora rose(Rosa multiflora): Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) History Introduced from Asia (Japan and Korea) as an ornamental in 1886 Later sold for erosion control (1930s), wildlife habitat (1960s), natural fence rows, root graft source for cultivated roses Impact Creates monoculture multiflora rose in pastures and other open areas, displacing desirable and native plants Multiflora rose(Rosa multiflora): Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) Source: UW Botany HerbariumMultiflora rose(Rosa multiflora): Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) Habitat Northern range limited: doesn’t tolerate temperatures below -28 F Open areas: roadsides, pastures and abandoned fields Doesn’t like to “get its feet wet,” prefers well-drained soils Full to partial sunMultiflora rose(Rosa multiflora): Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) Identification Thickets up to 15 feet high, 15 feet wide Pinnately compound leaves, alternate, toothed Thorny stems White flowers in bunches Red fruit (eaten and dispersed) J. Miller, www.forestryimages.orgMultiflora rose(Rosa multiflora): Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) Rose rosette disease Virus-like disease transmitted by eriophyid mite Plants turn deep red color Condensed growth: more thorns on stem, smaller leaves Can kill plant R. Westbrook, www.forestryimages.orgGarlic mustard(Alliaria petiolata): Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) History Introduced in North America by early settlers as a cooking herb and for medicinal uses Impact Rapid early-season growth displaces all other species on forest floor V. Nuzzo, www.forestryimages.orgGarlic mustard(Alliaria petiolata): Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) Source: UW Botany HerbariumGarlic mustard(Alliaria petiolata): Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) Habitat: Prefers shady areas, but will survive in full sun Forest understory Prefers alkaline soils L. Mehrhoff, www.forestryimages.orgGarlic mustard(Alliaria petiolata): Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) Identification First year: rosette Dark green heart-shaped leaves with scalloped edges Stays green throughout year Second year: stalk and flowering Garlic odor Upper leaves triangular White flowers Long, tapered seed capsules C. Evans, www.forestryimages.orgExotic honeysuckles: Exotic honeysuckles 3 most invasive species: Morrow’s: Lonicera morrowii Tartarian: Lonicera tatarica Bella’s: Lonicera x bella (hybrid of Morrow and Tartarian) P. Breen, www.forestryimages.orgExotic honeysuckles: Exotic honeysuckles History: Introduced as: Ornamentals Wildlife habitat Erosion control Impact: Early expansion and rapid spring growth displace native species Reduces food and habitat for wildlife, increases predationExotic honeysuckle distribution: Exotic honeysuckle distribution Source: UW Botany HerbariumExotic honeysuckles: Exotic honeysuckles Habitat: Sunny areas: forest edges, abandoned fields, roadsides, bogs and marshes, other open areas Relatively shade-intolerant J. Miller, www.forestryimages.orgExotic honeysuckle ID: Exotic honeysuckle ID Often the first green in the spring, and last in the fall L. Mehrhoff, www.forestryimages.orgExotic honeysuckle ID: Exotic honeysuckle ID Bella’s honeysuckle: Oval leaves, slightly hairy underside Pink flowers, fade to yellow Up to 18 feet tall Michael Clayton, WI Herbarium Kenneth Sytsma, WI Herbarium Morrow’s honeysuckle: Pointed grey-green leaves, soft hair on underside White flowers, fade to yellow Up to 6 feet tall Tartarian honeysuckle: Pointed blue-green leaves, hairless Pink, red or white flowers, fade to yellow Up to 9 feet tallControl timing relative to the seasons: Control timing relative to the seasons Perennial weed growth schedule: Spring: export carbohydrates from roots to new shoots Summer: capture and assimilate new energy Fall: “pack it in” for winter – carbohydrates transported to the roots Winter: usually, minimal growth or activityControl timing relative to the seasons: Control timing relative to the seasons Perennial weed management – general terms: Spring: limit new growth – drain the roots; eliminate new seedlings Summer: prevent energy capture Fall: opportunity to attack the root storage systemSelected poisonous weeds: Selected poisonous weeds Be careful! Several other weed species are poisonous and/or toxicGiant hogweed(Heracleum mantegazzianum): Giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) Federal noxious weed Native of southwestern Asia, introduced in U.K. and North America as an ornamental Adaptable to many habitats Often found in yards and gardens! Giant hogweed(Heracleum mantegazzianum): Giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) Watery plant sap on skin, in presence of sunlight, causes painful burns and blisters Eye exposure can cause vision loss USDA-APHIS PPQ, www.forestryimages.orgGiant hogweed(Heracleum mantegazzianum): Giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) Identification First year: large rosette Leaves up to 5’ wide, deeply lobed, coarse hairs on underside Stem with coarse white hairs, red/purple spots on lower portions Up to 15’ tall White, flat-topped umbel in June-August Dies after seed production B. Tokarsa-Guzik, www.forestryimages.orgGiant hogweed(Heracleum mantegazzianum): Giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) Often confused with: Cow parsnip (Heracleum lanatum) Smaller leaves (2.5’) and plant Purple cast on stem Leaves not as deeply lobed Velvety hairs, not coarse Can also cause skin photosensitization K. Kohout, WI HerbariumGiant hogweed(Heracleum mantegazzianum): Giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) Often confused with: Angelica (Angelica atropurpurea) Much smaller leaves and plant Pinnately compound leaves, not palmately compound Waxy stems (green to purple) Baseball-size white flower clusters Poisonous roots Angelica spp. can cause skin photosensitization R. Freckmann, WI HerbariumGiant hogweed(Heracleum mantegazzianum): Giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) Often confused with: Poison hemlock (Conium macalatum) Many branches Waxy, purple stem Fern-like leaves Small flowers in many small clusters on all branches Entire plant poisonous if ingested S. Dewey, www.forestryimages.orgWild parsnip(Pastinaca sativa): Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) Native of Eurasia Rapidly spreading perennial Dies after seed production Adaptable to many habitats Common along roadsides, abandoned fields Relatively shade-intolerant Wild parsnip(Pastinaca sativa): Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) Leaves, stems, flowers and fruits contain saps that cause intense burn Sap + sunlight = burn Rash, burn, blistering Skin can be discolored for months Wild parsnip(Pastinaca sativa): Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) Source: UW Botany HerbariumWild parsnip(Pastinaca sativa): Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) Alternate, pinnately compound leaves 5 to 15 leaflets Toothed margins Rosette for one to several years, flower stalk in final year Yellow umbel flowers at end of stems Blooms June through AugustWild parsnip(Pastinaca sativa): Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) Often confused with: Golden Alexander (Zizia aurea) Native prairie species Often shorter than wild parsnip Umbels more condensed Leaves with 3 to 7 leaflets Freckman/Sytsma, WI HerbariumWild parsnip(Pastinaca sativa): Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) Often confused with: Prairie parsley (Polytaenia nuttallii) Leaves with several leaflets, like wild parsnip Leaflets are longer and narrower, with few teeth Flowers in somewhat rounded umbels, instead of flat Freckman, WI HerbariumPoison sumac(Toxicodendron vernix): Poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) Native perennial plant Prefers wet soil: Bogs, marshes, ditches Can reproduce by seed Oily resin from all plant parts causes reaction similar to poison ivy Sytsma, WI HerbariumPoison sumac(Toxicodendron vernix): Poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) Freckmann, WI Herbarium Source: UW Botany HerbariumPoison sumac(Toxicodendron vernix): Poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) Kowal, WI Herbarium Identification: 5’ to 25’ tall Alternate, oval shaped compound leaves with 7 to 13 leaflets arranged in pairs Single leaf at end of midrib Midrib is red Smooth leaf margins Smooth stems (no hair) Flowers and fruit in leaf axils, not at end of leaves. White to pale yellow fruitPoison sumac(Toxicodendron vernix): Poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) Sytsma, WI Herbarium Often confused with: Smooth or staghorn sumac (Rhus glabra or R. hirta) Difficult to separate species Dull green, toothed leaves Leaves much longer and narrower Stems covered with velvety hair Flowers at end of branches Upright fruit, red and hairy Some folks report sensitivity to these species! References to consider:: References to consider:References to consider:: References to consider: Invasive Plants of the Upper Midwest. 2005. E. Czarapata. Toxic Plants of North America. 2001. G. Burrows and R. Tyrl. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.