biomedical waste management

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BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT : 

BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT MEDICAL WASTE BMW

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Bio – Medical Waste could be defined as “any solid, fluid or liquid waste, including its container and any intermediate product, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals, in research pertaining thereto, or in the production or testing of biologicals and the animal waste from slaughter houses or any other like establishments”.

Why it is essential to have safe & reliable treatment of “Bio-Medical Waste”-Bio-Medical Waste may have serious public health consequences and a significant impact on the environment. : 

Why it is essential to have safe & reliable treatment of “Bio-Medical Waste”-Bio-Medical Waste may have serious public health consequences and a significant impact on the environment.

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5 Human Placenta Needles & injections

BIO-MEDICAL WASTE ( MANAGEMENT & HANDLING ) RULE, 1998.* Came in to force on 28th July, 1998.* Prescribed by Ministry of Environment & Forests, under the Environment Protection Act of India.* Proper management of biomedical waste is a statutory requirement.* This rule applies to those who generate, collect, receive, store, dispose, treat or handle bio-medical waste in any manner. : 

BIO-MEDICAL WASTE ( MANAGEMENT & HANDLING ) RULE, 1998.* Came in to force on 28th July, 1998.* Prescribed by Ministry of Environment & Forests, under the Environment Protection Act of India.* Proper management of biomedical waste is a statutory requirement.* This rule applies to those who generate, collect, receive, store, dispose, treat or handle bio-medical waste in any manner.

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7 Schedule-III LABEL FOR BIO-MEDICAL WASTE CONTAINERS/BAGS

Hazards from infectious waste and sharps-* Pathogens in infectious waste may enter the human body through a puncture, abrasion or cut in the skin, through mucus membrane by inhalation or ingestion. : 

Hazards from infectious waste and sharps-* Pathogens in infectious waste may enter the human body through a puncture, abrasion or cut in the skin, through mucus membrane by inhalation or ingestion.

Chemical and Pharmaceutical waste* They may be toxic, genotoxic, corrosive, flammable, reactive or explosive. Radioactive waste* The possible effects can range from headache, dizziness, vomiting to affecting genetic material. Public Sensitivity* The general public is very sensitive to visual impact of health care waste, esp. anatomical waste. : 

Chemical and Pharmaceutical waste* They may be toxic, genotoxic, corrosive, flammable, reactive or explosive. Radioactive waste* The possible effects can range from headache, dizziness, vomiting to affecting genetic material. Public Sensitivity* The general public is very sensitive to visual impact of health care waste, esp. anatomical waste.

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As per WHO, the biomedical wastes could be classified into eight categories on the basis of the type of waste and the risk of transmission of infectious material in them. 1. General waste (domestic)2. Pathological3. Radioactive4. Chemical 5. Infectious6. Pharmaceutical wastes7. Sharps and 8. Pressurised containers.

CLASSIFICATION OF WASTE CATEGORY : 

CLASSIFICATION OF WASTE CATEGORY

COLOR CODING FOR SEGGREGATION OF BMW : 

COLOR CODING FOR SEGGREGATION OF BMW

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14 Guidelines for use of Red dustbin Red dustbins in General Hospital

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15 Yellow dustbins in General hospital Guidelines for use of yellow dustbin

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16 Guidelines for use of blue dustbin Blue dustbins in General Hospital

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17 Availability and position of dustbins in wards Card box was used as dustbin

Quantity of Biomedical Waste Generated in Health Care Settings – Developed Countries- 1-5 kg/bed/day, with variations among countries. In India- 1-2 kg/bed/day with variation among Govt. and Private establishments. * 80 percent waste generated in a hospital is non hazardous and can be dealt with normal domestic waste management system. * 15 percent pathological & infectious waste. * 3 percent chemical & pharmaceutical waste. * 1 percent sharps. * 1 percent radioactive, cytotoxic and heavy metals. : 

Quantity of Biomedical Waste Generated in Health Care Settings – Developed Countries- 1-5 kg/bed/day, with variations among countries. In India- 1-2 kg/bed/day with variation among Govt. and Private establishments. * 80 percent waste generated in a hospital is non hazardous and can be dealt with normal domestic waste management system. * 15 percent pathological & infectious waste. * 3 percent chemical & pharmaceutical waste. * 1 percent sharps. * 1 percent radioactive, cytotoxic and heavy metals.

Principles of Control of Hazards of Biomedical Waste in Health Care Establishments* Each institution should develop its own bio waste management policy and ensure that the health care workers are adequately trained to handle biological waste. * Measures such as universal safety precautions, hand washing and proper segregation of waste material should be encouraged. * Rationale patient management policy should be followed and admissions restricted to those for whom it is felt absolutely necessary. * Proper house-keeping is essential and the hospital premises should be kept clean and well-ventilated. * Use of disinfectants should be rationalised. : 

Principles of Control of Hazards of Biomedical Waste in Health Care Establishments* Each institution should develop its own bio waste management policy and ensure that the health care workers are adequately trained to handle biological waste. * Measures such as universal safety precautions, hand washing and proper segregation of waste material should be encouraged. * Rationale patient management policy should be followed and admissions restricted to those for whom it is felt absolutely necessary. * Proper house-keeping is essential and the hospital premises should be kept clean and well-ventilated. * Use of disinfectants should be rationalised.

Steps in the Management of Biomedical Waste1. Survey of waste generated.2. Segregation of hospital waste.3. Collection & Categorization of waste.4. Storage of waste.( Not beyond 48 hrs. )5. Transportation of waste.6. Treatment of waste. : 

Steps in the Management of Biomedical Waste1. Survey of waste generated.2. Segregation of hospital waste.3. Collection & Categorization of waste.4. Storage of waste.( Not beyond 48 hrs. )5. Transportation of waste.6. Treatment of waste.

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21 Medical waste segregation awareness boards presents in different wards of hospital

Technologies for waste treatmentChemical disinfection Technology It uses chemicals to destroy pathogenic organisms from any inanimate object. : 

Technologies for waste treatmentChemical disinfection Technology It uses chemicals to destroy pathogenic organisms from any inanimate object.

Thermal technology *It uses heat to decontaminate instruments and equipment and the temperatures in this process may rise to extremely high levels. *Most of the microbes are destroyed at temperatures below 100°C.1. Autoclave 2. Hydroclave3. Incinerator4. Microwave : 

Thermal technology *It uses heat to decontaminate instruments and equipment and the temperatures in this process may rise to extremely high levels. *Most of the microbes are destroyed at temperatures below 100°C.1. Autoclave 2. Hydroclave3. Incinerator4. Microwave

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AUTOCLAVE Gravity displacement type – -where air is pushed out of the autoclave by steam under pressure. -This system operates at temperatures of 121°C and has a cycle time of approximately 60 - 90 minutes.

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Hydroclave - This is a steam sterilization technology in which the steam is used as an indirect heating source thus allowing total dehydration of waste material. - The holding time for waste is 15 minutes at 132°C or 30 minutes at 121°C.

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Incinerator - Incineration is a high heat system process of burning combustible solids at very high temperature in a furnace.

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Microwave -This low heat system uses microwaves to heat up the waste material from inside, unlike the external heat given in autoclave and hydro clave. -Microwaves are electromagnetic waves that lie between the 300 to 300,000 mega hertz range in the electromagnetic radiation spectrum. -The heat produced at 95 - 100°C for a holding period of 25 minutes

MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY1. Compaction: Compacting is carried out by a hydraulic ram against a hard surface.2. Grinding / Shredding: Waste material is broken down into smaller particles under negative pressure to avoid any spillage outside the chamber.3. Pulverization: Waste is mixed with large volume of water and bleach solution. The waste is torn to shreds and then fed to an ultra high speed hammer mill with large spin blades which pulverize the matter into small, safe particles. : 

MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY1. Compaction: Compacting is carried out by a hydraulic ram against a hard surface.2. Grinding / Shredding: Waste material is broken down into smaller particles under negative pressure to avoid any spillage outside the chamber.3. Pulverization: Waste is mixed with large volume of water and bleach solution. The waste is torn to shreds and then fed to an ultra high speed hammer mill with large spin blades which pulverize the matter into small, safe particles.

Irradiation technology *This involves exposing the waste matter to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation in an enclosed chamber. : 

Irradiation technology *This involves exposing the waste matter to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation in an enclosed chamber.

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Government commitment and support is needed to reach an overall and long-term improvement of the situation, although immediate action can be taken locally.

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31 Thanks !! HPH (Health Promoting Hospital) indicator