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Non-voluntary: When the person who is killed made no request and gave no consent. Assisted suicide: Someone provides an individual with the information, guidance, and means to take his or her own life with the intention that they will be used for this purpose What Euthanasia is not: What Euthanasia is not Euthanasia is the withdrawal of futile treatment, or the administration of pain relieving treatment. This is even when the treatment may bring forward the time of death, if that is the only means of relieving the pain. Laws around the world: Laws around the world There are few countries around the world in which euthanasia is legal. There are just 3 countries in Europe where it is: Belgium, Netherlands and Switzerland.What is the law in Britain at the moment?: What is the law in Britain at the moment? At present, all forms of euthanasia is illegal in this country. Suicide is legal but assisted suicide is not. This is to dissuade people as this is not morally accepted in this country. Euthanasia is an ethical issue: Euthanasia is an ethical issue Ethics are the principles or morals in which a person uses. Euthanasia includes the many rights of a person which conflict with one another. Therefore, as a result of several conflicting issues, euthanasia is an ethical issue. Human Rights: Human Rights These are the rights which each individual has and that are relevant to the case of euthanasia. In the European convention on human rights: Article 2, protection on life Article 3, freedom from inhuman treatment Article 5, right to liberty and security of person Article 6, the right to a fair public hearing. Religious Views: Religious ViewsChristianity: the arguments against Euthanasia: Christianity: the arguments against Euthanasia Life is a gift from God that should not be destroyed. One of the 10 commandments is “thou shall not kill”. God is in everyone and every living thing. If you harm a living thing, you harm God.Slide10: “Euthanasia is a grave violation of the law of God, since it is the deliberate and morally unacceptable killing of a human person." Pope John Paul II Christianity: the argument for Euthanasia: Christianity: the argument for Euthanasia Christians respect all living things, so if someone wants to end their life that wish should also be respected. Hindu beliefs on Euthanasia: Hindu beliefs on Euthanasia Anyone who helps someone to die would be damaging their own and the other person’s karma. Euthanasia goes against the belief of Ahimsa. Ending the life of someone going through great pain is helping them and therefore fulfils a Hindu’s moral obligations. Euthanasia- the Buddhist view: Euthanasia- the Buddhist view Voluntary euthanasia is wrong, as it shows that the person’s mind is in a bad state. Meditation and pain-killing drugs help a person to achieve a state where they are not in mental pain. Only if you have achieved enlightenment is euthanasia approved of. Muslim Beliefs: Muslim Beliefs All life is given by Allah, so it is sacred. Only Allah can choose when a life will end. Slide15: "And no person can ever die except by Allah's leave and at an appointed term.“ Qur'an 3.145 "Do not take life, which Allah made sacred, other than in the course of justice." Qur'an 17.33 What do Jews think about euthanasia?: What do Jews think about euthanasia? The preservation of human life is one of the supreme moral values. Anything which shortens life is forbidden. Saving someone from pain is not a reason to kill them. Active euthanasia is murder. Slide17: "...The message of Judaism is that one must struggle until the last breath of life. Until the last moment, one has to live and rejoice and give thanks to the Creator ..." Dr. Rachamim Melamed-Cohen Sikh teachings on euthanasia: Sikh teachings on euthanasia Sikhs have a high respect for life. The timing of birth and death should be left in God’s hands. Church Of Euthanasia: Church Of Euthanasia This is a non-profit educational group. They feel there is a huge imbalance between humans and the other creatures on earth. Aim is to restore this balance by population reduction. One way is through voluntary euthanasia and suicide. Four principles: - suicide, abortion, cannibalism and sodomy. Real Life Examples: Diane Pretty: Real Life Examples: Diane Pretty Suffered from motor neurone disease. She was incapable of ending her life due to her illness. She wanted her husband to help her die but could have faced 14 years in jail. She went to the High Court in England but her plea was rejected. She went to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. She was rejected here as well as it was against human rights. She died on the 11th May in 2002 of natural causes. Slide21: Animal Euthanasia Loopholes Abortion D.N.R. & Life-Support Machines Unconventional euthanasia Animal Euthanasia: This is non-voluntary, passive euthanasia. This is legal in England. Owners and vets decide together whether a pet is eligible to be put down. Animals can be put down if there is nowhere to house them. A new movement has been set up in the USA to carry out animal euthanasia at home. Animal EuthanasiaD.N.R.: Do Not Resuscitate : D.N.R.: Do Not Resuscitate An advance directive tells a doctor how a patient would like to be treated before surgery if they would not be able to decide while they are in surgery. A D.N.R. is a request from the doctor to the patient for them not to be resuscitated during surgery. This is a form of euthanasia as usually patients eligible for this are terminally ill. This is legal in England. Turning Off Life Support Machines: Turning Off Life Support Machines Turning off a person’s life-support machine can often be non-voluntary euthanasia. The person may be brain dead or incapable of functioning properly if kept alive. In this instance the decision is often made by doctors and family. This practice is legal in Great Britain. It can be requested on wills and living wills. Are there other purposes to this type of non-voluntary euthanasia, though? Real Life Examples: Laura Sadler: Real Life Examples: Laura Sadler Laura Sadler lived on a life support machine for 5 days. She was in intensive care during those days. She suffered severe head injuries; she was classified brain-dead. Her family made the decision to turn the life support machine off on Thursday 19th June. She was only 22. Nurse Sandy Harper in BBC’s “Holby City”Abortion: Abortion Abortion is legal in Great Britain. It is non-voluntary euthanasia. Foetuses which could have a lower quality of life if alive may contribute to termination. The foetus might be perfectly alright but the mother can not either cope with the baby or want it!! This is euthanasia as it considers quality of life if alive but the child does not decide itself. Unconventional Euthanasia?: Unconventional Euthanasia? Euthanasia is ‘mercy killing’. Foetuses in abortion are often killed because their parent(s) believe that the baby’s quality of life will be unsatisfactory, but will it? Many people who want to commit euthanasia cannot due to extreme disability, but many people who are not disabled in society put their own lives in jeopardy knowing that they could die as a result, for instance, taking drugs, or (heavily) smoking or drinking. What do doctors think of euthanasia?: What do doctors think of euthanasia? In March/April this year, 986 British doctors answered a questionnaire on euthanasia. 22% of the doctors asked were in favour of euthanasia. Only 25% said they agreed with assisted suicide. 74% of doctors would refuse to perform assisted suicide if it were legalised.What Do We Think About Euthanasia?: What Do We Think About Euthanasia? We carried out a survey of 101 people, connected with our school and of all ages, genders and religions. We ascertained the views of a Sikh, Muslim, Jew, Hindu, C of E, Catholics and Mormons. The results of the survey are as follows… Is Euthanasia Suicide? : Is Euthanasia Suicide? Are Those Who Commit It Murderers? : Are Those Who Commit It Murderers? Should Euthanasia Be Legalised?: Should Euthanasia Be Legalised?Consequences of Euthanasia : Consequences of Euthanasia The majority of bereaved family and friends who have lost loved ones through the means of euthanasia are able to cope with grief and post-traumatic stress reactions better, in comparison to those who die due to their illness. However, an unnatural death is able to cause severe grief reaction amongst those close. Family members in euthanasia cases have the opportunity to say goodbye, whereas this is very rare in suicide cases. Cases In The Media That You Might Know: Cases In The Media That You Might Know On television: Dot and Ethel in “EastEnders”. PC Polly Page in “The Bill”. Jan and Terry in “Holby City”. Summing up: Summing up Laws Yes under certain circumstances in Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland. No in most places including England. Religions Mostly against because all life is sacred. Other forms of euthanasia - Life support machines, putting animals down, D.N.R.’s, refusing medication, abortion. Could you?: Could you? If a close friend or family member was suffering and wanted to die, could you help them?“do not fear death so much, but rather the inadequate life.” Bertolt Brecht (1898 - 1956): “do not fear death so much, but rather the inadequate life.” Bertolt Brecht (1898 - 1956) “as it is with a play, so it is with life— what matters is not how long the acting lasts, but how good it is.” Seneca ~ Roman Tragedy Poet “It is better to die on your feet than live on your knees.” - Emiliano Zapata Slide38: By Robert Stead, Heather Hufton, Sarah Morris, Katie McInnes, Lora Tesseyman and Kate Humphrey The End Thanks for listening You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.