Fluid and Electrolyte

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Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances: 

1 Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances



Body Fluid Compartments: 

3 Body Fluid Compartments 2/3 (65%) of TBW is intracellular (ICF) 1/3 extracellular water 25 % interstitial fluid (ISF) 5- 8 % in plasma (IVF intravascular fluid) 1- 2 % in transcellular fluids – CSF, intraocular fluids, serous membranes, and in GI, respiratory and urinary tracts (third space)






6 Fluid compartments are separated by membranes that are freely permeable to water. Movement of fluids due to: hydrostatic pressure osmotic pressure\ Capillary filtration (hydrostatic) pressure Capillary colloid osmotic pressure Interstitial hydrostatic pressure Tissue colloid osmotic pressure




8 Balance Fluid and electrolyte homeostasis is maintained in the body Neutral balance: input = output Positive balance: input > output Negative balance: input < output





Solutes – dissolved particles: 

11 Solutes – dissolved particles Electrolytes – charged particles Cations – positively charged ions Na+, K+ , Ca++, H+ Anions – negatively charged ions Cl-, HCO3- , PO43- Non-electrolytes - Uncharged Proteins, urea, glucose, O2, CO2


12 Body fluids are: Electrically neutral Osmotically maintained Specific number of particles per volume of fluid

Homeostasis maintained by:: 

13 Homeostasis maintained by: Ion transport Water movement Kidney function


14 MW (Molecular Weight) = sum of the weights of atoms in a molecule mEq (milliequivalents) = MW (in mg)/ valence mOsm (milliosmoles) = number of particles in a solution


15 Tonicity Isotonic Hypertonic Hypotonic




17 Cell in a hypertonic solution


18 Cell in a hypotonic solution


19 Movement of body fluids “ Where sodium goes, water follows.” Diffusion – movement of particles down a concentration gradient. Osmosis – diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane Active transport – movement of particles up a concentration gradient ; requires energy


20 ICF to ECF – osmolality changes in ICF not rapid IVF → ISF → IVF happens constantly due to changes in fluid pressures and osmotic forces at the arterial and venous ends of capillaries



Regulation of body water: 

22 Regulation of body water ADH – antidiuretic hormone + thirst Decreased amount of water in body Increased amount of Na+ in the body Increased blood osmolality Decreased circulating blood volume Stimulate osmoreceptors in hypothalamus ADH released from posterior pituitary Increased thirst




24 Result: increased water consumption increased water conservation Increased water in body, increased volume and decreased Na+ concentration


25 Dysfunction or trauma can cause: Decreased amount of water in body Increased amount of Na+ in the body Increased blood osmolality Decreased circulating blood volume


26 Edema is the accumulation of fluid within the interstitial spaces. Causes: increased hydrostatic pressure lowered plasma osmotic pressure increased capillary membrane permeability lymphatic channel obstruction


27 Hydrostatic pressure increases due to: Venous obstruction: thrombophlebitis (inflammation of veins) hepatic obstruction tight clothing on extremities prolonged standing Salt or water retention congestive heart failure renal failure


28 Decreased plasma osmotic pressure: ↓ plasma albumin (liver disease or protein malnutrition) plasma proteins lost in : glomerular diseases of kidney hemorrhage, burns, open wounds and cirrhosis of liver


29 Increased capillary permeability: Inflammation immune responses Lymphatic channels blocked: surgical removal infection involving lymphatics lymphedema


30 Fluid accumulation: increases distance for diffusion may impair blood flow = slower healing increased risk of infection pressure sores over bony prominences Psychological effects


31 Edema of specific organs can be life threatening (larynx, brain, lung) Water is trapped, unavailable for metabolic processes. Can result in dehydration and shock. (severe burns)

Electrolyte balance: 

32 Electrolyte balance Na + (Sodium) 90 % of total ECF cations 136 -145 mEq / L Pairs with Cl- , HCO3- to neutralize charge Low in ICF Most important ion in regulating water balance Important in nerve and muscle function



Regulation of Sodium: 

34 Regulation of Sodium Renal tubule reabsorption affected by hormones: Aldosterone Renin/angiotensin Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)


35 Potassium Major intracellular cation ICF conc. = 150- 160 mEq/ L Resting membrane potential Regulates fluid, ion balance inside cell pH balance

Regulation of Potassium: 

36 Regulation of Potassium Through kidney Aldosterone Insulin

Isotonic alterations in water balance: 

37 Isotonic alterations in water balance Occur when TBW changes are accompanied by = changes in electrolytes Loses plasma or ECF Isotonic fluid loss ↓ECF volume, weight loss, dry skin and mucous membranes, ↓ urine output, and hypovolemia ( rapid heart rate, flattened neck veins, and normal or ↓ B.P. – shock)


38 Isotonic fluid excess Excess IV fluids Hypersecretion of aldosterone Effect of drugs – cortisone Get hypervolemia – weight gain, decreased hematocrit, diluted plasma proteins, distended neck veins, ↑ B.P. Can lead to edema (↑ capillary hydrostatic pressure) pulmonary edema and heart failure

Electrolyte imbalances: Sodium: 

39 Electrolyte imbalances: Sodium Hypernatremia (high levels of sodium) Plasma Na+ > 145 mEq / L Due to ↑ Na + or ↓ water Water moves from ICF → ECF Cells dehydrate




41 Hypernatremia Due to: Hypertonic IV soln. Oversecretion of aldosterone Loss of pure water Long term sweating with chronic fever Respiratory infection → water vapor loss Diabetes – polyuria Insufficient intake of water (hypodipsia)

Clinical manifestations of Hypernatremia: 

42 Clinical manifestations of Hypernatremia Thirst Lethargy Neurological dysfunction due to dehydration of brain cells Decreased vascular volume

Treatment of Hypernatremia: 

43 Treatment of Hypernatremia Lower serum Na+ Isotonic salt-free IV fluid Oral solutions preferable


44 Hyponatremia Overall decrease in Na+ in ECF Two types: depletional and dilutional Depletional Hyponatremia Na+ loss: diuretics, chronic vomiting Chronic diarrhea Decreased aldosterone Decreased Na+ intake


45 Dilutional Hyponatremia: Renal dysfunction with ↑ intake of hypotonic fluids Excessive sweating→ increased thirst → intake of excessive amounts of pure water Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH (SIADH) or oliguric renal failure, severe congestive heart failure, cirrhosis all lead to: Impaired renal excretion of water Hyperglycemia – attracts water

Clinical manifestations of Hyponatremia: 

46 Clinical manifestations of Hyponatremia Neurological symptoms Lethargy, headache, confusion, apprehension, depressed reflexes, seizures and coma Muscle symptoms Cramps, weakness, fatigue Gastrointestinal symptoms Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea Tx – limit water intake or discontinue meds


47 Hypokalemia Serum K+ < 3.5 mEq /L Beware if diabetic Insulin gets K+ into cell Ketoacidosis – H+ replaces K+, which is lost in urine β – adrenergic drugs or epinephrine

Causes of Hypokalemia: 

48 Causes of Hypokalemia Decreased intake of K+ Increased K+ loss Chronic diuretics Acid/base imbalance Trauma and stress Increased aldosterone Redistribution between ICF and ECF

Clinical manifestations of Hypokalemia: 

49 Clinical manifestations of Hypokalemia Neuromuscular disorders Weakness, flaccid paralysis, respiratory arrest, constipation Dysrhythmias, appearance of U wave Postural hypotension Cardiac arrest Others – table 6-5 Treatment- Increase K+ intake, but slowly, preferably by foods


50 Hyperkalemia Serum K+ > 5.5 mEq / L Check for renal disease Massive cellular trauma Insulin deficiency Addison’s disease Potassium sparing diuretics Decreased blood pH Exercise causes K+ to move out of cells

Clinical manifestations of Hyperkalemia: 

51 Clinical manifestations of Hyperkalemia Early – hyperactive muscles , paresthesia Late - Muscle weakness, flaccid paralysis Change in ECG pattern Dysrhythmias Bradycardia , heart block, cardiac arrest

Treatment of Hyperkalemia: 

52 Treatment of Hyperkalemia If time, decrease intake and increase renal excretion Insulin + glucose Bicarbonate Ca++ counters effect on heart

Calcium Imbalances: 

53 Calcium Imbalances Most in ECF Regulated by: Parathyroid hormone ↑Blood Ca++ by stimulating osteoclasts ↑GI absorption and renal retention Calcitonin from the thyroid gland Promotes bone formation ↑ renal excretion


54 Hypercalcemia Results from: Hyperparathyroidism Hypothyroid states Renal disease Excessive intake of vitamin D Milk-alkali syndrome Certain drugs Malignant tumors – hypercalcemia of malignancy Tumor products promote bone breakdown Tumor growth in bone causing Ca++ release


55 Hypercalcemia Usually also see hypophosphatemia Effects: Many nonspecific – fatigue, weakness, lethargy Increases formation of kidney stones and pancreatic stones Muscle cramps Bradycardia, cardiac arrest Pain GI activity also common Nausea, abdominal cramps Diarrhea / constipation Metastatic calcification


56 Hypocalcemia Hyperactive neuromuscular reflexes and tetany differentiate it from hypercalcemia Convulsions in severe cases Caused by: Renal failure Lack of vitamin D Suppression of parathyroid function Hypersecretion of calcitonin Malabsorption states Abnormal intestinal acidity and acid/ base bal. Widespread infection or peritoneal inflammation


Hypocalcemia 57

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