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Introduction to Comparative Politics: 

Introduction to Comparative Politics Lecture #14 Building a New Russian State

Agenda for today: 

Agenda for today Russia after Communism Yeltsin’s Challenges Constitutional Design Yeltsin to Putin The Putin presidency

Russia: The World’s Largest State: 

Russia: The World’s Largest State Territory 6.6 Million square miles - almost twice the US Population 145 Million (half of the US) Most rapid decline of any major state (death rate = 2 x birth rate) Multinational, though less so than the USSR (Russians 80%+) Religion Orthodox 72% Muslim 6% Catholic 2% Protestant 1% Jewish < 1% Legacy of an atheist state Economy Current GNP per capita: $ 4,000. Declining 1991-98, increasing 1998- Labor force: 14% Agriculture, 23% Service

Yeltsin’s Challenges: 

Yeltsin’s Challenges 1. Keeping Russia Together Sovereignty Movements in Chechnia, Tatarstan, Sahka Republic Federalism, Bilateral Agreements with State Governors, Force (in Chechnia) 2. Preventing a Return to Communism Seizure of CPSU Property Dissolution of Congress of People’s Deputies 1993 Cooptation of Managers, Directors 3. Economic Stagnation and Government Indebtedness 1991-98 Recession: 50% Contraction, Worse Than U.S. Great Depression Economic Output 2001: Equal to the Netherlands Privatization: Advantageous Sales To Managers, Banks (Crony Capitalism) 1991-2001: Private Sector Grows From 5% To 70% Foreign Capital Deterred By Corruption, Crime 4. Poverty and Social Problems 40% Official Poverty Rate; Moscow Boom, Rural Bust Death Rate Twice the Birth Rate Declining Life Expectancy (Especially For Men: 65 to 58) 5. Creating A Rule of Law Constitutional Court Strengthening Individual Liberties Problems: Corruption, Yeltsin’s Extra-Constitutional Rule

Russian Constitution: 

Russian Constitution FEDERALISM 89 Subjects, Of Which 21 Republics (More Autonomous) Powers Negotiated Bilaterally With President Governors represented In Federation Council PRESIDENTIAL GOVERNMENT Popular Election By Majority, Double-Ballot Vote 4-Year Term, Two-Term Limit Eligibility: 35 Years Minimum (As For U. S. President) Appoints Prime Minister, Cabinet, Constitutional Court May Dissolve Parliament (Restrictions) Presidential Administration (Foreign Policy, Defense, Federalism) Powers: Legislative Veto, Decree

Russian Political Institutions: 

Russian Political Institutions EXECUTIVE BRANCH Prime Minister (Head Of Government): Mikhail Fradkov Leads Cabinet, Makes Most Cabinet Appointments Most Cabinet Members Not Parliamentarians Or Partisans Appointed By President, Approved By And Accountable To Duma BICAMERAL PARLIAMENT: FEDERAL ASSEMBLY Duma: 450 Members, Directly Elected Mixed Electoral System: 1/2 Pr, 1/2 Smdp Initiates Legislation and can hold cabinet accountable Federation Council: 178 Members Indirectly Appointed By Regional Leaders (2 Per Region) Must Approve Appointments and is involved in Federal, Foreign, And Security Policy CONSTITUTIONAL COURT Judicial Review 19 Members, Appointed By President, Confirmed By Fed. Council Independent But Reluctant To Challenge President

Russian Political Parties: 

Russian Political Parties Very low level of trust in parties and politicians CPSU only legal party in the USSR until 1990 (Article 6 of Const.) Lost property in 1991, continued operation in post-Soviet society Main Russian party on the left after 1991 Other parties loosely organized and volatile Democratic, pro-market reformers (“right”) Nationalists (Liberal Democrats, which are neither) Presidential parties (“center-right”) Independent deputies, often with ties to regional politicians

The Yeltsin Years: 

The Yeltsin Years January-October 1992: Economic “shock therapy,” Privatization April 1993: Referendum on Yeltsin's Presidency (59% approve) September-October 1993: Yeltsin Dissolves Congress of People's Deputies; Violent confrontation at "White House" (Parliament Bldg.) December 12, 1993: New Russian Constitution adopted in Referendum; Duma Elections December 1994: Russian Troops Enter Chechnia to Suppress Rebels June-July 1996: Yeltsin Wins Presidential Election on Second Ballot, Defeating Communist Candidate Ziuganov August 1998: Economic Crisis: Russian Government Defaults on Loans and Devalues Ruble; Economic Recovery Then Begins December 31,1999: Yeltsin resigns and hand-picks Prime Minister Vladimir Putin as his successor

Yeltsin’s Legacy: 

Yeltsin’s Legacy Largely constitutional rule after 1993 “Revolving door” of prime ministers Accommodation with regional governors, acceptance of local corruption Massive move toward capitalist economy Iffy privatization policies, crony capitalism Reliance on “oligarchs” Reliance on close circles of friends and family Frequent illness in later years of presidency

Slide11: 

Vladimir Putin From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to: navigation, search Vladimir Putin 1952-

Vladimir Putin: 

Vladimir Putin New generation: 21 years younger than Yeltsin/Gorbachev Humble background in Leningrad Lawyer Recruited to KGB in 1975 Held political office in St. Petersburg Recruited by Yeltsin in 1996 Prime Minister 1999 Hand-picked successor to Yeltsin 1999

The Putin Presidency, 2000-: 

The Putin Presidency, 2000- March 2000: Vladimir Putin Elected President on First Ballot against Ziuganov Confrontation with governors, attempt to centralize authority Direct election of governors rescinded Confrontation with “oligarchs” Yukos scandal, prosecution of Khodorkovsky and Berezovsky August 2000: Kursk submarine accident 2003: Putin’s supporters win overwhelming parliamentary election victory March 2004: Putin reelected with 71% of the vote September 2004: Beslan school terrorist attack Putin as “latter-day Andropov”

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