Yoga Kakazu

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Yoga Porsche Kakazu CAM Project December 2, 2003


Introduction Believe doctrines and practices to have been developed by the Indus-Sarasvati civilization in Northern India Vedic priests refined and developed yoga Yogic scriptures include: Bhagavad-Gîtâ, Maitrī Upanishad, Yoga-Sûtra Yoga sutra The path of raja yoga “Eight limbed path” doctrine This Ashtanga yoga is the basis of modern yoga The study of physical-spiritual connections led to the creation of Hatha yoga


Foundations Swami Vivkanada came to the US in the 1890’s Spoke about the importance of control of diet, breathing and posture to enhance mediation for spiritual practices Potential to induce increased health and energy, reduced stress, feelings of well being, and healing disease Stressed that yoga was originally intended for emotional and spiritual growth, but also has the potential for flexibility and stress reduction

Literary works: 

Literary works 1947: Swami Vishnu-devananda illustratived poses of the Hatha system 1953: BKS Iyengar wrote about the importance of breathing, meditation and diet with yogic practice Books were intended to encourage physical and mental well-being via well functioning organs, clearing and focusing the mind, and balancing the body system In recent years yoga exercises have been recommended by physical fitness experts to cleanse the body of impurities, reduce weight, increase flexibility and core strength, tone the nerves and muscles, and, generally, improve health and prolonging life

Principles and poses: 

Principles and poses Derived from ancient Sanskirt Yoga means “yoke,” to unite, to be whole Several schools of thought regarding yoga and several different types of yogic practice Yoga is one of the six classic systems of Hindu philosophy, distinguished from the others by its focus on body control and gained “powers” It affirms the belief that through practice, the whole person (body, mind and spirit) can be strengthened Such union is the only true way of knowing Yogic doctrine does not endorse asceticism; it focuses on physical and mental training for spiritual ends

Hatha Yoga: 

Hatha Yoga Most common type practiced in the West Focuses mainly on the physical body Uses posture and breathing Incorporated in most other types of yoga practice Believed Hatha has the following effects: Allows organs to function better The mind becomes more clear and focused The body is brought to a state of balance Those who practice and teach yoga for medical purposes believe that the patient’s mind has the potential to influence the progress of treatment

Other types of Yoga: 

Other types of Yoga Bhakti (devotional) yoga: most popular system of yoga in India Emphasizes self-control, religious observance, devotion and selfless love. Involves practices such as chanting and prayer Karma yoga: Path of selfless actions and service to others Focuses on performing action without wanting reward or payment Jnana yoga: way of intellect and philosophy Emphasizes questioning, meditation, and contemplation to inquire deeply into oneself Raya (royal) yoga: Synthesis of Bhakti, Karma, and Jnana Yogas Also called Ashtanga yoga or classical yoga Focuses on mental control through meditation Usually starts with Hatha yoga, in order to prepare the body and mind for meditation

Eight Limbs of Hatha Yoga: Ashtanga: 

Eight Limbs of Hatha Yoga: Ashtanga Components that unify the mind-body-spirit Self-control (yama, “restraint”): involves truthfulness, abstinence, avoidance of theft, refusal of gifts, and not doing injury to living things Religious observance (niyama, “observance”): encompasses austerity, poverty, contentment, purification rites, recital of the Vedic hymns, and devoted reliance on the Supreme Being Postures (āsana): basis to all stages that follow Regulation of the breath (prānāyāma, “breath/energy mastery”): includes altering its depth and rhythm, breathing through either nostril at will, and the virtual suspension of breath Restraint of the senses (prātyāhāra, “inner focus”): withdrawal from external objects and the consequent turning of the mind upon itself. Steadying of the mind (dhārāna, “concentration”): narrows attention to one part of the body, and renders the practitioner insensitive to outside disturbance. Meditation (dhyāna): fixes the mind on the object of knowledge, especially Brahma, to the exclusion of all other thoughts Contemplation (samādhi, “absorption”): absorption of thought in the object of knowledge, its union and identification with that object Achievement of samādhi liberates the self from illusions of sense and contradictions of reason Leads to an inner illumination, the ecstasy of the true knowledge of reality

Schools, Forms, and Schools of Yogic Thought: 

Schools, Forms, and Schools of Yogic Thought Various schools (styles) of thought determine the amount of a particular type of yoga that is included in practice Most common forms of yoga (Iyengar, Sivanda, Ashtanga, and Kundalini) all focus on breathing, meditation, and movement/postures Hatha yoga: emphasizes asana, pranayama, and dhyana and is the type most Westerners practice Kundalini yoga: concentrates on awakening the energy at the base of the spine and drawing it upward through chakras (centers of psychic energy) Includes chanting, meditation, postures and breathing exercises Iyengar yoga: most widely known form of Hatha yoga Stresses the alignment of the body and precision of poses Sometimes uses props to cater specific needs and abilities

Schools, Forms, and Schools of Yogic Thought cont’d: 

Schools, Forms, and Schools of Yogic Thought cont’d Kripalu yoga: three stage approach Allows one to focus on a flowing sequence of postures to achieve a meditative state without sitting still Ultimate goal: cause certain physical and psychological reactions through postures Ananda yoga: gentle style that prepares students for meditation Distinguishable affirmations associated with postures, including energizing exercises, which involve ‘consciously directing the body's energy (life force) to different organs and limbs Ashtanga yoga (“power yoga”): rapid series of flows to increase stamina, strength and flexibility Physically demanding style, not recommended for beginners Focuses on vinyasa and requires temperatures of 70-75 degrees Fahrenheit (so you sweat, which is thought to purify the body)

Schools, Forms, and Schools of Yogic Thought cont’d: 

Schools, Forms, and Schools of Yogic Thought cont’d Anusara yoga: deep knowledge of inner and outer body alignment Calls for “following your heart,” Bikram yoga: system of 26 postures performed in a standard sequence in a room heated to 100-110 degrees Fahrenheit Heat used to stretch muscles, ligaments, and tendons, and also detoxify the body of impurities Fairly vigorous and requires a certain fitness level Sivananda: largest school of yoga Includes a series of twelve postures, the Sun Salutation sequence, breathing exercises, relaxation, and mantra chanting

Schools, Forms, and Schools of Yogic Thought cont’d: 

Schools, Forms, and Schools of Yogic Thought cont’d Viniyoga yoga: uses a sequential process (vinyasa-krama) Good for beginners or individuals with limited flexibility or limitations Emphasis is not on achieving an external ideal form, but on practicing a posture according to one’s individual needs and capacity Regulated breathing is carefully coordinated with the postural movements Somatic Yoga: an integrated approach to the development of body and mind Based both on traditional yogic principles and modern psychophysiological research Emphasizes visualization, very slow movement into and out of postures, conscious breathing, mindfulness, and frequent relaxation between postures

Treatment Techniques and Modalities: 

Treatment Techniques and Modalities Deep relaxation Including breathing techniques Jacobs (2001) illustrated that yoga results in regulated blood pressure and blood alkalinity, heart rate, respiratory rate, and norepinephrine levels in the bloodstream. Helps transport blood from the extremities to the abdomen, aids digestion and elimination, and thus, improves immune function, relieve pain, and decrease anxiety. Hypothesized that relaxation decreases dysfunction Muscle tension is released, breath is slowed, and the mind is calm, silent, and at peace. Awareness Giving attention to what we are feeling and/or sensing at a given moment Helps locate and identify sensations of tightness building up in the body Can take steps to correct the stressful situation If we are aware of the source of our problems, there is a greater chance that we can impede the stressful process and focus on preventing it, rather than trying to undo the damage


Research Performed to validate and support the use of yoga for therapeutic and healing purposes Some researchers and physicians use and recommend yoga because they have found that it stimulates the organs, livens the glandular system and strengthens the body Camps are conducted monthly for patients with heart disease, asthma, diabetes, ear, nose throat pains, and GI problems Physician Chandra Patel conducted stress-reduction study on hypertensive patients Illustrated reduction in participant blood pressure (BP) Doctor Dean Ornish conducted research on patients with coronary heart disease Vegetarian diet, moderate exercise, and stress management resulted in improved in cardiac risk factors and better function status, including reduced freq and severity of angina, reduced angina medication, and improved myocardial perfusion and left ventricle function. As a result, many hospitals and medical centers across the US have implemented the plan outlined by Ornish

Research cont’d: 

Research cont’d Pathophysiologic theory: increased elasticity of shortened muscles, general and local muscle relaxation, strengthening of relevant muscles, local relaxation by activating antagonistic muscle groups, and an improved posture. Includes increased stability of the autonomic system (due to general relaxation, decreased anxiety, and depression), increased self awareness, faster regeneration after psychologically induced stress and tension, possible improved integration of unconscious problems, deeper self understanding, increasingly relaxed approach to family and social problems, and higher energy level that allows meaningful activity and coping Research performed by Raju and associates: revealed that pranayama and relaxation decreased ventilation and blood lactate in athletes Significant decreases in post-exercise oxygen consumption, respiratory frequency, and resting lactate Suggests that yogic practices allowed better oxygen delivery

Benefits of yoga: 

Benefits of yoga Universal People of all ages, shapes, forms, health status, and genders Relaxation Gentle stretching, breathing, meditation and guided relaxation Relax at a cellular level increased time of cell growth and production overall reduction in the decaying process (i.e. aging, dying, diseased) Spiritual rest Releases body tension and calms the nervous system and emotions Stress is reduced Lowered heart rate and increased use of oxygen Increased concentration Requires focus, attention and concentration Balancing postures, in particular, builds concentration

Benefits cont’d: 

Benefits cont’d Total body toning Holding postures isometric exercise that tones every part of the body, including the internal organs Flexibility increased Gently stretch the muscles in the body, thereby lengthening the muscles, tendons and ligaments Potential to heal the body As organs and endocrine system are massaged, tone and circulation is increased Stimulates, heals, and eliminates toxins from the body Power to nourish the body through movements Slow, gentle movements with deep breathing energize the body rather than tire it. This, in combination with yoga’s relaxation and healing benefits, allows daily renewal and nourishment of the body-mind-spirit

Benefits cont’d: 

Benefits cont’d Specific conditions for which yoga has been shown to be beneficial Cancer - Preoperative surgery patients Coronary heart disease - Immune function Depression - Back pain Stress - Bronchial asthma Mental health - Arthritis Diabetes - Head aches Sleep apnea - Pregnancy Weight management - Gastrointestinal disorders

Practicing yoga: 

Practicing yoga Individually Using audio or video tapes that give breathing instruction and teach relaxation techniques Not recommended to attempt yoga exercises without a skilled teacher Typical yoga programs should include in-depth study of: Asanas Pranayama breathing Meditation mantras Anatomy and physiology History and philosophy of yoga Proper diet


Certification Each style of yoga or school has an individual teacher training program with a specific certification of completion Those who seek certification can refer to the International Association of Yoga Therapists, which lists institutions, associations, and schools that offer yoga instruction Currently, there are no national standards of teacher certification or specific requirements that need to be met However, yoga instructors of the different techniques are collaborating to create such principles and guidelines One should look for a teacher that practices daily For a list of practitioners/instructors in the Seattle, Tacoma, and/or Olympia area, please refer to slides 24 to 33.


Appraisal “In my opinion, I believe that this approach can be very useful and therapeutic to certain ill and afflicted populations. It may also be beneficial to those that are already in good health and want to increase flexibility, stamina, reduce stress, and increase awareness of surroundings and the self. I have been attending hour-long yoga sessions twice a week for approximately two months. Initially when signing up for the class I was not aware of all the benefits of yoga besides increasing muscle tone and flexibility. In the sessions that I have attended, I have experienced increased benefits. In addition to greater flexibility (I can now touch my toes as I sit on the floor) and increased awareness of self (I can feel the areas of my body that are tense and tight); I have learned to control my breathing and void my mind of all inhibitions, anxiety and worry. Because of this, my quality of sleep has increased (I can fall asleep faster) and I am able to cope with stress better. Overall, I feel more relaxed and in control of myself, my surroundings, and my actions. I suggest yoga classes for the sick and ill, as well as those who need to get in touch with the “inner self.”


References Bernadicou, P. (1998). The mind's role in healing. Human Development, 19, 12. Brooks, D. (1997). Meditation revolution: a history and theology of the Siddha Yoga lineage. South Fallsburg, NY: Agama Press. Carlin, P. (1997). Treat the body heal the mind. Health, 11(1), 72-79. Carlson, J. (2003). Complementary therapies and wellness: practice essentials for holistic health care. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Carrico, M. (1997). Yoga journal's yoga basics: the essential beginner's guide to yoga for a lifetime of health and fitness. NY: Henry Holt. Cunningham, A. (1999). Mind-body research in psychooncology: What directions will be most useful? Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 15(4), 252-256. Cushman, A. (1999). From here to nirvana: the Yoga guide to spiritual India. NY: Riverhead Books. Dreher, H. (1998). Mind-body interventions for surgery: Evidence and exigency. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 14(3), 207-223. Jacobs, G. (2001). Clinical Applications of the Relaxation Response and Mind-Body Interventions. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, Suppl. 7(6), 93-99.

References cont’d: 

References cont’d Lee, C. & Newman, A. (2002). Dancers center on yoga. Dance Magazine, 76(11), 42-49. Levinson, D. (1997). Health and illness: a cross-cultural encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Montague, J. (1996). Mind over maladies. Hospitals & Health Networks, 70 (8), 26-28. Nagarathna, R. (1985). Yoga for bronchial asthma: a controlled study. British Medical Journal, 291(6502), 1077-1080. Novey, D. (2000). Clinician’s Complete Reference to Complementary and Alternative Medicine. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc. Pelletier, K. (2002). Mind as Healer, Mind as Slayer: Mind Body Medicine Comes of Age. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 18(1), 4-16. Tarakeshwar, N., Pargament, K. & Mahoney, A. (2003). Measures of Hindu Pathways: Development and Preliminary Evidence of Reliability and Validity. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9(4), 316-332. Renneker, M. (1997). A bold step toward integrating `mind' and `body' in cancer. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 13(1), 43-45.


Practitioners/Instructors 8 Limbs Yoga Centers Anne Phyfe Snedeker 7345 35th Ave NE Seattle, WA 98105 206-523-9722 & 500 East Pike St. Seattle, WA 98122 206-325-1511 Two studios, all levels Hatha (incl. Ashtanga & Integral), Pre/Postnatal, Gentle & Kids Yoga. Workshops, Bi-annual Retreats & Privates offered. Adrienne Chew Certified Kundalini Yoga Teacher, Seattle, WA 206-322-6829 Ananda Meditation & Yoga Center 6509 Roosevelt Way NE Seattle, WA 98115 425-778-4628 Classic hatha yoga taught in the tradition of raja yoga. Emphasis on subtle energy and consciousness in preparation for meditation and for the goal of Self-Realization.


The Ashtanga Yoga School 1412 12th Avenue Seattle, WA 98122 206-261-1711 253-396-9878 Seattle/Tacoma centers. Instructors David and Catherine Garrigues studied Ashtanga Yoga for 2 yrs. Certified by K.P. Jois and founded school in 1997. Teach traditional ashtanga classes in Seattle and give workshops around the northwest. Travel to Mysore regularly to continue studies. Ballard Firehouse Yoga Studio Mary Bersagel, RN 5429 Russell Ave. NW, Suite 300 Seattle, WA 98107 (206) 789-8099 Bikram Yoga in a heated loft space. New and drop-in students welcome. Certified. Bikram Yoga Center 3907 6th Avenue Suite B Tacoma, WA 98406 253-761-9007 Director Yohana Knobloch is a licensed acupuncturist, massage therapist, and yoga instructor. Has taught yoga for 10 yrs, specializing in Bikram yoga for 5 yrs. Studied with Bikram Choudhury, Ana Forrest and Lyn Silbert.


Care for Your Body, Carmen Viola 730 S Fawcett Ave Tacoma WA 98402 253-627-7537 Offers healing arts, traditional or seated massage, injury claims, yoga, infant massage instruction, aromatherapy, Trager, trigger points, energywork Cedar Yoga 1321 Olympic Dr. NE Olympia, WA 98506 360-791-9642 Instructor Judith Dahn. Space designed to help its members reach the highest potential of health: mental, physical, and spiritual. The Center For Yoga of Seattle Rrichard Schachtel, Director 2261 NE 65th St Seattle, WA 98115 (206) 526-9642 Comprehensive Iyengar Yoga Program: Courses, Intensives, Teacher Training, Costa Rica Retreats.


Community Yoga Circle University Heights Community Center, Room 104  5031 University Way N.E. Seattle, WA  98105 206-522-6888 Students and teachers in a supportive and non-competitive environment. Uses BKS Iyengar method and asana to being stability, awareness and peacefulness Diane Bunting 253-761-7443 Tacoma, WA Certified. Teaches in Tacoma, Gig Harbor, Port Orchard. Kundalini Yoga & Meditation, based on the teachings of Yogi Bhajan. Group classes - Beginning & Intermed. Private consultation Gale Edwards, Certified Kundalini Yoga Teacher Seattle, WA 206-992-1558 Gentle Yoga William Milmoe 3609 Main St Vancouver, WA 98663 360 695 4482 www.homestead.comhealthnowyogaclasses.html Gentle restorative yoga at the YWCA 7:30am to 8:30am. Private sessions available.


Heartwise Massage and Yoga, Erin Storey 10531 Stone Ave N #103 Seattle WA 206-266-8281 Blends dance, martial arts and yoga into a class which utilizes movement as the catalyst for wellness, fitness and healing. Strengthens and soothes the body*mind*spirit. The House of Balance, Rebecca Mahler 2922 Western Avenue, Suite 334 Seattle, WA, 98121 206-234-9506 Offers yoga, pranayama, energy and chakra classes and workshops 7 days/wk. Viniyoga style: breath with movement, adaption. Integrative Yoga Therapy Gig Harbor, WA 253-857-9031 Diane DeMars, gentle Yoga Therapy classes in Tacoma and Port Orchard. Levels 1 and 2, also Seniors classes available. Certified Yoga Therapist with 10 yrs yoga experience. Kathleen Alderman Tacoma/Puyallup, WA, 98371 253-848-3637 creation Blended influences. Personal practice over the past 25 yrs


Kat Allen 5004 S. Genesee St. Seattle WA 98118 206-760-1917 20 yrs experience. Certified: American Viniyoga Institute, National Iyengar Institute, Registered Counselor. Malama Yoga for Beginners & In the Workplace, Mary Anne Seibert 117 E. Louisa Street, #403 Seattle, WA 98102-3279 206-324-9496 Novices/beginners. Classes/workshops at work; "yogabreaks" for meetings/retreats. Physically Focused , Kim Williams-Brinck 10606 17th Avenue N.E. Seattle, WA 98125 206-367-9966 Offers Iyengar based. Teaching private in-home sessions and groups at corporate sites. The Practice Space, Carola Schmid 3524 Bagley Ave.N. Seattle, WA 98103 206 - 632 - 5854 Ashtanga Yoga, all levels.


Queen Anne Yoga Lisa Pidge 315 First Ave. West Seattle, WA, 98119 206-270-9642 Offers Traditional Hatha Yoga Rain City Yoga, Marta McDermott 5014 Roosevelt Way N.E. Suite B Seattle, WA, 98105 206-729-9642 Offers Bikram Method Hatha Yoga Ram Dass S Khalsa, Certified Kundalini Yoga Teacher Seattle WA 206-364-1044 Sadhana Yoga Studio, Jo Leffingwell 2218 - 3rd Ave. N. Seattle, WA 98109 206-285-1491 Offers Iyengar style yoga. Also pranayama, Sanskrit, chanting in small private studio.


Santosha Yoga Rebekkah Dinaburg 2812 East Madison St. Seattle, WA 98112 (206) 264-5034 Supportive and dynamic daily classes at all levels in a new studio. SoundYoga Chris Dormaier 5639 California Ave. SW Seattle, WA 98136 206-938-8195 Viniyoga classes in pre/postnatal, kids, Strong Bones Yoga, Yoga Therapy. Shelley Kay Grant , Certified Kundalini Yoga Teacher Seattle, WA 206-726-0257 Studio Ganesh 1406 1/2 34th Avenue Seattle, WA 98122 206-325-0112 Ashtanga Yoga, Hatha Yoga, Meditation, Tantric Tibetan Buddhist Yogic Song & Meditation


The SweatBox Laura Culberg 1417 10th Avenue, Suite B Seattle, WA 98122 206-860-YOGA Offers Bikram Method Hatha Yoga classes exclusively. All levels welcome. Katerina Wen, BFA, M.Ed, D.Hom 2348 49th Ave., SW Seattle, WA 98116 (206)932-0339 Certified Children Yoga Therapist, Certified Yoga Instructor. Background includes: Integral, Iyengar, Ashtanga, Viniyoga & Forrest Yoga. Offers Regular & Therapeutic Yoga Classes for Adults, Children & Infants. All ages and levels welcome. Specialty Classes Available Wild Grace Arts/Center for Yoga & Dance Joanna Cashman RN, MFA 219 Legion Way SW Olympia, WA 98501 360-754-3983 Leads yoga therapy & three levels of hatha yoga, yoga dance and meditation classes


Whole Life Yoga, Tracy Weber 8551 Greenwood Ave. N Seattle, WA, 98103 206-784-2882 Tree House Iyengar Yoga 18021 15th Ave. NE Shoreline, WA, 98155 206-361-9642 Certified Iyengar instruction. All levels of classes including pre and post natal.

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