510Women Gender and DDR

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Women, Gender and Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration: 

Women, Gender and Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration 5.10

Overview: 

Overview Introduction Key Principles International Mandate Security Council Resolution 1325 Beijing Platform for Action Secretary General’s study on Women, Peace and Security

Overview: 

Overview Gender Responsive DDR Negotiating DDR Assessment phase Mandate, scope & institutional arrangements Package of benefits & incentives Assembly Cantonment Sites Disarmament Resettlement Social and Economic Reintegration

Introduction: 

Introduction Women being left out of the DDR efforts because: Narrow definition Process revolves around the male combatants Budgetary constraints Women can be armed combatants … have different needs … are critical participants in peace-building

Key Principles: 

Key Principles Non-discrimination, Fair and Equitable Treatment Gender Equality and Women’s Participation Respect for Human Rights

International Mandate: 

International Mandate Security Council Resolution 1325 Beijing Platform for Action Secretary General’s Study on Women, Peace and Security

International Mandate (cont.) Security Council Resolution 1325 : 

International Mandate (cont.) Security Council Resolution 1325 Adopted October 2000 Recognizes women's contributions to peace & pays attention to women and girls in conflict Considers different needs of female & male ex-combatants Recalled when establishing the DDR-related mandates in Liberia, Sudan and Haiti

International Mandate (cont.) Beijing Platform for Action (1995): 

International Mandate (cont.) Beijing Platform for Action (1995) Increase participation of women in conflict resolution at decision-making levels Protect women living in armed conflicts Reduce excessive military expenditures and control availability of armaments Promote women's contribution to fostering culture of peace

International Mandate (cont.) SG’s Study on Women, Peace & Security: 

International Mandate (cont.) SG’s Study on Women, Peace & Security Incorporates needs of women/girls in DDR Calls for more programmes for child soldiers with needs of girl soldiers Awareness of increased domestic violence Contribution of women/girls in encouraging ex-combatants to lay down arms Reintegration programmes for women/girls

Why Support Women and Girls in DDR?: 

Why Support Women and Girls in DDR? Women build peace Advocate for SALW control Create community policing Support male ex-combatants and children associated with fighting forces Women need peace for development Basic human right to participate Prevent Gender-Based Violence, human trafficking, HIV/AIDS Recognize different contributions made by women

Gender Responsive DDR: 

Gender Responsive DDR Negotiating DDR Assessment phase Mandate, scope & institutional arrangements Package of benefits & incentives Assembly Cantonment Sites Disarmament Resettlement Social and Economic Reintegration

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.): 

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Gender Responsive DDR Gender responsive needs assessment & programme design Gender responsive Monitoring & Evaluation Donor support Programme and government commitment to SCR 1325 Gender Advisors and staff Gender training for programme staff and stakeholders Gender responsive budget Coordination mechanisms with women’s organizations & community Appropriate service delivery to female ex-combatants, supporters and dependants Gender-responsive DDR Chart

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Negotiating DDR: 

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Negotiating DDR Promoting Women's Political Participation Gender Aware Interventions Female-Specific Interventions

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Assessment phase: 

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Assessment phase Gender composition of armed groups 2. Socio-economic/political status 3. Gendered division of labour 4. Capacities of local women’s groups 5. Level of Gender-Based Violence 6. Female-specific security needs

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Mandate, scope & institut. arrangements: 

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Mandate, scope & institut. arrangements “One-man, one-gun” approach excludes women/girls Narrow definition of “combatant” overlooks needs of women/girls Gender training crucial Topics: Gender Mainstreaming & Human Rights, Sexual & Gender-Based Violence, Gender roles & relations, Gender identities, Gender issues in HIV/AIDS & Human Trafficking

Female Eligibility Criteria (1): 

Female Eligibility Criteria (1) Female Armed Combatants Fighters with weapons Female Dependants wives, daughters of male and female ex-combatants Female Supporters nurse, porter, cook, cleaner, administrator, sex worker, translator DDR has focused mainly on this group

Slide17: 

Q1: Does she possess any type of weapon? Q2: Was the use of weapons an important part of her function during the conflict? Q3: Did she use weapons; was she trained to use weapons? Q 4: Did she perform essential support functions within the group during the conflict? Q 5: Is she socially and economically dependent on a male ex-combatant? Yes No Eligible for Disarmament Eligible for Demobilization Eligible for Reintegration Female Eligibility Criteria (2)

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Package of benefits & incentives: 

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Package of benefits & incentives Transitional Support Programmes: Financial resources (Start-up kit, reinsertion package, loan) Material resources (Tools, land) Basic training (Corresponds with needs/desires)

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Assembly: 

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Assembly Failure to assess their number in the assessment phase Poorer access to news sources Stigma Perception or fact that a weapon is needed Security concerns or fear of (re-)exposure to sexual and gender-based violence

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Cantonment Sites : 

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Cantonment Sites Separate identity cards Open & well lit facilities Separate access to education about HIV/AIDS Childcare provisions Reproductive and psychosocial health services Separate registration at reception centre Education about their rights Birthing kits & medical facilities in case of birth Same job opportunities in new police & security forces

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Disarmament: 

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Disarmament Ensure top security at disarmament sites Equal access for women to disarmament sites Identification and interviewing of female ex-combatants is crucial to collect and distribute different types of information Weapons for development projects be seen as ideal opportunities to target & train women/girls

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Resettlement: 

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Resettlement Separate transportation facilities Extra time and special support to women who don’t know where they want to go Transitional safety net (housing, healthcare, counselling, educational support) Access to local demobilization support office

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Social Reintegration: 

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Social Reintegration Level of participation in decision-making Public image & self image Public and private/domestic roles & relations Long-term psychological rehabilitation Support women to cope with caring for sick, injured, traumatized and HIV positive combatants Public perception of Gender-based violence Organization of women’s ministries & NGOs Social network Media coverage on women/gender issues

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Economic Reintegration: 

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Economic Reintegration Vocational & literacy training Childcare Access to land & credit for women Sensitization of community and potential employers Coordination with development agencies

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Budget: 

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Budget Gender Responsive Budget 2. Gender training for men and women, local and intl. Female specific activities 3. Gender specialists 4. Unit Cost by gender Information sharing with Gender Advisor & women’s NGOs

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Monitoring & Evaluation: 

Gender Responsive DDR (cont.) Monitoring & Evaluation Create gender-related & female-specific indicators to measure programme impacts Assess gender equity in DDR & gendered impact of DDR Disaggregate data by sex Transfer lessons learned to future programmes

Conclusion: 

Conclusion Advocacy to create political will Promote participation of women’s organizations & women in community Mainstream gender into DDR policies and practices Implement gender-responsive DDR

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