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Premium member Presentation Transcript EDUCATION FOR GLOBAL LEADERSHIP AND CITIZENSHIP: EDUCATION FOR GLOBAL LEADERSHIP AND CITIZENSHIP JOSEPH STIGLITZ BOSTON MARCH 2, 2006THE NEW GLOBAL WORLD: THE NEW GLOBAL WORLD Globalization: the closer integration of the countries and peoples of the world The result of lowering of communication, transportation costs And the elimination of man-made barriers Closer integration means more interdependence, more interdependence means more need to act cooperatively, as a global communityTHE MANY DIMENSIONS TO GLOBALIZATION: THE MANY DIMENSIONS TO GLOBALIZATION Not just economic globalization Globalization of ideas Globalization of civil society Global political institutions But economic globalization has outpaced political globalization Impairing our ability to act cooperatively to solve global problems—like global environment BUT IT’S MORE THAN JUST A MATTER OF POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS: BUT IT’S MORE THAN JUST A MATTER OF POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS Mindsets— We do not think globally We do not feel globally We do not know enough about what is going on elsewhere, how they and feel about the issues confronting the world Enormous consequences For how we are perceived For the success of our efforts at global leadership FAILED OPPORTUNITY: FAILED OPPORTUNITY The end of the Cold War provided an opportunity to reshape globalization Could have reshaped it to reflect more our ideals and principles But the end of Cold War also meant that, unfettered by competition, we could use our power to enhance our economic position—or more accurately, those of our multinational corporations—creating a more unfair globalizationSlide6: We chose the second course Poorest countries of the world actually worse off as a result of the last round of trade negotiations Tariffs of advanced industrial countries four times higher against developing countries than against other industrial countries Denying access to life saving medicines for the poorest people of the world At Doha, in 2001, we promised a Development Round In Hong Kong, in 2005, we effectively reneged on that promise THE ROLE OF EDUCATION: THE ROLE OF EDUCATION America may be the only superpower in the world But it cannot exert effective leadership if its leaders have not been trained to understand the world in which we live And if there is not within its citizenry the right mindset There has to be a change in education at every levelCHANGES AT THE UNIVERSITY LEVEL: CHANGES AT THE UNIVERSITY LEVEL Columbia has gone from being a university in New York City, to a regional university, to a national university It now sees itself as becoming a global university More than just teaching about Non-western civilization Seeing the world through the eyes of those in other parts of the world, in the developed and developing world And addressing the major global problems facing the world Changes in both what we teach and how we teach, and in our researchSlide9: Changed perspective reflected in the creation of a Committee on Global Thought Cross cultural, multi-disciplinary As well as close links with universities around the world Similar trends are going on at other major institutions But universities have to build on what goes on at the elementary and secondary level Importance of the topics you are discussingSOME BIG CHANGES: SOME BIG CHANGES More than just enormous increases in trade And the movements of capital and labor across boundaries The integration of China and India (and the other countries of Asia) is a change of historic proportions Fastest growth ever recorded Most rapid reduction in poverty THESE CHANGES WILL AFFECT EVERYONE: THESE CHANGES WILL AFFECT EVERYONE Change the competitive position of the United States and EU MODERN ECONOMY BASED ON TECHNOLOGY BUT NUMBER OF GRADUATES IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING NOW DWARFED BY THOSE IN ASIA SOME STATISTICS: SOME STATISTICS Of 2.8 1st university degrees in science and engineering 1.2 million in Asia 830,000 in Europe 400,000 in U.S. In engineering, Asia produces 8 times U.S. since 1993, the number of American citizens in graduate science programs has fallen from 55,000 to under 42,000 while the global supply of Ph.D. in science has increased by 25%--mostly in Asia Just under half of all doctorate degrees in engineering and computer science in the United States are earned by foreign students Serious visa problems since 9/11 PROBLEMS START EARLIER: PROBLEMS START EARLIER PROBLEMS START EARLIER IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS EVIDENCED BY PERFORMANCE IN STANDARDIZED TESTS IN SCIENCE AND MATH. For example, at 8th grade 44% of Singapore performed at highest level 38% of Taiwan 7% U.S.Slide14: EXPENDITURES ON RESEARCH DECLINING As percent of GDP, 37% decline in federal funding since 1970 Reflected in part in patents Since 1980, Japan’s share world wide increased from 12% to 21%, mostly at expense of U.S. (which has decline 8 percentage points) Slide15: SUCCESS OF CHINA IN MANUFACTURING NOT JUST A MATTER OF UNSKILLED LABOR Combining skilled and unskilled Even in textiles and automobile assembly ISSUES MAY BE OF EVEN MORE CONCERN IN IT, TELECOM, AND RELATED SECTORS EMERGING STRAINS: EMERGING STRAINS COMPETITION LIKELY TO RESULT IN LOWERING WAGES OF UNSKILLED WORKERS AND EVEN OF OTHERS ENORMOUS STRAINS ON SOCIETY BUT NEITHER U.S. NOR EUROPE ARE IN GOOD POSITION TO RESPOND IN U.S. HUGE FISCAL DEFICITS IN EUROPE, GROWTH AND STABILITY PACT, ECB FOCUSING ON INFLATION, PROBLEM OF EARLIER DECADES ECONOMIC TYPOGRAPHY HAS CHANGED: ECONOMIC TYPOGRAPHY HAS CHANGED The world is not flat Disparities between the haves and have nots have increased Power of entrenched monopolies, like Micro-soft, is probably greater than ever before Importance of research gives enormous advantage to those who have the resources and skills to undertake it But the nature of competition is enormously changed Cannot simply rest on laurelsPreparing for Global Leadership and Citizenship: Preparing for Global Leadership and Citizenship There are three ways we can respond to challenges posed by globalization Retreat behind protectionism Use our current power to try to create rules of the game that are more favorable to us—a more “ unfair” globalization for the poor Understand the changes, preparing ourselves for the new worldPreparing for Global Leadership and Citizenship: Preparing for Global Leadership and Citizenship Recognizing that there will be increases in inequality, we need to have more progressive taxation, better safety nets Scandinavian model Fast growth, higher living standards (measured by HDI) Our economy may have high growth of GDP, but for average American, things are getting worse Falling median income Falling real wages Working longerPreparing for Global Leadership and Citizenship: Preparing for Global Leadership and Citizenship But at the center of any successful response will be our schools Science and technology Meaning of the enlightenment and the scientific method Understanding the meaning of democracy Including democracy at the global level Democracy is more than periodic elections Importance of basic rights that we traditionally held as so important Importance of the right to know—the dangers of secrecyPreparing for Global Leadership and Citizenship: Preparing for Global Leadership and Citizenship Understanding notions of ethics—concepts of social justice Understanding our world, seeing the world from multiple perspectives—through the eyes of others—knowing about our international institutions, our imperfect system of global governance without global government, understanding the economic and political forces that are shaping our worldAmerica’s educational institutions: America’s educational institutions Are among our most important assets Have shown their ability to respond to challenges in the past Globalization and America’s role in this new globalization is among the biggest challenges we have faced I am confident that they will respond to this You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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