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See all Premium member Presentation Transcript Material Handling and Storage: Material Handling and Storage Occupational Health and Safety November 7, 2005Objectives: Objectives Recognize material handling hazards Manual material handling Industrial trucks Conveyors (Cranes will be addressed later) Become familiar with basic methods of controlling these hazards Material Handling and Storage: Material Handling and Storage Outline Introduction General Practices Storage Manual Material Handling Powered Industrial TrucksIntroduction: Introduction 600,000 overexertion injuries, 27% of all lost- workday cases 370,000 injuries caused by lifting 93,000 pushing/pulling Strains and sprains from loads that are too heavy or large Fractures, cuts and bruises from improper storage 100 annual deaths from Powered Industrial Trucks (forklifts) Introduction: Introduction General Work Practices Get help for large loads or use mechanical devices When blocking a raised load: Keep hands from underneath before releasing load Use blocking materials of adequate strength Look for cracks, splintered pieces, rounded corners, etc. Attach handles or holder to loads Use appropriate PPE Gloves, eye protection, safety boots (for heavy loads) Introduction: Introduction General Work Practices (cont.) Do not overload equipment Refer to equipment rated capacity General forklift procedures Center load on forks and close to mast Do not overload Do not add extra weight to counterbalance Travel with load at lowest position Materials Storage: Materials Storage Precautions for stored materials Stacked loads correctly piled and cross-tiered Stored material must not create hazard Areas free of accumulated material In buildings, no stored materials within 6 feet of hoist ways or 10 feet of exterior building walls Store non-compatible material separately Materials Storage: Materials Storage Stored material precautions (cont.) Employees in silos, hopers or tanks equipped with lifeline and safety harness Bound material stacked, on racks, blocked or interlocked to keep it from sliding, falling or collapsing Don't exceed load capacity for the structure Post load limits Stacking height Mark walls or posts to indicate maximum height Lumber and Brick Storage: Lumber and Brick Storage Lumber Maximum stack height 16 feet (manual handling) 20 feet (forklift) Remove nails from used lumber Stacks stable and self-supporting Bricks Maximum 7 feet high Above 4 feet, taper stacks 2 inches per foot Lumber storageBlock and Bag Storage: Block and Bag Storage Masonry blocks Above 6 feet , taper stacks 2 block per tier Bags and bundles Stack in interlocking rows Step back at least every 10 layers Remove from top of stack first Keep baled paper and rags at least 10 inches from walls, ceilings, or sprinkler heads Block storageBox and Drum Storage: Box and Drum Storage Boxed materials Hold in place using cross-ties, or shrink plastic Block cylindrical material (bars, poles, etc.) Use bins or shelves for materials that cannot be stacked Box storageBox and Drum Storage: Box and Drum Storage Drums, barrels, kegs Stack symmetrically If stored on side, block bottom tiers to prevent rolling If stacked on ends, use planks, pallets, etc. between each tier Drum storageManual Lifting: Manual Lifting Manual lifting precautions Avoid manual lifting when possible Limit vertical lifting (knuckle-to-shoulder height) Be in good physical shape Plan the lifting operation Get a good grip Keep the load close to the body Do not twist or bend sideways Get help for large or heavy loads Manual liftingManual Lifting: Manual Lifting Recommendations for specific tasks Grasp opposite corners on boxes, cartons & sacks Use mechanical assistance for barrels and drums Wear leather gloves when handling sheet metal Plate glass Carry with bottom edge in gloved palm, other hand on top edge Never carry plate glass under the arm Use a team for long objects Drum jack2-wheeled hand trucks: 2-wheeled hand trucks Safe hand truck use Tip load forward and slip tongue underneath Keep center of gravity low Let the truck carry the load - don't lean it too far Walk forward - keep load height low enough to see Secure bulky items to the truck Use specialty equipment Drums Appliances Stair climbers Stair-climbing truck Appliance truck Hand truck Drum truckConveyers: Conveyers Conveyer basics Hazards Nip points (rollers, near frame) Material may fall from conveyor Persons may be caught in the conveyor Controls Emergency stop button or pull cord Must be reset after use Never ride on conveyor Guards over aisles or work areas Screw conveyors covered, interlocked Inclined belt conveyor Screw conveyorPowered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts): Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts) Forklift injuries and deaths 100 annual deaths, 95,000 injured Cause of fatality: 42% crushed by vehicle tipping 25% crushed between vehicle and surface 11% crushed between two vehicles 10% struck or run over by vehicle 8% struck by falling material 4% fall from platform or forks 2% accidental activation of controls Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts): Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts) Forklift injuries and deaths (cont) “Classic” forklift accidents: Forklift overturns when traveling or lifting a load Trailer moves while being loaded or unloaded, causing the forklift to fallPowered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts): Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts) Forklift safety ANSI Approved Identifying label Owner modification Only with mfg. Approval New label required Front-end attachments Should have new label Classes of forklifts: Classes of forklifts Electric Motor, Sit-down Rider, Counter-Balanced Trucks (solid and pneumatic tires) Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks (solid tires)Classes of forklifts: Classes of forklifts Electric Motor Hand Trucks or Hand/Rider Trucks (solid tires) Internal Combustion Engine Trucks (solid tires) Classes of forklifts: Classes of forklifts Internal Combustion Engine Trucks (pneumatic tires) Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Tractors (solid and pneumatic tires) Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks (pneumatic tires) Rough Terrain Extended-Reach Forklifts TractorsTrucks for Hazardous Locations: Trucks for Hazardous Locations “Explosion proof” forklifts are used to control ignition Example: DS (Diesel), EE (completely enclosed electrical), or EX trucks where flammable gases or liquids are handled, but containedPowered Industrial Truck Safety: Powered Industrial Truck Safety Fuel, liquid or gas Handled in accord with NFPA standards Batteries Hazards Lifting and handling Acid (electrolyte) Hydrogen produced during charging Precautions Designated battery charging area Spill control, fire protection, ventilation, etc. Mechanical handling equipment No smoking Battery charging station Forklift batteryPowered Industrial Truck Safety: Powered Industrial Truck Safety Trucks and Railroad cars Many deaths occur when a truck moves as it is loaded Forklift travel and braking action cause the truck to move away from the dock The forklift falls into the gap and the driver is crushed Precautions Brakes set, wheel chocks (trucks) Wheel stops (railroad cars) Trailer restraints secure the truck to the loading dock Wheel chock Trailer restraintPowered Industrial Truck Operation: Powered Industrial Truck Operation Safe forklift operation Never drive toward a person standing in front of a fixed object No person under any elevated portion Do not place arms or legs in the mast or outside the truck Unattended trucks must be shut off with lowered load Set brakes and wheel blocks when loading vehicles (trucks, rail cars, etc.) Maintain headroom under lights, sprinkler systems, etc. Use overhead guard to protect from falling objects Use load backrest when necessaryPowered Industrial Truck Operation: Powered Industrial Truck Operation Safe forklift operation Cross railroad tacks on the diagonal Sound horn at blind intersections Back down ramps, drive forward up ramps Operate at safe speed, avoid quick turns Personnel on loading platform must have an emergency shut-off for truck power Secure dockboards and bridge plates Loads must be stable and safely arranged Disconnect battery before repairing electrical system Replacement parts must be equivalent to original A dockboard is used to bridge the gap between loading dock and truck/trailerForklift Training: Forklift Training OSHA standard, 1919.178(l) Effective March 1, 1999 Formal training program required OSHA specified topics Stability, operation, etc. Initial training before use Refresher training (based on observations) Employer must certify proper training Forklift Training: A B C Vehicle Center of Gravity (Unloaded) Center of Gravity of Vehicle and Maximum Load (Theoretical) Stability Triangle: Notes: 1. When the vehicle is loaded, the combined center of gravity (CG) shifts toward line B-C. Theoretically the maximum load will result in the CG at the line B-C. In actual practice, the combined CG should never be at line B-C. 2. The addition of additional counterweight will cause the truck CG to shift toward point A and result in a truck that is less stable laterally. Forklift TrainingForklift Training: Load CG Vertical Stability Line (Line of Action) Combined CG Truck CG Load CG Combined CG Vertical Stability Line (Line of Action) Truck CG The vehicle is stable This vehicle is unstable and will continue to tip over Stability Triangle Forklift Training You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.